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for our Sins, a merciful and faithful High-priest in all things, being made like unto his brethren. He which is Judge, is alfo our Advocate ; and who
Thall condemn us, if he shall pass the Sentence upon us, who maketh InterEphes. 3. 12. cession for us? Well therefore may we have boldness and access with confi
dence by the faith of him unto the Throne of that Judge, who is our Bro. ther, who is our Redeemer, who is our High-priest, who is our Advocate,
who will not by his Word at the last Day condemn us, because he hath alJohn 5. 24. ready in the same Word absolved us, saying, Verily, verily, I say unto
He that heareth my word and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death unto life.
Having thus explained the nature of the Judgment to come, and the necessity of believing the same, we have given fufficient light to every Christian to understand what he ought to intend, and what it is he professeth, when he faith, I believe in him who shall come to judge the quick and the dead. For thereby he is conceived to declare thus much I am fully persuaded of this, as of an infallible and necessary Truth, That the eternal Son of God, in that humane Nature, in which he died, and rose again, and ascended into Heaven, shall certainly come from the fame Heaven into which he ascended, and at his Coming shall gather together all those which shall be then alive, and all which ever lived and shall be before that Day dead: when causing them all to stand before his Judgment-feat, he shall judge them all according to their Works done in the Flesh; and passing the Sentence of Condemnation upon all the Reprobates, shall deliver them to be tormented with the Devil and his Angels; and pronouncing the Sentence of Absolution upon all the Elect, shall translate them into his glorious Kingdom, of which there ihall be no end. And thus I believe in Jefus Chrift who shall judge the quick and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Ghost.
Holy Ghost: so do we make Confession of our Faith, saying, I believe, in the Father, the Son, * and the Holy Ghost; and the Ancients, * Sed enim whose Creed was something shorter, made no repetition of the act of Faith, ordo rationis,
& Fidei aubut only an addition of the Object, † And in the Holy Ghoft
. And as we
ctoritas digerepeat this act of Faith in this Article, so some did also in the second, † I ltis vocibus believe in Jesus Christ. Wherefore being this word, I believe, is taken here & literis Doonly by way of refumption or repetition, and consequently must be of the mini, admofame sense or importance of which it was in the beginning of the Creed, it hæc credere may well receive the same explication here which it received there ; to that etiain in Spi
ritum S. olim therefore the Reader is referred.
promisiun, fed ftatutis temporum opportunitatibus redditum. Novatian. de Trin. c.29. Schlictingius the Socinian, in his Preface to the Polonian Confession of Faith, endeavoureih to persuade us that this Article of the Holy Ghost is not jo ancient as the reft; which being diametrically opposite.to that Original of the Creed, which I have delivered, the BatismalWordi, Father, Son, and Holy Ghoff, it will be necessary to examine his Reason, which is drawn only from the Authority of Tertullian; who in his Book de veland. Virg. reciting the Rule of Faith, makes no mention of the Holy Ghost: and de Præser. Hæret. propounds this Article no otherwise, quàm ut credamus Chriftum in ceelos receptum federe ad dexrrain Patris, misille vicariam vim Sp. Sancti. But this Objection made for the Novelty of this Article is easily answered. For Irenæus before Tertullian hash it expressly in his Confession, l. 1. c. 2. and calls it the Faith in Patrein & Filium, & Spiritum Sanctum ; and also declares, That the Church received that Faith, and preserved it through the whole world. t so the ancient Greek MS. xj cis zvsürede écylov; and Marcellus , se eis to äryloy tvorece; as also Arius and Euzoius, and the Council of Nice. Thus also the Latines, Poft hoc ponitur in ordine fidei, Et in Spiritum Sanctum. Ruffinus in Symb. Max. Taurin, e Author lib. de Symb. ad Catechum., The Ms. in the Oxford Library', Et in Spirituin Sanctum. Others instead of the Conjunction made use of Credo by way of repetition as we do: Credo in Spiritum Sanctuin. Chrysolog. Euleb. Gallican. Author Serm. de Tempore. Etherius Uxam, the Greek and Latine Ms. in Bennet College Library: and Credo in Sancto Spiritu: Venantius Fortunatus. | As she ancient Saxon Creed set forth by Freherus. For although the * ancient Fathers did frequently make use of this Lan-* Gregory
Nazianzen guage to prove the Divinity of the Spirit; and did thence argue that he is
disputing for really and truly God, becaule we believe in the Holy Ghost; yet being that
the Divinity Language is not expressly read in the Scriptures in relation to the Spirit, as it of the Holy
Ghost proveth is in reference to the Son; being to believe in the Holy Ghost, is only the
that he is no expression of the Church contained in the Creed; being in the fame Creed Creature many of the ancients, without any reprehension, have used the same Phrase thus: 'A1' in the following Articles expressly, and where the Preposition is not expref- seis eis muito fed it may very well be thought it was understood ; therefore I think fit to wis dio pove;
και αυτό τελήacquiesce in my former Exposition, and lay no great force in the Prepo
da, ygs sition.
