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* This Juftin Person to whom God speaks to be * Ezechias, fome | Abraham, fome ZoMesa de bestie robabel, others David; others * the People of Israel; and because the Jews in his Prophecy cannot belong to him who made the Psalm, therefore they which Age, kai iš attribute the Prediction to Abraham, tell us the Psalm was penned by his öri sist'Ege- † Steward Eliazer : they which expound it of David, say that one of his ricer i Basi- Musicians was Author of it. λία εξηγώ topuri, 8x cynow, itárov. Dialog. cum Tryphone. And out of him Tertullian citing this Pfalm. Sed necesse est ad meam fententiam pertinere defendam eas Scripturas, quas & Judæi nobis avocare conantur. Dicunt denique hunc Pfalmum in Ezechiam ceciniffe, quia is sederit ad dextram templi, & hoftes ejus averterit Deus & absumpserit. Adv. Marcion. l. 5.6. 9. so s. Chrysostome, Speaking of the Jews, Tirc gu creivor réfovta Paci; À Oddys axtov7c; 'A6egocene proegs ö Zoegsében, sy @anor éri egu, ad locum. Ita Catena Greca, oi ñ lsdavon, toys2016rtego
, eis i Abegaile sigñat hifror xabñat in dežia iš Oið. And this Exposition is now followed iby Simon Jarchi and Lipmannus ;
be , 11 ) : This is the Exposition of the later Rabbins, as of Aben Ezra and David Kimchi, who attribute the subject of the Psalm to David. And not only they but the ancienter Rabbins since our Saviour's time, as appeareth by those Words of S. Chryfoftone, Και τα έπιόνια και δήλοι ότι δεν θα τα Ζοροβάβελ ανταύθα είρη, έδε σει το Δαβίδ: υδείς και αυτών ιερωσύη τετίμη. * 'Αλλα και έτερα τινα λέξεσι τέτων έωλότερα, οι τε λα λέρούλες τώτα ειρήα, σ paulo poft, Πώς 3 και το Δαβίδ, ή τω Ζοροβάβελ, ή τω λαώ ταύτα αρμόσιεν ; S. Chryfoftom. + To which purpose faith s. Chryfoftome, concerning the Jews of his Time, Τί γάρ φασιν άλλοι πάλιν και ότι ο παίς τα 'Αβρααμ ταύτα λί4 ώει τα Κυρίε τε εαυ]8.
As for that
pen-man of this Psalm ; the objection
title speaks as much, which is, * A Psalm of David : from whence it folby halben Ezra
, loweth that the prediction did not belong to him, because 'twas spoken to that it is not his Lord. Nor could it indeed belong to any of the rest which the Jews the vocalement imagine, because neither Abraham nor Ezechias, nor + Zorobabel could be penned for and the Lord of David, much less the People of Israel (to whom fome of the in the Honour Jews referred it) who were not the Lords but the Subjects of that David. of David, be
Besides, he which is said to sit at the right hand of God, is also said to be a cause the Title is priest for ever after the order of Melchifedech : but neither Abraham, nor 27 name a Ezechias, nor any which the Jews have mentioned was ever any # priest Psalm for Da- of God. Again our Saviour urged this Scripture against the Pharisees, sayvid, not oning, What think ye of Christ? whose fon is he? they say unto him, The for by no means
of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him to be admit- Lord, saying, the Lord said unto my Lord, fit thou on my right hand till ted, because I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him Lord, how is he only very well his Son? and no man was able to answer him a word. From whence ’tis Signifie a psalm evident that the Jews of old, even the Pharisees, the most accurate and skilvid, but if it ful amongst them, did interpret the Psalm of the Mesias ; for if they had do nor, there conceived the prophecy belonged either to Abraham, or David, or any
of the rest since mentioned by the Jews, they might very well, and questionwhich hews any Psalm to less would have answered our Saviour, that this belonged not to the Son of be his, and David. It was therefore the general Opinion of the Church of the Jews some of them we are sure
before our Saviour, and of divers * Rabbins fince his death, that this predi
