« PreviousContinue »
Gen. 4. 7.
So the Tar
nathan renders it,
בעלמא הרן ליוס דינא רבא
Monarch. Dεί, "Εσιν Δίκης οφθαλμός ος τα πάνθ' ορά. Ει δε δικαιώ- κασεβής έξασιν έν, “Αρπας απελθον, κλίπ, αποσύρει, κύκα. Μηδέν πλανηθής, έσι και αλα κρίσις. "Ηνπες ποιήσα, Θεός ο πάντων δεσπότης. ου τένομα φοβερήν εδ' ότομάτα dyw. And Plato especially hath delivered it according to their notion mast particularly, whose places to that purpoje are faithfully collected by Eufebiusand Theodoret, and may be read in them; Eusebius de Præparat. Evang. lib. 11.638. & lib. 22. c. 6. Theodor. Serm. de Fine & Judicio. Where after the citation of several places he concludes, citas ακριβώς επίσδυεν ο Πλάτων ανει τα ν άδε κριτήρια.
But yet, beside the consideration of the internal power of Conscience in our selves, beside the intuition of that essential Attribute, the justice of God, (which are sufficient arguments to move all men) we have yet á more ncar and inforcing persuasion grounded upon the express determination of the will of God. For the determinate council of the Almighty actually to judge the world in righteousness, is clearly revealed in his word; it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment. There is a death appointed to follow this life, and a judgment to follow that death ; the one as certain as the other. For in all ages God hath revealed his resolution to judge the World.
Upon the first remarkable action after the Fall, there is a sufficient intimation given to angry Cain, If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted: and if thou daest-not well, sin lieth at the door ; which by the most ancient * Interpretation signifieth a reservation of his Sin unto the judgment of the
world to come. Before the flood Enoch prophesied of a judgment to come, gum of Jo
saying, Behold the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his Saints to execate
by judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all son as their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hun hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. His Words
25 might have an aim at the Waters which were to overflow the world; but May the ultimate intention looked through that fire which shall consume the GNS World preserved from Water. : 700 THUN If thou makest thy works good, shall not thy sin be forgiven thee? And if thou makest not thy works good in this world, thy sin is kept unto the day of the great judgment. And the Jerusalem Targum yet more express, :70 TAUN 237 N97 If thou makest thy works good in this world, thall it not be remitted and forgiven unto thce in the world to come? And if thou makest not thy works good in this world, thy sin shall be reserved unto the day of the great judgment. In the same manner the Chaldee Paraphrase of Onkelos, 6) THUN 2717 Gnb Jude 4.
The testimonies which follow in the Law and the Prophets, the predictions of Christ and the Apostles, are so many and fo known, that both the number and the plainness will excuse the prosecution. The Throne hath been already seen, the Judge hath appeared fitting on it, the Books have been already opened, the Dead small and great have been seen standing before him ; there is nothing more certain in the word of God, no doctrine more clear and fundamental, than that of eternal judgment. I shall therefore briefly conclude the first consideration from the internal testimony of the conscience of Man, from the essential attribute, the justice of God, from the clear and full revelation of the will and determination of God, that after Death, with a reflection on this, and in relation to another Life, there is a judgment to come, there shall some person come to jædge.
Our second consideration followeth ; (seeing we are lo well assured that there shall be a Judgment) who that Person is which shall come to judge, who shall fit upon that Throne, before whose tribunal we shall all appear, from whose mouth we may expect our Sentence. Now the judiciary power is the power of God, and none hath any right to judge the subjects and fervants of God, but that God whose servants they are. The Law by which we are to be judged was given by him, the Actions which are to be discussed were due to him, the persons which are to be tried are subject to his dominion; God
therefore is the Judge of all. He shall bring every work into judgment with Eccl
. 12. 14. every secret thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil; and so the last Rom. 2. 5.' day, that day of wrath, is the revelation of the righteous judgment of God.
Heb. 6. 2.
Heb. 12. 23.
Now if God, as God, be the Judge of all, then whosoever is God is Judge of all *Tlágısı toivee Men; and therefore being we have proved the Father and the Son, and thall be hereafter also prove the Holy Ghost to be God, it followeth that the * Father máslav aralas
, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost shall judge the World ; because the Father, Curacebe Boguio
Xeisö Cour Son, and Holy Ghost, in respect of the fame divinity, have the same auto-trouve cratorical power, dominion and authority.