WISÓÚ CAN B's 71, so wig I55'er to üyee isı 946770, to Ž UTOS FeaTuz?0. Orat. 37. Epiphanius scems to speak thus much, Jhewing that though the Fathers of the Nicene Council had determined nothing particularly of the Holy Ghost, yet they Sefficiently shew that he is God, by those words, teh sis avoipeat cryor. Eu pois go on fx@e615 óvodozei se ox azusa), Missiopisu η ας ένα Θεόν Πατέρα σαντοκράτορα, Το και τις δύο εχ απλώς έρη), αλλ' ή τίσις εις τ Θεόν, και ως ένα Κύριον Ιητών Xeiσον, εκ απλώς είρη), αλλ' εις Θεόν η πίσις. Και, ας το "AΓιον Πνεύμα, έχ απλώς ως μίαν δοξολογίαν, και ας μίαν ενωσιν θεότης και μίαν ομισιότηλα, ας τρία τέλεια, μίαν και θεότητα, μίαν εσίαν, μίαν δοξολογίαν, μίαν κυριότητες, δπι τε πισόνομα, xjuis soufe sej wisólowfu. Haref. 4. Agnoscamus verbi ipfius privilegium. Credere illi quilibet poteft hominum, credere vero in illum foli debere te Majestati noveris. Sed & hoc ipsuin aliud eft Deum credere, aliud eft credere in Deum. Esse Deum & Diabolus credere dicitur, fecundùm Apoftolum ; nam e demonės credunt e contremiscunt. In Deum verò credere, hoc est fideliter eum quærere, & totà in eum dilectione tranfire. Credo ergo in illum hoc eft dicere, Confiteor illum, colo illum, adoro illum, totum me in jus ejus ac dominiu!n trado, atque transfundo. In profe:lionis hujus' reverentià universa divino nomini debita continentur obsequia. Pafchafius in Prajat. Operis de Spiritu s.
It will therefore be sufficient for the Explication of this Article, if we can declare what is the full and proper Object of our Faith contained in it, what
we are. obliged to believe concerning the Holy Ghost. And as to this we fhall discharge our undertaking, and satisfie whatsoever is required in this Exposition, if we can set forth these two particulars, the Nature and the Office of that blessed Spirit. For the name of GHOST or G AST in the ancient Saxon Language signifieth a Spirit, and in that appellation of the Spirit of God, his Nature principally is expressed. The addition of Hotiness, though it denote the intrinfecal Sanctity essentially belonging to that Spirit, yet notwithstanding it containeth also a derivative notion, as signifying an emanation of that Holiness, and communication of the effects thereof; and in this communication his Office doth consist. Whatsoever therefore doth concern the Spirit of God, as such, and the intrinsecal Sanctity, which belongeth to that Spirit, may be expressed in the explication of his Nature ; whatsoever_belongeth to the derivation of that Sanctity, may be described in his Office ; and consequently more cannot be necessary than to declare what is the Nature, what the Office of the Spirit of God.
For the better indagation of the Nature of the Holy Ghost, I shall proceed by certain steps and degrees; which as they will render the Discourse more clear, so will they also make the Reasons more strong, and the Arguments more evident. And first, as to the existence of the Spirit of God,
it will be unnecessary to endeavour the proof of it; for although the Sad
8: duces seemed to deny it, who said that there is no resurrection, neither Her er piel Angel, nor Spirit ; though it hath * been ordinarily concluded from thence Tlvsirez toá- that they rejected the Holy Ghost , yet it cannot be proved from those you Words that they denied the existence of the Spirit of God, any more than xaños esde
that they denied the existence of God who is a Spirit: nor did the no77 99 cubussar, tion which the Jews had of the Spirit of God, any way incline the Sad(odt 98 árgé
duces, who denied the existence of the Angels and the Souls of men, to reject sarv) óx oid' it. The Resurrection, Angel, and Spirit, which the Sadduces refused to ac
knowledge, were but two particulars ; for it is expressly added, that the σύτας το aută ucz7ei- Pharisees confessed both; of which two the Resurrection was one, † Angels
and Spirits were the other; wherefore that which the Sadduces disbelieved λαιά διαπηύ
was the existence of such created spiritual Natures, as the Angels and the Naz.Orat. 37. Souls of men are conceived to have. And as for those Disciples ar Ephesus, 7 Presocor who had a not so much as heard whether there be an Holy Ghost; if they φησιν, ομολογεσι τα αμ
were Gentiles, it is no wonder, because they never had that notion in their póteeqe ng pelis Religion; if they were Jews, as they seem to be, because they were baptized Teht as with the Baptism of John, it signifieth not that they never heard of the SpiPótees, he or rit of God, but only that they had not heard of the giving of it, which the motora centra Apostle mentioned. As we read elsewhere, that the Holy Ghost was not $. Chrys. ad' yet; not denying the existence, but the plentiful effusion of it. For, whatsoever the Nature of the Spirit of God may be thought
to be, no Man can 6 Melis19; 2: conceive the Apostle Thould deny his existence before Christ's glorification,
whose operation was so manifest at his Conception. Howsoever, the Apostle asked those ignorant Disciples, Vnto what then were ye baptized? 'intimating, that if they were baptized according to the Rule of Christ, they could not be ignorant that there is an Holy Ghost; because the Apostles were commanded to baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghoft. It is therefore presumed that every one who professeth the Name of Christ, from the first baptismal Institution, acknowledgeth that there is an Holy Ghost; and the only Question consists in this, What that Holy Ghost is, in whose Name we are baptized, and in whom, according to our Baptism, we profess in the Creed to believe.