&tion did concern the kingdom of Christ. And thus the Session of the Mer Luke 20:42. fias at the right hand of God, was not only represented typically, but foreMol
, Zoe95e- told prophetically: which is our first consideration. βελ, ΚύρμGτυ Δαβίδ ; και πώς αν έχει λόfoν, ός και αυτος αντί μεγάλης τιμής κέκλη 25; s. Chryfoft. This is the Argument which the Fathers used against the Jews; as Justin Martyr, in opposition to their pretence of Ezechias, 'leçous 3 öze śre yílove 'EÇekices, öre isis air a 'leçous rõ 017, š vuris vette, toruńcsle. Dial. cum Tryphone ; and from him Tertullian. Quod & in ipfo hic accedit, Tu es Sacerdos in avum. Nec facerdos autem Ezechias, nec in ævum, etfi fuisset. Secundùm Ordinem, inquit, Melchifedech. Quid Ezechias ad Melchisedech Altissimi facerdotem, & quidem non circumcisum ? Adv. Marcion, 1. 5. c. 9. and so S. Chryfoftom in the words before mentioned.
* As in the Midrash Tilliin, . 18. "": in the Name of Rabbi Chama said that in the time to come God Mall place Messias the King at his right hand, as it is wristen (Pfal. 110. 1.), The Lord said unto my Lord, fit thou at 1; right hand. So Moses Haddarsan on Gen. 18. Hereafter God holy and blessed shall set the King Messias 1725 on his right hand, as it is written (Psal. 110.) The Lord said, or.
is no Title
Secondly, We affirm that our Jesus, whom we worship as the true Messias, according unto that particular Prediction, when he ascended up on high, did
sit down at the right Hand of God. His Ascension was the Way to his Sef-
. Therefore let all the house of Israel know af
This was an Honour never given, never promised to any Man but the Messias : the glorious Spirits stand about the Throne of God, but never any of them sat down at the Right Hand of God. For to whom of his Angels Heb. 1, 13. said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. But Christ was fo assured of this Honour, that before the Council of the Chief Priests and the Elders of the People, when he foresaw his Death contrived, and his Cross prepared, even then he expressed the Confidence of his Expectation, saying, Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the Luke 22. 69. right hand of the power of God. And thus our Jesus, whom we worship as the true promised Messias, is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of 1.Pet. 3. 22. God. Which was our second Consideration.
Our next Enquiry is, What may be the utmost Importance of that Phrase, and how it is applicable unto Chrift. The Phrase consists of two Parts, and both to be taken metaphorically: First therefore, we must consider what is the right hand of God, in the Language of the Scriptures ; Secondly, what it is to sit down at that Right Hand. God being a Spirit can have no material or corporeal Parts ; and consequently as he hath no Body, so in a proper Sense can have no * Hands at all : but because God is pleased to descend to *Credimus eour Capacity ; and not only to speak by the Mouths of Men, but also, af- fedet ad dexter the manner of Men, he expresseth that which is in him by some Analo- teram Dei gy
with that which belongs to us. The Hands of Man are those Organical Patris. Nec Parts which are most 7 active, and executive of our Power; by those the
quafi humana Strength of our Body is expressed, and most of our Natural and Artificial fo mâ virActions are performed by them. From whence the Power of God, and the cum fcriptuin Exertion or Execution of that Power is signified by the Hand of God. Patrem a: biMoreover being by a general Custom of the World the Right Hand is more
trandum est, used than the Left, and by that general Use acquireth a greater Firmitude and Strength; therefore the right hand of God fignifieth the exceeding great dextrum aut and infinite Power of God.
