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are simply such must be contained formally, and all others which imply any mixture of imperfection, virtually.
But were no arguments brought from the infinite perfections of the divine nature able to convince us, yet were the consideration of his supreme Domi
nion sufficient to perfuade us. The will of God is infinitely free, and by that • Dan. 4. 35. freedom doth he govern and dispose of all things. He doth according to his
will in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth, said Nebuchadnezzar out of his experience; and S. Paul expresseth him as working all things after the council of his own will. If then there were more supreme Governours of the world than one, each of them absolute and free, they might have contrary determinations concerning the same thing, than which nothing can be more prejudicial unto Government. God is a
God of order, not confusion; and therefore of unity, not admitting multi* te luze x plication. If it be better that the * Universe should be governed by one than Bórum soll many, we may be assured that it is so, because nothing must be conceived of Toucas xqxas God but what is best. He therefore who made all things, by that right is Cúr á labor Wonvroigavin, Lord of all, and because all + power is his, he alone ruleth over all. eis xoiçara, Now God is not only One, but hath an Unity # peculiar to himself by Arift. Metaph.
ml" which he is the Only God; and that not only by way of actual + Unus omni- so of possibility. Every individual man is one, but to as there is a second um Dominus and a third, and consequently every one is part of a number, and coneft Deus: ne-a que enim illa curring to a multitude. The Sun indeed is one; so as there is neither third sublimitas po- nor second Sun, at least within the fame Vortex: but though there be not, test habere confortem. yet there might have been ; neither in the unity of the Solar nature is there cùm sola om- any repugnancy to plurality; for that God which made this world, and nem teneat in this the Sun to rule the day, might have made another world by the poteftatem. 5. Cypr. de 1- fame fecundity of his Omnipotency, and another Sun to rule in that. Wheredol. Vanit... as in the Divine Nature there is an intrinfecal and essential singularity, be29 cause no other Being can have any existence but from that; and whatso
INI ever essence hath its existence from another is not God. b I am the Lord, 2257 Duwa y unr faith he, and there is none else, there is no God besides me : that they may A nne know from the rising of the Sun, and from the West, that there is none
na besides me, I am the Lord, and there is none else. He who hath infinite Oanna knowledge knoweth no other God beside himself. “Is there a God besides
5 asiy2 me? yea there is no God, I know not any. And we who believe in him, m ind and desire to enjoy him, need for that end to know no other God but him:
72134 For this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God: ::-260* as certainly One as God. ohiya inin ang pinapaw ang nap ipbros para N1.7W 9133 God is one, not two, or more than two, but only One : 'whose Unity is not like to that of the Individuals of this world, neither is he one by way of Specics comprehending many individuals, neither one in the manner of a Body which is divisible into parts and extremes : but he is so one, as no Unity like his is to be found in the world. Moses Maim. de Fundam, Legis. Quod autem diximus, Orientis Ecclefias tradere unuin Patrem Omnipotentem, & unum Dominum, hoc modo intelligendum eft, unum non numero dici, fed universitate: verbi gratiâ, fi quis dicat unum hominem, aut unum equum, hic unum pro nuinero pofuit, poteft enim & alius homo effe, & tertius, vel equus. Ubi autem fecundus & tertius non poteft jungi, unus fi dicatur, non numeri, fed universitatis eft nomen. Ut fi exempli causà dicamus unum Solem, hic unus ità dicitur ut alius vel tertius addi non poffit; multò magis Deus cùm unus dicitur, unus non numeri, fed universitatis vocabulo nuncupatur, id est, qui propterea unus dicatur, quòd alius non fit. Ruffin, in Symb. bifa. 45. 5, 6. Deut. 4.35. and 32. 39. Pfal. 18.31. c Ifai. 45. 18, 21, 22. and 44. 8. d John 17. 3. * Veritas Christiana districtè pronunciavit, Deus fi non unus est, non est; quia dignius crediinus non efle, quodcunque non ità fuerit ut esse debebit. Tertul, adv. Marcion. l. 1. 6.2. Deus cùm summum magnum sit rectè veritas nostra pronunciavit, Deus fi non unus est, non est. Non quafi dubitemus effe Deum, dicendo, fi non unus, non eft Deus; fed quia, quem confidimus esse, idem definiamus esse, quod fi non eft Deus, non eft, fummum scilicet magnum. Porro fummum magnum, unicum fit neceffe eft, ergo & Deus unicus erit non aliter Deus nil summum magnum, nec aliter summum magnum nifi parem non habens, nec aliter parem non habens nisi unicus fuerit. ibid,
It is necessary thus to believe the Unity of the Godhead, that being assured there is a nature worthy of our devotions, and challenging our religious fub
jection, we may learn to know whose that nature is to which we owe our adorations, lest our minds should wander and fluctuate in our worship about various and uncertain objects. If we thould apprehend more Gods than one, I know not what could determinate us in any instant to the actual adoration of any one: for where no difference doth appear, (as, if there were many, and all by nature Gods, there could be none) what inclination could we have, what reason could we imagine, to prefer or elect any one before the rest for the object of our devotions ? Thus is it necessary to believe the Unity of God in respect of us who are obliged to worship him.