. But notwithstanding in that particular day of the general Judgment to Catech, it! come, the execution of this judiciary Power shall be particularly committed to the Son, and so the Father and the Holy Ghost shall actually judge the World no otherwise but by him. For God hath appointed a day in the Acts 17. 31. which he will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he hath ordained. It is God who judgeth, it is Christ by whom he judgeth. For the John 5. 22. Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the Son. There is therefore an original, fupreme, autocratorical, judiciary Power ; there is a judiciary Power delegated, derived, given by Commission. Christ as God hath the first together with the Father and the Holy Ghost: Christ as Man hath the second from the Father exprefly, from the Holy Ghost concomitantly. For the Father hath given him authority to execute judgment, because John. 5. 27. he is the Son of man; not simply because he is Man, therefore he thall be Judge, (for then by the same reason every Man should judge, and consequently none, because no Man could be judged if every Man should only judge) but because of the three Persons which are God, he only is † also the Son 1 This Expli; and therefore for his affinity with their nature, for his sense of their
thought necefinfirmities, for his appearance to their eyes, most fic to represent the great- sary to insert, est mildness and sweetness of equity, in the severity of that just and irre-because it
seems to spective Judgment. Controversie which is raised upon the Interpretation of those words of s. John, which we ordinarily read thus, 27. Kai εξεσίαν έδωκεν αυτω και κρίσιν ποιών ότι «ός ανθρώπε εεί. 28. Μη θαυμάζετε τετο. By which diffinition, there words, because he is the Son of man, have reference to the precedent Sentence.
But anciently they have been otherwise diftinguined, Και έδωκεν αυτού και κρίσιν ποιείν. "Οτι «ός ανθρώπε εσί μη θαυμάζετε τέτο. So the old Syriack Translation, V. 27.
. ś is so earnest for this Reading, that he chargeth the former Distinction upon Paulus Samofatenus, as invented by him in favour of his Herefie, That Chris was nothing else but purely Man. "Oro uos av@gare isi, ma lavpálile rôto. Naaa αο Σαμοσαλάς έκ τών φησίν, αλλα πώς; εξεσίαν έδωκεν αυτω κρίσιν ποιείν ότι μός ανθρώπε εσίν' αλλ''εδεμίαν ακολgθίαν έχε τέτο λεγόμεμον (Jo he argues againt that Reading) και ο δια τατο έλαβε κρίσιν ότι άνθρωπός έσιν (επα τι κώλυε πάντας ανθρώπες είναι κρίλας ;) αλλ' επειδαν η αρρήτε εσίας εκείνο εσίν υος, δια τέτο και κριτής έσιν. Ούτως αν αναλνωσέον, "Οτι yos avogur isi Men Savválele rõro Euthymus followeth the distinction of s. Chrysoitome, and Theophylact makes the fame Argument, Xρη και γινώσκειν ότι ΠαύλG- ο Σαμοσαλάς ψιλον άνθρωπον δο μαζίζων τ Κύριον, έτως ανεγίνωσκε τύτο το οίον. Και εξεσίαν έδωκεν αυτω και κρίσιν ποιών, ότι ος ανθρώπε εσι ώιαύθα και σίζων απ' άλλης αρχής ανεγίνωσκε τέτο το, Μη θαυμάζεθε τετο. Ανόητος και τελείως εσί το έτως αναΓινώσκειν, το κρίσιν τω ω ο Παγής έδωκεν, εκ ότι ηος άνθρωπο isiv, árx' örı Osós. But although this division of the words be both by S. Chryfoftome and Theophylact charged upon Paulus Samosatenus the Heretick, yet we find no other distinction in the ancient Copies; nor did the ancient Latin Fathers any otherwise read it than Paulus did. We must then acknowledge no other Conerence than the ordinary, Thai God gave his son power to judge, because he was the son of man. Nor need we, to avoid the Argument of S. Chry-' sostome, change the őto into rabóti, the quia into quatenus; for it is not rendered as the absolute Reason in it self, but in relation unio God, or the Persons of the Trinity: The Father shall not judge, nor the Holy Ghost, because those two Perforis are orily God; but all judgment is committed to God the Son, because he is the Son of man.