finiftruin la. tus animo
occurrat. S. Aug. de Fide & Symb. † Succedunt brachia & validi lacertorum tori, validæ ad opcrandum manus, & proceribus digitis habiles ad tenendum: Hinc aptior usus operandi, hinc fcribendi elegantia, & ille calamus scribæ velociter fcribentis, quo divinæ vocis exprimuntur oracula. Manus eft quæ cibum ori ministrat; manus est quæ præclaris enitet factis, quæ conciliatrix divinæ gratiæ facris infertur altaribus, per quam offerimus & suinimus sacramenta, cælettia. Manus eit quæ operatur pariter atque dispensat divina myfteria, cujus vocabulo non dedignatus est se Dei Filius declarari, dicente David, Dextra Domini exaltavit me. Manus est quæ fecit omnia, ficut dixit Deus omnipotens, Nonne manus mea fecit hæc? S. Ambrof. Hexain. 1.6. c.9.
ut de illo cogitantibus
Again, Because the most honourable Place amongst Men is the Right Hand, (as when Bathsheba went unto King Solomon; he sat down on his throne, and i King. 2. 13. caused a seat to be set for the King's mother, and she sat on his right hand) therefore the right hand of God signifies the glorious Majesty of God.
Thirdly, Because the Gifts of Men are given and received by the Hands of Men, and every perfect Gift comes from the Father of Lights, therefore » the right hand of God is the Place of Celestial Happiness and Perfect Felicity ;
Pjäl. 16. 11. according to that of the Psalmist, In thy presence is fulness of joy, at
thy riglt hand pleafiires for evermore.
Now as to the first Acception of the right hand of God, Christ is said to fit
down at the right hand of the Father in regard of that absolute Power and Mat. 27.04. Dominion which he hath obtained in Heaven; from whence it is exprellly Aiark 14. (2. faid, Hereafter ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of Power
. Luke 22. 69.
As to the second Acception, Christ is faid to sit on the right hand of God
in regard of that * Honour, Glory, and Majesty which he hath obtained * Secundùm
there; wherefore it is said, a When he had by himself purged our sins, he nem nofiram sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high : and again, We have offertur qui
an High-priest who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in aliquo opere the heavens. perfecto honoris gratiâ promeretur ut fedeat. Ita ergo & homo Jesus Christus passione suâ diabolum fuperans, resurrectione fua inferna referans, tanquam perfecto opere ad cælos victor adveniens, audit à Deo Patre, Sede ad dextram meam. Max. Taurin. Hom. I. de Pentecofie.
a Heb. I.
b Heb. 8. I.
In reference to the third Acception, Christ is said to sit on the right hand * Ad dextram of God, because now after the Labours and Sorrows of this World, after his dum est in Stripes and Bufferings, after a painful and shameful Death, he restech above ctum else in in unspeakable Joy, and everlasting * Felicity. fumına beatudine, ubi justitia & pax & gaudium est. S. Aug. de Fide e Symb. Quid eft Patris dextera, nisi illa æterna ineffabilifque felicitas quo pervenit Filius hominis, etiam carnis immortalitate perceptâ ? Idem. contra Serm. Arian. Beatus eit à beatudine, quæ dextera Patris vocatur ; ipfius beatitudinis nomen est dextera Patris. De Symb. ad Catech. Salus temporalis & carnalis in sinistra est, falus æterna cum Angelis in dextra eft. Ideo jam in ipfa immortalitate pofitus Christus dicitur sedere ad dextram Dei. Non enim Deus habet in seipso dextram aut finiftram ; fed dextra Dei dicitur felicitas illa, quæ quoniam oftendi non poteft, tale nomen accepit. S. Aug. in Pfal. 137.
