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* This Justin Person to whom God speaks to be * Ezechias, some † Abraham, fome ZoMartyr festi- robabel, others David; others * the People of Ifrael; and because the Jews in his Prophecy cannot belong to him who made the Psalm, therefore they which Age, Kai iš- attribute the Prediction to Abraham, tell us the Psalm was penned by his τον ή ψαλμών or co- f Steward Eliazer : they which expound it of David, say that one of his xúcev i Basi- Musicians was Author of it. aése išnycia Tonuõre, s'x xoã, Tárov. Dialog. cum Tryphone. And out of him Tertullian citing this Psalm. Sed neceffe eft ad meam sententiam pertinere defendam eas Scripturas, quas & Judæi nobis avocare conantur. Dicunt denique hunc Psalmum in Ezechiam ceciniffe, quia is sederit ad dextram templi, & hoftes ejus averterit Deus & absumpserit. Adv. Marcion. l. 5.c.9. to s. Chryfoftome, speaking of the Jews, Tiva öv 'revor à réforta Qadi; “ Opdyt axóource; A6egocen Teegi j * Zoggsében, xe canoe te@gv, ad locum. Ita Catena Græca, oi j '18daños, to Yeholóte@gv, eis 'Abegaile 6eñaf hólyor. xatnat in değiá rõ Otő. And this Exposition is now followed iby Simon Jarchi and Lipmannus ; Jarchi acknowledging it to be ancient, S725 11 SNI 01127) 12WDN 13138 Dinn 171677. 1951127: | This is the Exposition of the later Rabbins, as of Aben Ezra and David Kimchi, who attribute the subject of the Psalm to David. And not only they but the ancienter Rabbins fince our Saviour's time, as appeareth by those words of s. Chrysostome, Kas irióv7c dýhor Öto cô en mei rõ Zogg6bfra etañou opnj, side mei tã Aabido ideis gs outāv ieewoun netiping. *'Annä sej teogé tova aéfuri róta éwdórieg, wei sõidag résoules tuuta sigñas, ea paulo poft, Näs ä T Acéid, ñ TW Zoe96b6ca, TV saa tatu aguoouev; S. Chryfoftom. To which purpose saith s. Chrysostome, concerna ing the Jews of his Time, Tigos paon bado wanny; to o wais tê 'A Gegcise tauta aird Ei rõ Kveis Tš savlč.
* As for that But first it is most certain that David was the pen-man of this Psalm; the objection title speaks as much, which is, * A Psalm of David : from whence it fol. which is made
loweth that the prediction did nor belon im, because 'twas spoken to that it is not his Lord. Nor could it indeed belong to any of the rest which the Jews the Pfalm of imagine, because neither Abraham nor Ezechias, nor + Zorobabel could be David, but penned for and the Lord of David, much less the People of Ifrael (to whom some of the in the Honour Jews referred it) who were not the Lords but the Subjects of that David. of David, be
arba be- Besides, he which is said to fit at the right hand of God, is also said to be a Title is priest for ever after the order of Melchifedech : but neither Abraham, nor ???..me , Ezechias, nor any which the Jews have mentioned was ever any priest Psalm for Da- of God. Again our Saviour urged this Scripture against the Pharisees, Jayvid, not of ing, What think ye of Christ? whose fon is he? they say unto him, The son David: it is biva no mean's of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him to be admit- Lord, saying, the Lord said unto my Lord, fit thou on my right hand till
I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is be it may not only very well bis Son ? and no man was able to answer him a word. From whence 'tis Signifie a psalm evident that the Jews of old, even the Pharisees, the most accurate and skilvid, but if it ful amongst them, did interpret the Psalm of the Mefias ; for if they had do not, there conceived the prophecy belonged either to Abraham, or David, or any of is no Title the rest since mentioned by the Jews, they might very well, and questionwhich jhews any Pfalm to less would have answered our Saviour, that this belonged not to the Son of be his, and David. It was therefore the general Opinion of the some of them her we are fure before our Saviour, and of divers * Rabbins fince his death, that this prediare his. ction did concern the kingdom of Christ. And thus the Session of the Mel. Luke 20:42. sias at the right hand of God, was not only represented typically, but foreήτί δν, είπε Hot, Zoe96c- told prophetically: which is our first consideration. Gen, Kvera TÔ Aabid; j wäs åv čxou dólov, ôs ry curos dyti meydans Tiriñs xixan); S. Chryfoft. This is the Argument which the Fathers used against the Jews; as Justin Martyr, in opposition to their pretence of Ezechias, 'legóus Ti šte yéfovev 'EGOxías, šte isin aiwa 'legous rõ Otő, ö ö vurig ávletén topengele. Dial. cum Tryphone ; and from him Tertullian. Quod & in ipfo hic accedit, Tu es Sacerdos in ævum. Nec facerdos autem Ezechias, nec in ævum, etfi fuisset. Secundùm Ordinem, inquit, Melchisedech. Quid Ezechias ad Melchisedech Altiffimi facerdotem, & quidem non circumcisum ? Adv. Marcion, l. 5. c.9. and fo S. Chryfoftom in the words before mentioned. * As in the Midrash Tillim, Pfal. 18. 