The only way
to end that
Nor was this a reason only in respect of us who are to be judged, but in regard of him also who is to judge ; for we must not look only upon his being the Son of Man, but also upon what he did and suffered as the Son of man.
He humbled himself so far as to take upon him our nature ; in that nature so taken, he humbled himself to all the infirmities which that was capable of, to all the miseries which this Life could bring; to all the pains and forrows which the Sins of all the World could cause : And therefore in regard of his humiliation did God exalt him, and part of the exaltation due unto him was this Power of judging. The Father therefore, who is only God, and never took upon him either the nature of Men or Angels, judg-John 5. 22, eth no man; (and the fame reason reacheth also the Holy Ghost) but hath 25, 27.
committed all judgment to the Son; and the reason why he hath committed it to him, is because he is, not only the Son of God, and so truly God; but also the Son of man, and so truly Man ; because he is that Son of man, who suffered so much for the Sons of Men.
From whence at last it clearly appeareth not only that it is a certain truth that Christ shall judge the World, but also the reasons are declared and manifested unto us why, he hath that power committed unto him, why He hall come to judge the quick and the dead. For certainly it is a great demonstration of the justice of God, so highly to reward that Son of man, as to make him Judge of all the World, who came into the World and was judged here; to give him absolute power of absolution and condemnation, who was by us condemned to die, and died that he might absolve us ; to
cause all the Sons of Men to bow before his Throne, who did not disdain for *Veniet Chri- their fakes to * stand before the Tribunal and receive that Sentence, let him qui ftetit fub be crucified; which event as infallible, and reason as irrefragable, Christ himjudice : veniet self did shew at the same time when he stood before the Judgment-seat, fayin qua judica: ing, “ Nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall we see the Son of man tus eft, ut vi- sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. deant in quem pupugerunt, & cognoscant Judæi quem negaverunt, convincat eos homo ille susceptus & ab eis crucifixus. Author de Symb. ad Catech. 1.2. c. 4. Veniet ergo, fratres mei, veniet ille ; qui priùs venit occultus, veniet in poteftate manifestus. Ille qui judicatus est veniet judicaturus. Ille qui ftetit ante hominem, judicaturus eft omnem hominem. Idem l. 2. c. 8. Judex hic erit filius hominis; forma illa hîc judicabit quæ judicata eft. Audite & intelligite, jam hoc Propheta dixerat, videbunt in quem pupugerunt. Ipfam formam videbunt quam lanceà percufferunt. Sedebit Judex qui ftetit sub judice. Damnabit veros reos qui factus est falsus reus. Ipse veniet, forma illa veniet. S. Aug. de Verbes Domin. Serm. 24.
a Matth. 26. 64.
Again, if we look upon our felves which are to be judged, whom can we desire to appear before, rather than him who is of the fame nature with us? If the children of Israel could not bear the presence of God as a Law-giver, but desired to receive the Law by the hand of Mofes ; how Thould we appear before the presence of that God judging us for the breach of that Law, were it not for a better Mediator, of the same nature that Mofes was and we are, who is our Judge ? In this appeareth the wisdom and goodness of God, that making a general Judgment, he will make a visible Judge, which all may see who shall be judged. Without holiness no man shall ever fee
and therefore if God, as only God, should pronounce sentence upon Cùm boni all Men, the ungodly t should never see their Judge. But that both the & funt judicem righteous and unrighteous might see and know who it is that judgeth them, vivorum & Christ who is both God and Man is appointed Judge ; fo as he is Man all mortuann, hall see him, and as he is God they only fall see ħim who by that Vision eum videre
videre fhall enjoy him. non poterunt mali, nifi fecundùm formam quâ filius hominis eft ; sed tamen in claritate in qua judicabit, non in humilitate in qua judicatus est. Cæterum illam Dei formam in qua æqualis eft Patri proculdubio impii non videbunt. Non enim sunt mundicordes, Beari enim mundicordes, quoniam ipsi videbunt Deum. S. Aug. de Trin. b1. c. 13. Hoc rectum erat ut judicandi viderent judicem. Judicandi autem erant boni & mali, Beati enim mundi corde, quoniam ipso Deum videbunt. Restabat ut in judicio forma servi & bonis & malis oftenderetur, forma Dei folis bonis fervaretur. Idem de verbis. Dom. Serm. 64. Et poteftatem dedit ei judicium facere quia filius hominis eft. Puto nihil esse manifestius. Nam qui Filius Dei eft æqualis Patri, non accepit hanc poteftatem judicii faciendi, sed habet illam cum Patre in occulto. Accepit autem illam ut boni & mali eum videant judicantem, quia filius hominis est. Vifio quippe Filii hominis exhibebitur & malis. Nam visio formæ Dei non nifi mundis corde, quia ipfi Deum videbunt, id eft, folis piis exhibebitur, quorum dilectioni hoc ipfum promittit quia feipfum oftendit illis. Idem rursus, de Trin. lib. 1. cap. 13.