Secondly, It is necessary to believe the Unity of God in respect of him who is to be worshipped. Without this acknowledgment we cannot give unto God the things which are God's, it being part of the worship and honour due unto God, to accept of no compartner with him. When the Law was given, in the observance whereof the Religion of the Israelites consisted, the first precept was this prohibition, Thou Malt have no other gods before me ; and who-Exod. 20. 3. soever violateth this, denieth the foundation on which all the rest depend, as the * Jews observe. This is the true reason of that strict precept by which all * Moses Maiare commanded to give divine worship to God only, a Thou shalt worship the mon. de Fund.
legis c. 3. Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve ; because he alone is God : : Mair.'4. 10. him only shalt thou fear, because he alone hath infinite power ; in him only shalt thou trust, because he only is our rock and our salvation ; to him a- Psal. 62. 2. lone shalt thou direct thy devotions, because he only knoweth the hearts of 2 Chron. 6.20. the children of men. Upon this foundation the whole heart of man is intirely required of him, and engaged to him. Hear, o Ifrael, the Lordour Deut. 6.4.5 God is one God: And (or rather, Therefore) thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. Whosoever were truly and by nature God, could not chuse but challenge our love upon the ground of an infinite excellency, and transcendent beauty of holiness; and therefore if there were more Gods than one, our love must necessarily be terminated unto more than one, and consequently divided be-t Nametus tween them; and as our love, so also the proper effect thereof, our chearful divinitatis:
un summâ ratioand ready obedience, which, like the Child propounded to the judgment of So- ne contare Lomon, as soon as ʼtis divided, is destroyed, b No man can serve two masters: deberet, vel for either he will hate the one, and love the other : or else he will hold to any
TO cultura ejus the one and despise the other.
in anceps :
deduceretur. Ecce enim duos intuens Deos tàm pares quàm duo fumma magna, quid facerem fi ambos colerem? vererer ne abundantia officii superstitio potiùs quàm religio crederetur : quia duos tam pares & in altero ambos possem in uno demereri: hoc ipfo testiinonium præftans parilitati & unitati eorum, dum alterum in altero venerarer, dum in uno mihi duo sunt. Tertul. adv. Marcion. l. 1. c. 5. b Matth.6.24.
Having thus described the first notion of a God, having demonstrated the Existence and Vnity of that God, and having in these three particulars comprised all which can be contained in this part of the Article, we may now clearly deliver, and every particular Christian understand, whať · it is he says when he makes his Confesion in these words, I believe in God; which in correspondence with the precedent discourse may be thus expressed :
Forasmuch as by all things created is made known the eternal power and Godhead, and the dependency of all limited Beings infers an infinite and independent essence; whereas all things are for some end, and all their operations directed to it, although they cannot apprehend that end for which they are, and in prosecution of which they work, and therefore must be guided by some universal and over-ruling wisdom; being this collection is so evident, that all the Nations of the Earth have made it ; being God hath not only written himself in the lively characters of his Creatures, but hath also made frequent patefections of his Deity by most infallible Predictions and super
natural operations; therefore I fully assent unto, freely acknowledge, and clearly profess this truth, that there is a God.
Again, being a prime and independent Being, fupposeth all other to depend, and confequently no other to be God; being the intire fountain of all perfections is capable of a double Head, and the most perfect government of the Univerle speaks the suprenie dominion of one absolute Lord; hence do I acknowledge that God to be bút one, and in this Unity, or rather singularity of the Godhead, excluding all actual or possible multiplication of a Deity, I believe in God.