36. 1921 aw v s » ONI "W wynib noon ho viD 17207 ynys non "way"8: R. Joden in the Name of Rabbi Chama said that in the time to come God mall place Messias the King at his right hand, as it is written (Pfal. 110. 1.) The Lord said unto my Lord, fit thou at they right hand. So Moses Haddarsan on Gen. 18. Hereafter God holy and blessed shall set the King Messias 13'on his right hand, as it is written (Pfal. ito.) The Lord
:: Secondly, We affirm that our Jesus, whom we worship as the true Mefias, according unto that particular Prediction, when he ascended up on high, did
sit down at the right Hand of God. His Ascension was the Way to his Seffion, and his Session the End of his Ascension; as the Evangelist expresseth it, He was received up into heaven, and fat on the right hand of God; Mark 16. 19. or as the Apostle, God raised Christ from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places. There could be no lịch Session without an Ascension; and David is not ascended into the heavens, but he faith Acts 2. 34, himself, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until 1 35, 36. make thy foes thy footstool. Therefore let all the house of Israel know af furedly, let all the blind and wilful Jews be convinced of this Truth, that God hath not set at his own Right Hand neither Abraham nor David, neither Ezechias nor Zerubbabel, but hath made that fame Jesus whom they have crucified both Lord and Christ. A
This was an Honour never given, never promised to any Man but the Mefias : the glorious Spirits stand about the Throne of God, but never any of them sat down at the Right Hand of God. For to whom of his Angels Heb. 1, 13. said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. But Christ was so assured of this Honour, that before the Council of the Chief Priests and the Elders of the People, when he foresaw his Death contrived, and his Cross prepared, even then he expressed the Confidence of his Expectation, saying, Hereafter all the Son of man lit on the Luke 22. 69 right hand of the power of God. And thus our Jesus, whom we worship as the true promised Mefias, is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of 1. Pet. 3. 22. God. Which was our second Consideration.
Our next Enquiry is, What may be the utmost Importance of that Phrase, and how it is applicable unto Christ. The Phrase consists of two Parts, and both to be taken metaphorically: First therefore, we must consider what is the right hand of God, in the Language of the Scriptures ; Secondly, what it is to sit down at that Right Hand. God being a Spirit can have no material or corporeal Parts; and consequently as he hath no Body, so in a proper Sense can have no * Hands at all : but because God is pleased to descend to *Credimus eour Capacity ; and not only to speak by the Mouths of Men, but also, af- oder der ter the manner of Men, he expresseth that which is in him by some Analo-teram Dei gy with that which belongs to us. The Hands of Man are those Organical Patris. Nec
*** ideo tamen Parts which are most 7 active, and executive of our Power; by those the quafi humana Strength of our Body is expressed, and most of our Natural and Artificial fo mà cirActions are performed by them. From whence the Power of God, and the conferiptuin
effe Deum Exertion or Execution of that Power is signified by the Hand of God. Patrem arbiMoreover being by a general Custom of the World the Right Hand is more trandum est, used than the Left, and by that general Use acquireth a greater Firmitude gitantibus and Strength; therefore the right hand of God fignifieth the exceeding great dextrum aut and infinite Power of God.