Christ Jesus then, the Son of God, and the Son of man, he which was born of the Virgin Mary, he which suffered under Pontius Pilate, he which was crucified, dead and buried, and defcended into hell, he which rose again from
the dead, afcended into heaven, and is set down on the right hand of God; He, o Mar. 16. 27. the fame Person, in the same Nature, 5 Jall come to judge the quick and the
dead. For the Son of man Mall come in the glory of his Father, with his Angels, and then be Mall reward every man according to his works. He then which is to come is the Son of man: and when he cometh, it is to judge. The same Jesus which was taken up from the Apostles into heaven, shall fo Acts 1. fr. come in like manner as they saw him go into heaven. That Son of man then, which is to judge, is our Jefus, even the same Jefus, and fhall come in the fame manner, by a true and local translation of the fame Nature out of Hea
For God will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he Acts 17. 31. hath ordained, whereof he hath given an assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead. He then which afcended into Heaven, was the same which was raised from the dead; and by that Resurrection God afsured us that the fame Man should judge us. For to this end Christ both died, Rom. 14. 9. and rose andrevived, that he might be the Lord both of the dead and living. It appeareth therefore by God's determination, by Christ's Resurrection and Ascension, that the Man Christ Jesus is appointed Judge.
This office and dignity of the Son of man was often declared by several figurative and parabolical Descriptions. John the Baptist representeth him that cometh after him, by this delineation of an Husbandman; Whose fan is in Mat, 3. 12 his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into
'Avwligw û the garner, but will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. The Son cita b c dej me of man describes himself as an Houfholder, saying to the Reapers in the time as we deixeuof Harvest, * Gather ye together first the tares and bind them in bundles to ei vas ideával?om burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn: And this harvest is the end vicázd
. of the world. "He representeth himself under the notion of a Fisherman, * Matth. 13.
S.Chryf.in loc. casting a net into the sea, and gathering of every kind; which, when it 39, 39, was full, he drew to the shore and sate down and gathered the good into
Πάλιν αναμιμvessels, but cast the bad away. He is the Bridegroom who took the wife "lwesig inusa Virgins b with him to the marriage, and shut the door upon the foolish. He tav o regillw is the Man who travelling into a far Countrey, delivered the Talents to his
tw. S. Chrys. Servants, and after a long time cometh again, and reckoneth with them, ad locum. exalting the good and faithful, and casting the unprofitable servant into ut- Mar. 13. 47, ter darkness. Lastly, he is the Shepherd, and is so exprefly described in re- 6 Mat. 25. 10. lation to this Judgment. Ford When the Son of man shall come in his glory, ° Mat.25. 19, and all the holy Angels with him, then shall be sit down upon the throne of Mat.2.5.31, his glory. And before him shall be gathered all nations, and he shall sepa- 32, 33. rate them one from another, as a Mepherd his Meep from the goats. And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, and the goats on his left. Being then the Son of man is thus constantly represented as making the great decretory Separation, and the last judicatory Distinction between Man and Man ; as an Husbandman separating the Wheat, some time from the Chaff, some time from the Tares; as a Fisherman gathering the good Fish, casting the bad away; as a Bridegroom receiving the wise, excluding the foolish Virgins ; as a Master distinguishing the Servants of his Family, rewarding the faithful, punishing the unprofitable ; as a Shepherd, dividing his Sheep from the Goats, placing one on the right hand, the other on the left; it plentifully proveth that the Son of man is appointed the Judge of all the Sons of men. And thus it appeareth that Christ is he who Thall be the Judge; which is the second Consideration subservient to the present Explication.