As for the other part of the Phrase, that is, his Session, we must not look upon it as determining any Posture of his Body in the Heavens, correspondent to the Inclination and Curvation of our Limbs: for we read in the Scriptures a
more general term which signifies only his being in Heaven, without any exRom. 8. 34. pression of the particular manner of his Presence. So S. Paul, who is even at 1 Pet. 3. 22. the right hand of God; and S. Peter, Who is gone into heaven, and is at the
right hand of God. Beside, we find him expressed in another position than that of Session : for Stephen looking stedfastly into heaven, saw the glory of God, and Jefus ftanding on the right hand of God: And said, Behold, I fee the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God. He appeared standing unto Stephen, whom we express sitting in our Creed;
but this is rather a difference of the Occasion, than a diversity of Position. He * 'Ezed to di- appeared * standing to Stephen, as ready to assist him, as ready to plead for tāv uztia bim, as ready to receive him: and he is oftner expressed sitting, not for any Tois w, riws positional Variation, but for the variety of his Effect, and Operation.
nei şi dva sériwg xinh -71, mencin w tevisaat. S. Chryfoft. Hom. 18. in Acta. Si major gratia & manifestatior intelligentia in Novo est quam in Veteri Testamento, quare Esaias Propheta sedentem in throno Majestatis vidit Deum Sabbaoth, in novo autem Stephanus primus Martyr ftantem se vidisse ait Jesum à dextris Dei? Quid est illud, ut hic subjectus videatur poit triumphos, & illic quafi Dominus antequam vinceret ? Prout causa erat feciffe, ita & Dominus fe oftendit. Prophetæ enim vifus eft quafi rex corripiens plebem, & hoc fe oftendit quod erat, hoc eft, fedentem, in pace enim erat causâ divinitatis ejus. Stephano autem ut ftans appareret fecit calunnia Judæorum. In Stephano autem Salvatoris causa vim patiebatur. Ideo sedente Judice Deo stans apparuit, quafi qui caufam diceret ; & quia bona caufa ejus eft, ad dextram Judicis erat ; Omnis qui causam dicit, ftet neceffe eft. s. Aug. Quaft. in Novo Test. 88. Sedere judicantis est, ftare verò pugnantis vel adjuvantis. Stephanus ergo in labore certaminis pofitus, ftantem videt quem adjutorem habuit. Sed hunc poft afcenfionem Marcus sedere fcribit, quia poft afcenfionis fuæ gloriam Judex in fine videbitur. Greg. Hom.29. in Evang. Maxim. Taurin. de Pentec. Hom. I. moves the Question. Quæ fit ratio quod idem Dominus à David sedens prophetatur, ftans verò à Stephano prædicatur ? and then renders this Reason, Ut modò ejus omnipotentia, modò misericordia describatur. Nam utique pro'poteftate regis federe dicitur, pro bonitate intercerforis ftare fuggeritur. Ait enim beatus Apoftolus, quia Advocatum habemus apud Patrem Jesuni Chriftum. Judex est igitur Christus cùm residet: Advocatus cùm assurgit. Judex planè Judæis, Advocatus Christianis. Hic enim ftans apud Patrein Christianorum licèt peccantium causas exorat; ibi refidet cum Patre Pharifæorum persequentiun peccata condemnans. Illis indignans vehementer ulciscitur ; his interveniens leniter miferetur. Hic Itat ut suscipiat Stephani Martyris fpiritum ; ibi residet ut condemnet Judæ proditoris admillum.
This Phrase then to fit, prescinding from the corporal posture of Session, may signifie no more than habitation, possession, permanfion, and continu- * qu' which ance; as the same word in the * Hebrew and Greek Languages often signi- properly signifies. And thus our Saviour is set down at the right hand of God in Heaven; fiech to fit, is because he which dwelt with us before on Earth, is now ascended up into used for perHeaven ; and hath tåken his mansion or habitation there; and so hath he mansit
habitavit; as seated himself, and dwelleth in the highest Heavens.