J believe in God the Father. ' Fter the Confession of a Deity, and Assertion of the Divine Vnity, tiph. 1.6. A the next Consideration is concerning God's Paternity ; for that one 1 Cor. 8. 6. God is Father of all, and to us there is but one God, the Father.
Now, although the Christian notion of the divine Paternity be * Omnem way peculiar to the Evangelical Patefaction; yet * wherefoever God hath Deum qui ab hd homine oli been, 'acknowledged, he hath been understood and worshipped as a Fatur neceffe eft ther: the very Heathen † Poets so describe, their Gods, and their vulinter solennes gar names did carry father † in them, as the most popular and universal ritus & preca
ones Patrem notion.
nuncupari; non tantum honoris gratiâ, sed. & rationis, & quòd antiquior est homine, & quod vitam, falutem, victuin præstat ut pater. Itaque & Jupiter à precantibus Pater vocatur, & Saturnus, & Janus, & Liber, & cæteri deinceps. Lactan. de ver. Sap. I. 4. c. 3. f That so frequent in Homer, walnię ovdzūv TE JEWY TE · eundemque appellans dicit Ennius, Divúmque hominúmque pater rex. Ver. de L. L. l. 4. As Servius observes of Virgil, à Poeta penè omnibus Diis nomen Paternum additur, ut fiant venerabiliores: And before him Lucilius,
# As Jupiter, which is Jovis Pater, or Zoumátus, otherwise Diespater, or Aüsátwe. and Marspiter, of whom Servius apud Pontifices Marspiter dicitur, Æneid. l. 3. So Semipater for Semo, and Lugoom útwę for Sardus, the proper Deity of Sardinia, Ptolem.
This name of Father is a relative ; and the proper foundation of Paternity, as of a Relation, is Generation. As therefore th ting is diversy attributed unto several acts of the fame nature with Generation properly taken, or by consequence attending on it : fo the title of Fa
ther is given unto divers persons or things, and for several reasons unto the Gen. 2.4. fame God. These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they
were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, faith Mofes. So that the creation or production of any thing by which
it is, and before was not, is a kind of generation, and consequently t Job 38. 28. Creator or Producer of it a kind of Father. Hath the rain a Father? or
who hath begotten the drops of dew? By which words Job fignifies, that as
there is no other cause assignable of the Rain but God, fo may he as the * 'Etiqasyaş cause be called the Father of it, though not in the most proper sense, * as TIF DERS war he is the Father of his Son: and fo the Philosophers of old, who thought. τερα Θεόν αxbet, x' érégas that God did make the World, called him expressly, as the Maker, so the 48, Severus in Father of it. And thus a to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are
Plutarch of all things; to which the words following in the Creed may seem to have rePlato, calling lation, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth. But in this mass of God wa7eca Creatures and body of the Universe, fome works of the Creation more proTento my 201876," says, perly call himn Father as being more rightly fons: such are all the rational z me atoom and intellectual off-spring of the Deity. Of merely natural Beings and irraXe w miejscu, i su se otwbs. I aitiov ax76 cc toð vórux xixanxe. Platon. Quaft. And Alcimus, galinę dé, ési tas ciri@eivou wáv?ww.
* I Cor. 8.6.
tional agents he is * the Creator of rational, as fo, the Father also; they * So Plutarch are his Creatures, these his Sons. Hence he is stiled the a Father of Spi- scout
? answers the rits, and the blessed Angels, when he laid the foundations of the Earth, Flato terms his Sons ; 6 When the morning stars fang together, and all the fons of God the Maker
and Father of God houted for joy : hence Man, whom he created after his own image, is all chineseem called his off-Spring; and Adam, the immediate work of his hands, the ha partir Son of God: hence may we all cry out with the Israelites taught by the Fontov s *
ανθρώπων παProphet so to speak; e Have we not all one Father? hath not one God the iso: xoircreated us ? Thus the first and most universal Notion of God's Paternity im tas 5 aas
your citya borrowed or metaphorical sense is founded rather upon Creation than our Father Procreation.