finiftrum latus animo
occurrat. S. Aug. de Fide @ Symb. † Succedunt brachia & validi lacertorum tori, validæ ad operandum manus, & proceribus digitis habiles ad tenendum: Hinc aptior usus operandi, hinc scribendi elegantia, & ille calamus fcribæ velociter scribentis, quo divinæ vocis exprimuntur oracula. Manus eft quæ cibum ori ministrat; manus est quæ præclaris enitet factis, quæ conciliatrix divinæ gratiæ facris infertur altaribus, per quam offerimus & suinimus sacramenta cæleftia. Manus eft quæ operatur pariter atque dispensat divina myfteria, cujus vocabulo non dedignatus est se Dei Filius declarari, dicente David, Dextra Domini exaltavit me. Manus est quæ fecit omnia, sicut dixit Deus omnipotens, Nonne manus mea fecit hæc? S. Ambrof. Hexam. 1.6. c.9.
ut de illo co
Again, Because the most honourable Place amongst Men is the Right Hand, (as when Bathsheba went unto King Solomon, he sat down on his throne, and i King. 2. 13. caused a seat to be set for the King's mother, and she fat on his right hand) therefore the right hand of God signifies the glorious Majesty of God.
Thirdly, Because the Gifts of Men are given and received by the Hands : of Men, and every perfect Gift comes from the Father of Lights, therefore the right hand of God is the Place of Celestial Happiness and Perfect Felicity; .
Pfal. 15. 11. according to that of the Pfalmift, In thy presence is fulness of joy, at thy
right hand pleasures for evermore.
down at the right hand of the Father in regard of that absolute Power and Mat. 27. 64. Dominion which he hath obtained in Heaven; from whence it is expreflly Nark 14. (2. said, Hereafter ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of Power. Luke 22. 69. As to the second Acception, Christ is said to sit on the right hand of God
in regard of that * Honour, Glory, and Majesty which he hath obtained * Secundùm
there ; wherefore it is said, a When he had by himself purged our lins. be nem nofiram sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high : and again, b We have illi confeffis an High-priest who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in offertur qui aliquo opere the heavens. Perfecto honoris gratiâ promeretur ut fedeat. Ita ergo & homo Jesus Christus passione suâ diabolum superans, refurrectione fuâ inferna referans, tanquam perfecto opere ad cælos vietor adveniens, audit à Deo Patre, Sede ad dextram meam. Max. Taurin. Hom. I. de Pentecofte.
a Heb. 1. 3.
b Heb. 8. 1.
In reference to the third Acception, Christ is said to sit on the right hand * Ad dextram of God, because now after the Labours and Sorrows of this World, after his intelligen: Stripes and Bufferings, after a painful and shameful Death, he resteth above dum eit di-' ctum esse in in unspeakable Joy, and everlasting * Felicity. fumina beatudine, ubi justitia & pax & gaudium eft. S. Aug. de Fide o symb. Quid eft Patris dextera, nifi illa æterna ineffabilifque felicitas quo pervenit Filius hominis, etiam carnis immortalitate perceptâ ? Idem. contra Serm. Arian. Beatus est à beatudine, quæ dextera Patris vocatur; ipfius beatitudinis nomen eft dextera Patris. De Symb. ad Catech. Salus temporalis & carnalis in finiftra eft, falus æterna cum Angelis in dextra eft. Ideo jam in ipsa iminortalitate pofitus Chriftus dicitur sedere ad dextram Dei. Non enim Deus habet in seipso dextram aut finiftram ; fed dextra Dei dicitur felicitas illa, quæ quoniam oftendi non poteft, tale nomen accepit. S. Aug. in Psal. 137.