In order to the Determination of which Question, our firft Assertion is, That the Holy Ghost, described to us in the Word of God, and joined with
όθεν τας το
ας εν τη πο
may occur to
the Father and the Son in the form of Baptism, is a Person. We are all baptized in the name of the three, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost; and the publick confession of our Faith hath relation to those three. We all confess that two of these, the Father and the Son, are Perfons : That wlrich we now assert is only this, That the Holy Ghost, who is of the three the thịrd, is also a Person as the other two. That blessed Spirit is not only an energy or operation, not a quality or power, but a spiritual and intellectual Subsistence. | If we conceive it as an operation only, then must it only be actuated and not act ; and when it 'is not actuated, it must not be at the nature of all. If we say that it is a quality, and not a substancé ; we fay that it is the Holy Ghost that which we cannot prove to have any being It seemeth to me strange-Lo immediately unreasonable that men should be fo earnest in endeavouring to prove’ly expressed in that the Holy Ghost which fanctifieth them is no substance, when they the
e Scriptures, cannot be assured that there is any thing operative in the World beside needful foto fubstantial Beings; and consequently if they be not fanctified by that, they place our af can be tusceptible of no holiness. By what reason in nature can they be fertions, as assured, by. what revelation in Scripture can they be confident, that there is a reality deserving the name and quality distinguished from all substance, all other misand yet working real and admirable effects ? If there were no other ar- Now the old gument but this, that we are assured by the Christian Faith, that there is Notions (and an Holy Ghost existing: and we cannot be assured, either by reason or more they canfaith, that there is a quality really and essentially distinguished from all were thus desubstance, it would be sufficient to deter us from that boldness, to assert livered by the Holy Ghoit; in whose name we are baptized, to be nothing else but a zianzen, that quality.
so much conterned in this Subject : Tor 250" xpôs Copã oi e créglesceu aðTO (To avour) wiazeor, oi į rout, oi fièv, oi j óx ένωσαν οπότερον τέτων αιδοί τ γραφής, ως φασιν' εδέτερον (αφώς δηλωσάσης. Οrat. 37. There were the three particular and opposite Opinions, either the spirit is an Operation, or a créated Substance, or God; the fourth is but a doubt or Hefurarion which of the three is true. The first of these is thus propounded by way of question: Tò avrūve to be con i 7. 2009 έωτο υφεσηκότων πάνως υποθετέον, και η ώ ετέρω θεωρεμίων, το κ εσίαν καλεσιν οι αει τώτα δεινοί, το 3 ζυμβεβηκός. Either it is fubfisting in it felf, as a Substance ; or in another, as an Accident. This was the first question then, and still
† This is the argument of the same Father, Ei B s'y combiénkev, ciglesa 75To av den to, ti 95 örsegv, j rivo; τύτο γάρ πως μάλλον και φούΓΗ Cώθεσιν, και ανέρΓεια, νερΓηθήσε) δηλονότι εκ νεργήσς, και ομά τω ονερ Γηθίύαι παύσε). τοιTov 75 aj cvézlesce
. Iūs to cuzzle, sej Tádé nítis, rj épocítit, mj dotă), sej w x297mi), se ört kivulis, (20ws isov o xovýcsws. But we are not left to guess at the nature of the Spirit of God; the word of God which came from that Spirit hath sufficiently delivered him as a Person. It is indeed to be observed, that in the Scriptures there are some things spoken of the Holy Ghost which are proper and peculiar to a Perfon, as the adversaries confess : others, which are not properly and primarily to be attributed to a person, as we cannot deny : and it might seem to be equally doubtful, in relation to the Scripture expressions, whether the Holy Ghost were a Person or no; and that they which deny his Personality may pretend as much Scripture as they which assert it. But in this seeming indifferency we must also observe a large diversity; inasinuch as the Holy Ghost, or Spirit of God, is not always taken in the same propriety of fig. nification ; nor do we say that the Holy Ghost which signifieth a Person, always signifieth so much. It is therefore easily conceived how some things may be attributed to the Spirit in the Scriptures which are not proper to a Person, and yet the Spirit be a Person, because sometimes the Spirit is taken for that which is not a Person, as we acknowledge. Whereas, if ever any thing be attributed to the Holy Ghost as to a Person, which cannot be otherwise understood of the Spirit of God than as of a Person, then may we infallibly conclude that the Holy Ghost is a Person. This therefore we shall endeavour fully and clearly to demonstrate ; first, that the Scriptures declare unto us the Holy Ghost as a Person, by such attributes and expressions as cannot be understood to be spoken of the Spirit of God any other way than as
Iphef. 4. 30. fons.