of Gods and
: men, Maker of all things inanimate and irrational. Ou gS xoeio Onos reúoitto moléc, xácias a Segórice to arreux, xaltie in Tģ atrignatu gelovóra. Non eniin agri pater, fi Chryfippo credimus, is dicitur qui eum consevit, quanquain è semine deinde fruges nascantur ; as the Latin Translation most absurdly. For there is neither corn, nor any field, nor feed belonging to them in the words of Plutarch. But zóesov (not xwesov) is the Secunda, the coat (or rather coats in the acception of Chryfippus, and the language of those times) in which the Fætus is involved in the mother's womb. Though therefore both the Secunda and the Fetus be made of the feed of the male in the Philofoptiy of Chryfippus, yet he is not called the Father of the after-birth, but of the child; the one being endued with life and reason; and the other not. a Heb. 12. 9. 6 Job 38. 7. • Acts 17. 28. d Luke 3. 38. e Malac. 2. 10.
Unto this act of Creation is annexed that of Conservation, by which God doth uphold and preserve in being that which at first he made, and to which he gave its Being. As therefore it is the Duty of the Parent to educate and preferve the Child, as that which had its Being from him; so this paternal education doth give the name of * Father unto Man, and Conservation gives *So Eustathius
observes out of the same to God.
an ingenious Again, Redemption from a state of misery, by which a people hath become Etymologift : worse than nothing, unto a happy condition, is a kind of Generation, which leláę osos:
k, c và xây joined with love, care, and indulgence in the Redeemer, is sufficient to found mom a new Paternity, and give him another title of a Father. Well might Mofes na j ais os's
ir taida; trgar. tell the people of Ifrael, now brought out of the land of Egypt from their brick and straw, unto their Quails and Manna, unto their Milk and Honey, “. a is not be thy Father that hath bought thee? hath he not made thee, and Deut. 32.6: established thee? Well might God speak unto the same people as to b his b Exod. 4.22. Šon, even his first-born, c Thus faith the Lord thy Redeemer; and he that ca. 11. 24 formed thee from the womb; Hearken untome, O house of Jacob, and all the 46. 3. remnant of the house of Israel, which are born by me from the belly, which are carried from the womb. And just is the acknowledgement made by that people instructed by the Prophet, . Doubtless thou art our Father, d Ifa. 63. 16. though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Ifrael acknowledge uś not ; thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer, from everlasting is thy Name. And thus another kind of paternal Relation of God unto the fons of men is founded on a Restitution or temporal Redemption.
Besides, if to be born causeth Relation to a Father, then to be born again maketh an addition of another: and if to generate founderh, then to regenerate addeth a Paternity. Now though we cannot enter the second time into our mother's womb, nor pass through the same door into the Scene of Life again; yet we believe and are persuaded, that e except a man be born again, o John . 3: he cannot see the Kingdom of God. A double birth there is, and the world | Totum hoconsists of two, the first and the second man. And though the incorruptible minum genus seed be the Word of God, and the dispensers of it in some sense may say, as do funt hoSt. Paul spake unto the Corinthians, * I have begotten you through the Go-inines duo spel: yet he is the true Father, whose Word it is, and that is God, even s the primu Father of lights, who of his own will begat us with the word of truth. Prop.. Thush whosoever believeth that Jefus is the Christ, is born of God; which Cor. 4. 15.
"! Jam. 1. 17, . Regeneration is as it were a second Creation : ' for we are God's workman- is." Jhip, created in Christ Jesus unto good works. And he alone who did create h 1. John 5.1.
rah primus & fe
us out of nothing, can beget us again, and make us of the new Creation. When à Gen. 30.1,2. Rachel called to Jacob, - Give me Children, or else I die; he answered her
fufficiently with this question, Am I in God's stead? And if he only openeth Ou gS &17: the womb, who else can make the * Soul to bear ? Hence hath he the name Ots byó cipes of Father, and they of Sons who are born of him; and so from that intero bra nal act of spiritual Regeneration another title of paternity redoundeth unto
xüv peétages the Divinity. alvorfozwas, a Nor is this the only second Birth or fole Regeneration in a Christian sense; weizery do cia The the Soul, which after its natural Being requires a birth into the life of Grace, Foley éyxúxo- is also after that born again into a life of Glory. Our Saviour puts us in vacs og Tix loves mind of the Regeneration, b when the Son of man shall fit in the throne of τα καλα. Philo de Alleg. his glory. The Resurrection of our Bodies is a kind of coming out of the • Matt.19.28. womb of the earth, and entring upon immortality, a natiyity into another Ć Luke 20.35, 36.