Judges 5. 17. Jan LXX. 'Acne crédits agrico I&Aca@v, Alher continued on the Sea-shore, Lev. 8. 33. nya nae ning an nyou n95_n 12η Και επί τ' θύραν η σκηνής τη μαρτυρία καθήσεθε επήα ημέρας, ημέρας και νύκλα. Therefore thall ye abide at the door of the Tabernacle of the Congregation, day and night, seven days. Upon which place S. Aug. Quid est quod dicit Moyses ad Aaron & filios ejus cùm fanctificantur ad ineundum sacerdotium ? Ad ostium tabernaculi teftimonii sedebitis septem dies, die « nocte, ne moriamini. Numquid nam credibile est situ corporis uno loco sedere præceptos per dies feptem die & nocte, unde se omninò non commoverent? Nec tamen hic tanquam allegoricè aliquid fignificatum, quod non fieret, cogendi sumus acccipere, fed potiùs agnoscere locutionem Scripturarum, ubi Sessionem pro habitatione & commoratione pofuit. Non enim quia dictum est de Semei, quòd sederet in Hierusalem annos tres, ideo putandum est per totum illud tempus in fella fediffe & non furrexisse. Hinc & fedes dicuntur ubi habent commorationem quorum sedes sunt; habitatio quippe hoc nomen accepit. Quæst. Super Levit. 24. And this is as familiar with the Latins as the Hebrews. Si venti eflent, nos hîc Corcyrx non federemus. Cic. l. 9. Epift. Id horreum fuit præsidium Pænis sedentibus ad Tribiam. Liv. l. 2. de Bell. Pani Sedet ad dextram Patris, Credite sedere, intelligite habitare.; quomodo dicimus de quocunque homine, in ifta patria fedit per tres annos. Dicit illud & Scriptura sedisse quondam in civitate tantum tempus. Numquid fedit, & numquam surrexit? Ideo hominum habitationes sedes dicuntur. Ubi habitantyr fedes, numquid semper sedetur, non surgitur, non ambulatur ? Et tamen sedes vocantur. Sic ergo credite habitare Christum in dextera Dei Patris ubi eft. Author. lib. de Symb. ad Catech.
Heb. II. 2.
Again, the notion of sitting implieth rest, quietness, and indisturbance ; according to that promise in the Prophet, They shall fit every man under his Mic. 4. 4. fig-tree, and none shall make them afraid. So Christ is ascended into Heaven, where resting from all pains and forrows, he is seated free from all disturbance and opposition; God having placed him at his right hand, until he hath made his Enemies his Footstool.
Thirdly, This sitting implieth yet more than quietness or continuance, *Ipsum vereven * Dominion, Sovereignty, and Majesty; as when Solomon fat in the regni fignifiThrone of his Father, he reigned over Ifrael after the death of his Father. cat poteltaAnd thus Christ is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. And tem. S. Hier. S. Paul did well interpret those words of the Prophet, Sit thou on my right Eph. c.I.v. band, until I make thine enemies thy footstool, saying, he must reign till be 19 hath put all enemies under his feet.
Psal. 110. 1. Fourthly, This sitting doth yet more properly and partictilarly imply the 1 Cor. 15. 25. right of Judicature, and so especially expresseth, a King that sitteth in the Prov. 20.8. throne of Judgment; as it is written, in mercy Mall the Throne be establish- isa. 16. 5. ed, and he shall sit upon it in truth, in the tabernacle of David, judging and
7 Sedere quòd seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness. And so Christ * sitting at the dicitur Deus right hand of God is manifested and declared to be the great Judge of the quick non membroand the dead. Thus to sit doth not signifie any peculiar inclination or flexion, riem, Ted juany determinate location or position of the Body, but to be in Heaven with diciariam figpermanence of Habitation, happiness of Condition, regular and judiciary latem, quia Power ; as in other † Authors such significations are usual.
nunquam caret, femper digna dignis tribuendo, quamvis in extremo judicio multò manifestius inter homines Unigeniti Dei Filii Judicis vivorum & mortuorum clariùs indubitata effulgebit. S. Auguft. de Fide e Symb. cap. 7. Hoc quod dicitur Filius sedere ad dextram Patris, demonftratur quod ipse homo, quem suscepit Christus, poteftatem acceperit Judicantis. Author. l. 3. de Symb. ad Catechum. † Most anciently federe did søgnifie no more than esse, to be in any place; as Servius notesh on that place of Virgil, Æneid. 9.