As for the other part of the Phrase, that is, his Sefion, we must not look upon it as determining any Posture of his Body in the Heavens, correspondent to the Inclination and Curvation of our Limbs: for we read in the Scriptures a
more general term which signifies only his being in Heaven, without any exRom. 8. 34. pression of the particular manner of his presence. So S. Paul, who is even at 1 Pet. 3. 22. the right hand of God; and S. Peter, Who is gone into heaven, and is at the
right hand of God. Beside, we find him expressed in another position than that of Session : for Stephen looking stedfastly into heaven, saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God: And said, Behold, I fee the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God. He appeared standing unto Stephen, whom we express sitting in our Creed;
but this is rather a difference of the Occasion, than a diversity of Position. He * 'ETH to vi- appeared * standing to Stephen, as ready to assist him, as ready to plead for Tv xxoca} him, as ready to receive him: and he is oftner expressed sitting, not for any Poglezo wa cois Lei, eiwis positional Variation, but for the variety of his Effect, and Operation. wei dva .
. córe wg marcha nóryov, se onsin auton isaat. S. Chryfoft. Hom. 18. in Alta. Si major gratia & manifestatior intelligentia in Novo eft quam in Veteri Testamento, quare Efaias Propheta sedentem in throno Majestatis vidit Deum Sabbaoth, in novo autem Stephanus primus Martyr ftantem se vidiffe ait Jesum à dextris Dei ? Quid eft illud, ut hic subjectus videatur post triumphos, & illic quafi Dominus antequam vinceret : Prout caufa erat feciffe, ita & Dominus fe oftendit. Prophetæ enim visus est quasi rex corripiens plebem, & hoc fe oftendit quod erat, hoc eft, fedentem, in pace enim erat causâ divinitatis ejus. Stephano autem ut ftans appareret fecit calumnia Judæorum. In Stephano autem Salvatoris causa vim patiebatur. Ideo sedente Judice Deo stans apparuit, quafi qui causam diceret ; & quia bona causa ejus eft, ad dextram Judicis erat; Omnis qui causam dicit, ftet neceffe eft. S. Aug. Quæft. in Novo Teft. 88. Sedere judicantis est, stare verò pugnantis vel adjuvantis. Stephanus ergo in labore certaminis positus, ftantem videt quem adjutorem habuit. Sed hunc poft ascensionem Marcus sedere fcribit, quia poft afcenfionis suæ gloriam Judex in fine videbitur. Greg. Hom. 29. in Evang. Maxim. Taurin. de Pentec. Hom. 1. moves the question. Qui fit ratio qnod idem Dominus à David sedens prophetatur, ftans verò à Stephano prædicatur? and then renders this Reason, Ut modò ejus omnipotentia, modò misericordia describatur. Nam utique pro'poteftate regis sedere dicitur, pro bonitate intercerforis ftare suggeritur. Ait enim beatus Apostolus, quia Advocatum habemus apud Patrem Jefum Christum. Judex eft igitur Chriftus cùm refidet: Advocatus cùm assurgit. Judex planè Judæis, Advocatus Christianis. Hic enim ftans apud Patrem Chriftianorum licèt peccantium causas exorat; ibi residet cum Patre Pharifæorum persequentiain peccata condemnans. Illis indignans vehementer ulciscitur ; his interveniens leniter miferetur. Hic Itat ut suscipiat Stephani Martyris fpiritum; ibi residet ut condemnet Judæ proditoris admissum.
אשר ישב ,
This Phrase then to fit, prescinding from the corporal posture of Session, may signifie no more than habitation, possession, permansion, and continu- *zus rubichi ance ; as the fame word in the * Hebrew and Greek Languages often signi- properly signifies. And thus our Saviour is set down at the right hand of God in Heaven ; fieth to fit, is
'i familiarly . because he which dwelt with us before on Earth, is now ascended up into used for perHeaven ; and hath taken his mansion or habitation there, and so hath he mansit, and
habitavit; as feated himself, and + dwelleth in the It Heavens.