0.35life. For they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and à Rom. 8. 17. the resurrection from the dead, are the fons of God, being the fons of the
Col. 3:24. resurrection; and then as fons, d they become heirs, co-beirs with Christ, ere. Heb.9. 15. + 1 John 3.2. ceiving the promise and reward of eternal inheritance. | Beloved, now we rej štw iPavo- are the fons of God, faith S. John, even in this life by Regeneration, and it
doth not yet appear, or, it hath not been yet made manifest, what we shall be; but we know, that if he appear, we shall be like him : the manifestation
of the Father being a sufficient declaration of the condition of the Sons, when f 1 Pet. 1.3, 4. the Sonship it self consistech in a similitude of the Father. And blesed be
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead ; to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for us. Why may not then a second kind of Regeneration be thought a fit addition of this paternal relation?
Neither is there only a natural, but also a voluntary and civil foundation
of Paternity ; for the Laws have found a way by which a man may be| Caii Inft. 1. come a Father without procreation : and this imitation of Nature is cal
S.I..led Adoption, taken in the general * signification. Although therefore maAdoptio naturæ fimilitu- ny ways God be a Father, yet lest any way might seem to exclude us from do est, ut ali- being his Sons, he hath made us fo also by Adoption. Others are wont quis filium habere poffit, to fly to this, as to a comfort of their solitary condition, when either quem non t Nature hath denied them, or death bereft them of their off-spring. generavit. Whereas God doth it not for his own, but for our fakes ; nor is the adแ โรเy teetcia; "vomisen vantage his, but ours. & Behold what manner of Love the Father hath
· bestowed upon us, that we mould be called the fans of God; that we, resting to púrry
the sons of disobedient and condemned Adam by natural generation, should προς παίδων
La pubí av be translated into the glorious liberty of the fons of God by Adoption ; stiveron pfung that we, who were aliens, strangers and enemies, should be assumed - una Theoph. inft. 1.7. 12."9" to the Father of our Lord Jefus Christ, on whom all the * family of hea* 'H yolecic ven and earth is named, and be made partakers of i the riches of the glory of
Papaixa com his inheritance in the Saints. For as in the legal Adoption, the Father hach võ Air:) δοποίων αύτη
as + full and absolute power over his adopted son as over his own issue ; so in son guizonthe spiritual, the adopted fons have a clear and undoubted right of inheriovona eis dów dicação), cis degvalóve, vej 7 opóvupov edowlsóvo. Theoph. ibid. † Caii Inft. 2. tit, 5.9. 4. Spadones autem qui generare non poffunt, adoptare poffunt; & licet filios generare non possint, quos adoptaverunt filios habere possunt, Ulp. tit. $ 6. Hi qui generare non possunt, velut spado, utroque inodo possunt adoptare. Idem juris eft in cælebe. Theoph. tit. ΙΙ. τυχόν εκ έχoι τις ταΐδας Δια το μη ελθών επί γάμων, ή ελεϊν , μη παιδοποιήσαι 3, και παιδοποιήσαι , λιβάλλει και Tøros, tò ex gf pursus ináriwa in To Cure bar dusúxmua Boabelo 1x8picou, 'n@ev cis yoderia twó. Leonis Novel. 27, Tois étuxőoly da mudiy húcy Borólo ti dusúxuma róne jolie as wegscard, sy paper creiro xlóay, è un evoegu są being a ge of Qúrews. & 1 Joh. 3. 1. h Eph. 3. 15. * In alienam familiam tranfitus, is the description in Agellius, l. 5. 19, Cùm. in alienam familiam inque liberorum locum extranei sumuntur, aut per prætorem fit, aut per populum : quod per prætorem fit, adoptio dicitur; quod per populum, arrogatio, ib. i Eph. 1.18. † As appears out of the form of Ragation yet extant in this manner : Velitis, jubeatis, Quirites, uti Lucius Valerius Lucio Titio, tam jure legeque filius fibi liet, quam fi ex eo patre matreque familias ejus natus esset, utique ei vitæ necisque in eo poteftas fiet, uti patri endo filio eft : Ib.