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are ; his Soul was conveyed into such Receptacles, as the Souls of other Perfons use to be. All, which was necessary for our Redemption by way of Satisfaction and Merit, was already performed on the Cross; and all, which was necessary for the actual Collation and Exhibition of wbat was merited there, was to be effected upon and after his Resurrection: in the interim therefore there is nothing left, at least known to us, but to satisfie the Law of Death This he undertook to do, and did: and though the ancient Fathers by the several Additions of other Ends have something obscured this, yet

it may

be sufficiently observed in their * Writings, and is certainly most conformable to that Prophetical Expression, upon which we have hitherto * Irenæus so grounded our Explication, Thou shalt not leave my soul in hell, neither frent, legem wilt thou suffer thy holy one to see corruption:

mortuorum servare. 1.5.

-0. 26. and S. Hilary expresses that which I intend very clearly, Morte non interceptus est unigenitus Dei Filius; ad explendam quidem hominis naturam, etiam morti se, id est, discellioni se tanquam animæ corporisque subjecit, & ad infernas sedes, id quod homini debitum videtur effe, penetravit. Enar. in Psal. 53. And before him Tertullian, Christus Deus, quia & homo mortuus fecundùm Scripturas, & fepultus secus eafdem, huic quoque legi satisfecit, formâ huznanæ mortis apud inferos functus. De Anima, c. 55. 9H2069 cu tos o to zas év70 Camis, rj pas muño xgew58slices tirwebas εις ή εξ ημών, ανθ' ημών, σέρ ημών αναμάρτητον αυτά υπεδέξατο (άρκα. Καλαφερόμεθα καις ή θάναλον εις τ' αδίω· ανεdéĞc7o rõTo, xj xc7aDev éxsoins eis cu Tov. Gelas. Act. Conc. Nic. l. 2. c.32. This s. Austin calls proprietatem carnis, Cont. Felician. c. 11. Scio ad inferos Divinitatem Filii Dei descendisse proprietáte carnis, fcio ad cælum afcendiffe carnem merito Deitatis. And afterwards he calls it, injuriam carnis, Erat uno atque eodem tempore ipfe totus etiam in inferno; totus in cælo, illic patiens injuriam carnis,, hic non relinquens gloriam Deitatis. 6.14. Impleta est Scriptura quæ dicit, Et cum iniquis reputatus eft. Quod & altiùs intelligi poteft, dicente de femetipfo Domino, Reputatus sum cum defcendentibus in lacum : faétus fum ficut homo fine adjutorio, inter mortuos liber. Verè enim reputatus eft inter peccatores & iniquos ut descenderet ad Infernum. s. Hierom in Ifaia. . 53. X. 12. Ruffinus, in his Exposition of the Creed, descanting upon that place in the Psalms, factus sum ficut homo fine adjutorio, inter mortuos liber ; Non dixit homo, fed ficut homo. Sicut homo enim erat quia etiam descenderat in infernum ; sed inter mortuos liber erat, quia à morte teneri non poterat. Et ideo in uno natura humanæ fragilitatis, in alio divinæ potestas majestatis oftenditur. And yet more pertinently Fulgentius, Reftabat ad plenum nostræ redemptionis effectum ut illuc usque homo fine peccato à Deo susceptus descenderet ; quousque homo separatus à Deo peccati merito cecidiffet, id eft, ad infernum, ubi folebat peccatoris anima torqueri, & ad fepulchrum ubi consueverat peccatoris caro corrumpi. Ad Thrasim. c. 30. Ei šv vaj autos 642870, xúera av og tartós, rj dewórns, sej pôso u Cxóte, x {wn απάνων, θανάτα γούστα, και ' ας άδε καλάβασιν επιδέξαι, ώς αν και πάντα ημϊν ομοιωθή χωρίς αμαρ7ίας, σc. Andreas Cret. Serm. in vitam humanam. I'conclude this with that Exposition of S. Hilary upon the Words of the Psalmist, If I go down into Hell, thou art there also; Humanæ ifta lex necesitatis eft, ut consepultis corporibus ad inferos animæ descendant: quam descensionem Dominus ad consummationem veri hominis non recusavit. Pfal. 138.