Thirdly, It being thus resolved that the Son of man shall be the judge, our next Consideration is, What may, the nature of this Judgment be : in what that judicial Action doth consist; what he shall then do, when he Jhall come to judge. The reality of this Act doth certainly consist in the final determination, and actual disposing of all Persons in Soul and Body to their eternal Condition: And in what manner this shall particularly be performed
perfectum hominem in
* s. Austin is not so * certain unto us; but that which is sufficient for us, it is representSpeaking of the
ed under a formal judiciary Procefs. In which first there is described a Throne, foretold to be a Tribunal, a Judgment-feat: for a In the regeneration the Son of man fhall exhibited at fit in the throne of his glory: And that this
Throne is a seat not only of MaJudgment, jesty but also of Judicature, appeareth by the following words spoken to the concludesthem Apostles, Te also shall sit upon the thrones judging the twelve tribes of If in this man-rael. As in that Vision in the Revelation, I saw thrones and they fat sipnia quidem on them, and judgment was given unto them. And I saw a great white ventura efle throne, and him that fate on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven elit, sed qui-fled away. This Throne of Christ is exprefly called his Judgment-feat, when bus modis & the Apostle tells us, We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Chrift, quo ordine, and a we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ. In respect then tunc docebit of the Son of man, he thall appear in the proper form and condition of
a Judge, rerum cxperi- fitting upon a Throne of Judicature. Secondly, There is to be a personal apnunc valet pearance of all Men before that seat of Judicature upon which Christ Thall fit; consequi ad for we must all appear, and we shall all stand before that judgment-feat. I faw
the dead, saith the Apostle, stand before the throne of God. Thus & all nations telligentia
. De Mall be gathered before him. 8 He shall send his Angels with a great found Civit.Dei,l.2. of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, Mar. 19.28. from one end of heaven to the other. For the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ bRev.20.4,11
. is our gathering together unto him. Thirdly, When those which are to be judgi Rom, 14. 10. ed are brought before the Judgment-feat of Christ, all their actions shall ap< Rev. 20. 12. pear ; He will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make Mat
. 25. 32. Manifest the counsels of the hearts : He will * bring every, work into judg$ 29thch42?:: ment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. i 1 Cor.4.5. To this end, in the Vision of Daniel, when the fudgment was fêt, the books I bech . 12. 14. were opened; and in that of S. John, 'the books were opened; and the dead
were judged out of those things that were written in the books according to
their works. Fourthly, After the manifestation of all their actions, there folDominus, loweth a | definitive Sentence passed upon all their Persons, according to those perfonâ judi- actions, which is the fundamental and essential Consideration of this Judgcat mundum, ment; the fentence of Absolution, in these words expressed, m Come, ye blef unufquifq; fe- fed of my father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundafecit accipiet
. tion of the world, the sentence of the Condemnation in this manner, - DeSi fuerit bo-part from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and
his angels. Lastly, After the promulgation of the sentence, followeth the exedit ; fi ne- curion: As it is written, And these shall go away into everlasting punishquam, merces ment, but the righteous into life eternal. Thus appeareth Christ's majesty fequitur
. Ep. by sitting on the Throne; his authority, by convening all before him; his Barnab, c. 3. knowledge and wisdom, by opening all secrets, revealing all actions, discernn Verre-A12* ing all inclinations; his justice, in condeinning Sinners ; his mercy, in ab• Verse 46. folving Believers; his power, in his execution of the sentence. And thus the
the Son of man Jhall come to judge, which is the last particular subfervient to the third consideration of this Article.
The fourth and last consideration is, What is the object of this Action ; who are the Persons which shall appear before that Judge, and receive their fentence from him; what is the latitude of that Expression, the quick and the
dead. The Phrase ie self is delivered several times in the Scriptures, and that Afts 10. 42. upon the fame occasion; for Christ was ordained of God to be the judge of 1 Pet. 4. 5. quick and dead, and fo his Commission extendeth to both: He is ready to
judge the quick and the dead; his resolution reacheth to each; and as he is ordained and ready, fo Mall he judge the quick and the dead; the execution excludeth neither. But although it be the Scripture-language, and therefore certainly true ; yet there is some ambiguity in the Phrale, and therefore the intended sense not evident.
2 Tim. 4. I.