Judges 5.17. Opisins LXX. 'Acne crédose a Xonico Paraoswv, Alher continued on the Sea-shore, Lev, 8. 35. nynna NNDI opinyan abbro pri 1200 Kad ti Juego q canvās rõ keselueix xabhosate inlce nuéegesí qué egy ry vuxna. Therefore shall ye abide at the door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation, day and night, seven days. Upon which place S. Aug. Quid eft quod dicit Moyses ad Aaron & filios ejus cùm fanctificantur ad ineundum sacerdotium ? Ad ostium tabernaculi teftimonii fedebitis septem dies, die ew nocte, ne moriamini. Numquid nam credibile est situ corporis uno loco sedere præceptos per dies septem die & nocte, unde se omninò pon commoverent? Nec tamen hic tanquam allegoricè aliquid significatum, quod non fieret, cogendi fumus acccipere, sed potiùs agnofcere locutionem Scripturarum, ubi Seffionem pro habitatione & commoratione posuit. Non enim quia dictum est de Semei, quòd sederet in Hierufalem annos tres, ideo putandum eft per totum illud tempus in sella sedisse & non surrexisse. Hinc & fedes dicun- , tur ubi habent commorationem quorum sedes funt; habitatio quippe hoc nomen accepit. Qu«ft. fuper Levit. 24. And this is as familiar with the Latins as the Hebrews. Si venti effent, rios hîc Corcyrä non sederemus. Cic, l. . Epift. Id horreum fuit præsidium Pænis sedentibus ad Tribiain. Liv. I. 2. de Bell. Pun
Sedet ad dextram Patris, Credite sedere, intelligite. habitare; quomodo dicimus de quocunque homine, in ifta patria fedit per tres annos. Dicit . illud & Scriptura fedisse quondam in civitate tantum tempus. Numquid fedit, & numquam surrexit? Ideo hominum
habitationes sedes dicuntur. Ubi habitantur sedes, numquid semper sedetur, non surgitur, non ambulatur ? Et tamen ledes vocantur. Sic ergo credite habitare Christum in dextera Dei Patris ubi eft. Author. lib. de Symb. ad Catech.
· Again, the notion of sitting implieth rest, quietness, and indisturbance; according to that promise in the Prophet, They shall fit every man under his mic. 4. 4. fig-tree, and none shall make them afraid. So Christ is ascended into Heaven, where resting from all pains and sorrows, he is feated free from all disturbance and opposition; God having placed him at his right hand, until he hath made his Enemies his Footstool. Thirdly, This sitting implieth yet more than quietness or continuance, plum ver
ces buin federe even * Dominion, Sovereignty, and Majesty ; as when Solomon fat in the regni lignitThrone of his Father, he reigned over Ifrael after the death of his Father. cat poteftaAnd thus Christ is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. And tem. S. Hier.
u Com. ad. S. Paul did well interpret those words of the Prophet, Sit thou on my right Eph.c.liv. hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool, saying, he must reign till he 19
Heb. II. 2. hath put all enemies under his feet.
Pfal. 110. 1. Fourthly, This sitting doth yet more properly and particularly imply the 1 Cor. 15.25. right of Judicature, and fo especially expresseth, a King that sitteth' in the Prov. 20.8. throne of Judgment; as it is written, in mercy Mall the Throne be establish- isa. 16. 5. ed, and be shall sit upon it in truth, in the tabernacle of David, judging and is
Sedere quod Seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness. And so Christ * sitting at the dicitur Deus right hand of God is manifested and declared to be the great Judge of the quick non membro
rum positioand the dead. Thus to sit doth not signifie any peculiar inclination or flexion, riem. Ted ioány determinate location or position of the Body, but to be in Heaven with diciariam sig permanence of Habitation, happiness of Condition, regular and judiciary nificat pote
statem, quâ Power ; as in other | Authors such significations are usual.
nunquam caret, semper digna dignis tribuendo, quamvis in extremo judicio multò manifestiùs inter homines Unigeniti Dei Filii Judicis vivorum & mortuorum clariùs indubitata effulgebit. S. Auguft. de Fide o Symb. cap. 7. Hoc quòd dicitur FiJius sedere ad dextram Patris, demonstratur quòd ipfe homo, quem suscepit Chriftus, poteftatem acceperit Judicantis. Author. l. 3. de Symb. ad Catechum. f Mof anciently sedere did fignifie no more than esse, to be in any place; as Servius noteth on that place of Virgil, Æneid. 9.