Rom. 8. 26.
of a Person : Secondly, that whatsoever attributes or expressions are used in the Scriptures of the Holy Ghost, and are objected as repugnant to the nature of a Person, either are not so repugnant as is objected; or if they be, they belong unto the Spirit, as it signifies not a Perfon.
First then the Holy Ghost, or good Spirit of God, is clearly and formal
ly opposed to those evil Spirits, which are and must be acknowledged Per1 Sam. 16. 1.4. tons of a. spiritual and intellectual subsistence. As, the Spirit of the Lord
departed from Saul, and an evil Spirit from the Lord troubled him. Now,
what those evil Spirits from the Lord were, is apparent from the fad exam2 Chron. 18. ple of Ahab, concerning whom we read, there came out a Spirit and stood
before the Lord and said, I will entice him ; and the Lord said unto him wherewith ? and he said, I will go out and be a lying Spirit in the mouth of all bis Prophets; and the Lord said, thou shalt entice him, and thou Jhalt also prevail; go out and do even so. From whence it is evident, that the evil Spirits from God were certain Persons, even bad Angels, to which the one good Spirit as a Person is opposed, departing from him to whom the other cometh.
Again, The New Testament doth describe the Holy Ghost by such personal dispositions, and with such operations, as are as evident marks and signs of a Person as any which are attributed to the Father or the Son, which are unquestionable Persons; and whatsoever terms are spoken of the Spirit by way of quality, are spoken as well of thole which are acknowledged Per
We are exhorted by the Apostle not to grieve. the Spirit of God; but Grief is certainly a personal affection, of which a quality is not capable. We are assured that the fame Spirit maketh intercession for us with groanings that cannot be uttered ; and we can understand what are interceding Persons, but have no apprehension of interceding or groaning qualities. The operations of the Spirit are manifest, and as manifestly personal: for he searcheth all things, yea even the deep things of God; and so he knoweth all things, even the things of God, which can be no description of the power of God: He worketh all the spiritual gifts, dividing to every man severally as he will; in which the operation, discretion, distribution, and all these voluntary, are sufficient demonstrations of a Person. He revealeth the will of God, and speaketh to the Sons of Men, in the nature and after the manner of a person; for the Spirit said unto Peter, behold three men seek thee. Arife therefore and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing, for I have sent them : and the Holy Ghost said unto the Prophets and Teachers at Antioch, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. We cannot better understand the nature of
the Holy Ghost than by the description given by Christ which sent him: and John 14. 26. he said thus to his Disciples, The Comforter, (or, the Advocate) which is
the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you 15. 26, 27 all things, he shall testifie of me: and ye also shall bear witness. If I go not
away, the Comforter will not come unto you ; but if I depart, I will send 16. 7, 8. him into you. And when he is come he will reprove the world, and he 13. 14. will guide you into all truth; for he shall not speak of himself, but what
soever he shall hear that shall be speak, and he shall shew you things to come ;
he shall glorifie me, for he Mall receive of mine , and shall shew it unto you. All which words are nothing else but so many descriptions of
a Perfon, a Person hearing, a Person receiving, a Person testifying, a Person * The present speaking, a Person reproving, a Person instructing. Adversaries
The * Adversaries to this truth acknowledging all these personal expressinians, and their opinion was thus delivered by Socinus, Quod in testimoniis facris quæ adversarii citant Spiritni Ş. a&tiones tribuuntur, & ea quæ personarum funt propria, ex hoc nihil concludi pole!t, cuin aliis rebus, quas personas non efle conftat, fimiliter in Scripturis facris actiones tribuantur, & ea quæ funt propria perfonarum. Cujus rei plenitli
i Cor. 2. 10, II.
Acts 10. 19.
to this Truth are