Luco tum fortè parentis
Piluinni Turnus facratâ valle sedebat. Sedebat, ut Asper dicit, erat. Quæ clausula antiqua eft, & de usu remota. And then he goes on to shew that sedere is taken for that which men were wont to do sitting. Secundùm Plautum autem sedere est confilium capere, qui inducit in Moftellaria fervum dicentem, Sine juxta aram sedeam e dabo meliora consilia. Sed secundum Augures sedere eft augurium captare : Namque poft defignatas cæli patres à fedentibus captabantur auguria. Quod & fupra ipfe oftendit latenter, inducens Picum folum sedentem, ut,
Rev. 5. 12.
2 Sam. 7. 16.
· The importance of the language being thus far improved, at last we find the substance of the Doctrine, which is, that sitting at the right hand of God was our Mediator’s folemn entry upon his regal Office, as to the Execution of that full Dominion which was due unto him. For worthy is the Lamb that was sain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and
honour, and glory, and blessing. Wherefore Christ after his Death and ReMat. 28.11. furrection faith, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. For phil. 2 8, 9, because he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death
of the cross, therefore God hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name ; That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth. And this obedience and submission was and is due unto him, because God raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principalities and powers, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named not only in this world, but also in that which is to come ; and hath put all things under his feet; and gave him to be the head over all things to the Church.
There was an express promise made by God to David, Thine house and thy Kingdom Mall be established for ever before thee, thy throne shall be esta
blished for ever. This promise strictly and literally taken was but conditioPsal. 132. 12. nal: and the Condition of the promise is elsewhere expressed, Of the fruit of
thy body will I set upon thy throne. If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children also shall
sit upon thy throne for evermore. Notwithstanding this promise this Kingdom of David was intercepted, nor was his Family continued in the Throne: part of the Kingdom was first rent from his Posterity, next the Regality it self; and when it was restored, translated to another Family: and yet we cannot say the promise was not made good, but only ceased in the obligation of a Promise, because the condition was not performed. The posterity of David did not keep the Covenant and Testimony of their God, and therefore the Throne of David was not by an uninterrupted lineal Succession established to Perpetuity.
But yet in a larger and better Sense, after these intercisions, the Throne of David was continued. When they had sinned, and lost their Right unto the Crown, the Kingdom was to be given unto him who never sinned, and consequently, could never lose it; and he being of the Seed of David, in him the Throne of David was without Interception or Succession continued. Of him did the Angel Gabriel speak at his Conception, The Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his Kingdom there shall be no end. Thus the Throne of Christ is called the Throne of David, because it was promised unto David, and because the Kingdom of David was a type, resemblance,
•and representation of it ; insomuch that Christ himself in respect of this ; Jer. 30.9. Kingdom is a often called David, as particularly in that Promise, I will set Ezek . 37.24, up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant
David; he shalt feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. And I Ezek. 34.23, the Lord will be their God, and my servant David a Prince among 1 Sam. 16. 13.
Now as David was not only first designed, but also anointed King over Ifrael, and yet had no possession of the Crown; seven years he continued
anointed by Samuel, and had no thare in the Dominion ; seven years after he 2 Sam. 2. 4. continued anointed in Hebron only King over the Tribe of Judah ; at last he
was received by all the Tribes, and so obtained full and absolute regal Power over all Ifrael, and feared himself in the royal City of Jerusalem : So Christ was born King of the Jews, and the conjunction of his human Nature with his Divine in the Union of his Person was a sufficient Unction to his regal