Luco tum fortè parentis
Piluinni Turnus facratâ valle sedebat. Sedebat, ut Asper dicit, erat. Quæ clausula antiqua eft, & de ufu remota. And then he goes on to Mew that sedere is taken for that which Men were wont to do fitting. Secundùm Plautum autem sedere est conflium capere, qui indu. cit in Mostellaria fervum dicentem, sine juxta aram fedeam ex dabo meliora consilia. Sed fecundùm Augures sedere est augurium captare : Namque post designatas cæli patres à fedentibus captabantur auguria. Quod & supra ipfe oftendit latenter, inducens Picum solum sedentem, ut,
The importance of the language being thus far improved, at last we find the fubstance of the Doctrine, which is, that sitting at the right hand of God
was our Mediator's folemn entry upon his regal Office, as to the Execution Rev. 5. 12. of that full Dominion which was due unto him. For worthy is the Lamb
that was sain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and
honour, and glory, and blesing. Wherefore Christ after his Death and ReMat. 28.11. surrection faith, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. For Phil. 2 8, 9, because he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death
of the cross, therefore God hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name ; That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth. And this obedience and submission was and is due unto him, because God raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principalities and powers, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named not only in this world, but also in that which is to come ; and hath put all things under his feet; and gave
him to be the head over all things to the Church. 2 Sam. 7. 16. There was an express promise made by God to David, Thine house and thy
Kingdom Mall be established for ever before thee, thy throne shall be esta
blished for ever. This promise strictly and literally taken was but conditioPsal. 132. 12. nal: and the Condition of the promise is elsewhere expressed, Of the fruit of
thy body will I set upon thy throne. If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children also shall sit upon thy throne for evermore. Notwithstanding this promise this Kingdom of David was intercepted, nor was his Family continued in the Throne: part of the Kingdom was first rent from his Pofterity, next the Regality it felf; and when it was reltored, translated to another Family : and yet we cannot tay e promise was not made good, but only ceased in the obligation of a Promise, because the condition was not performed. The posterity of David did not keep the Covenant and Testimony of their God, and therefore the Throne of David was not by an uninterrupted lineal Succession established to Perpetuity.
But yet in a larger and better Sense, after these intercisions, the Throne of David was continued. When they had sinned, and lost their Right unto the Crown, the Kingdom was to be given unto him who never finned, and consequently could never lose it ; and he being of the Seed of David, in him
the Throne of David was without Interception or Succession continued. Of Luke 1. 32, him did the Angel Gabriel speak at his Conception, The Lord God shall give 33. unto him the throne of his father David, and he mall reign over the house.
of Jacob for ever, and of his Kingdom there hall be no end. Thus the Throne of Christ is called the Throne of David, because it was promised unto David, and because the Kingdom of David was a type, resemblance,
and representation of it; insomuch that Christ himself in respect of this * Jer. 30.9. Kingdom is a often called David, as particularly in that Promise, I will fet Ezek. 37.24, up one Mepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my fervant Hoj.3.5. David, he mall feed them, and he shall be their Shepherd. And I Ezek. 34. 23, the Lord will be their God, and my servant David a Prince among 1 Sam. 16. 13. them.
Now as David was not only first designed, but also anointed King over Ifrael, and yet had no possession of the Crown; seven years he continued
anointed by Samuel, and had no share in the Dominion ; feven years after he 2 Sam. 2.4.
continued anointed in Hebron only King over the Tribe of Judah; at last he was received by all the Tribes, and so obtained full and absolute regal Power over all Ifrael, and feared himself in the royal City of Jerusalem : So Christ was born King of the Jews, and the conjunction of his human Nature with his Divine in the Union of his Person was a sufficient Unction to his regal