Secondly, By the Descent of Christ into Hell, all those which believe in him are secured from descending thither ; he went unto those Regions of Darkness that our Souls might never come into those Torments which are there. By his Descent he freed us from our Fears, as by his Ascension he fecured us of our Hopes. He passed to those Habitations where Satan hath taken up Possession and exerciseth his Dominion; that having no Power over him, we might be assured that he should never exercise any over our Souls departed, as belonging unto him. Through death he destroyed him that had Heb. 2. 14. the power of death, that is, the Devil; and by his actual Descent into the Dominions of him so destroyed, fecured all which have an Interest in him of the fame Freedom which he had. Which Truth is also still preserved (though among many other strange Conceptions) * in the Writings of the *As we read Fathers. Having thus examined the several Interpretations of this part of if the culinos the Article, we may now give a brief and safe Account thereof, and teach Time, tho' not every one how they may express their Faith withouř any Danger of Mistake, if him ; Sed saying, I give a full and undoubting Assent unto this as to a certain Truth, unt, Christus That when all the Sufferings of Christ were finished on the Cross, and his inferos adiit Soul was separated from his Body, though his Body were dead, yet his Soul died not; and though it died not, yet it underwent the Condition of rùm quod difthe Souls of such as die ; and being he died in the Similitude of a Sinner, crimenkithnirum, fi cárcer mortuis idem? De Anima, cap. 55. Aut ipfius vox est hic, Et eruisfi animam meam ab inferno inferiori, aut noftra vox per ipsum Chriftum Dominum noftrum ; quia ideo ille pervenit ufque ad infernum, ne nos remaneremus in inferno. s. Auguft. in Pfal. 85. lázas gd autos zuãs avérzés, xj zesvão ce tissuās irgeos, xj eis olun *#746 aivov, speãs avé pige. Athan. in Ompia mihi trad. ec.

his

ne nos adire. mus.

Cæte

corum & Christiano

Kk 2

him ;

his Soul went to the Place where the Souls of Men are kept who die for
their Sins, and so did wholly undergo the Law of Death: but because there
was no Sin in him, and he had fully satisfied for the Sins of others which he
took
upon

therefore as God luffered not his Holy One to see Corruption, fo he left not his Soul in Hell, and thereby gave fufficient Security to all chofe who belong to Chrift, of never coming under the Power of Satan, or suffering in the Flames prepared for the Devil and his Angels. And thus, and for thefe Purpofes may every Christian say, I believe that Chrift des scended into Hell.

He Role again.

W

leave out the

Hatsoever Variations have appeared in any of the other Articles, this

Part, of Christ's Resurrection; hath been constantly delivered without * For though the least Alteration, either by way of Addition or * Diminution. The whole Eusebius Gal- Matter of it is fo necessary and essential to the Christian Faith, that nothing licanus and of it could be omitted ; and in these few Expressions the whole Doctrine is Fortunatus so clearly delivered, that nothing needed to be added. At the first View

we are presented with three Particulars: First, The Action it felf, or the Relaft Word, à mortuis, and furrection of Christ, he rose again. Secondly, The Verity, Reality, and Come Copies in Propriety of that Resurrection, he rose from the dead. Thirdly, The CirRuffinus have cumstance of Time, or Distance of his Resurrection from his Death, rose it not ; yet it is generally from the dead the third day. expreffed in

the reft, which are more ancient than Eusebius or Fortunatus: and therefore that omiffion is to be imputed rather to Negligence either of the Author or the Scribe, than to the Usage of the Church in their Agë. Quòd die tertio resurrexit à mortuis Dominus Christus, nullus ambigit Christianus. s. Aug. Serm. in Vigiliis Pafche.

For the Illustration of the first Particular, and the Justification of our Be. lief in Christ's Resurrection, it will be necessary, First, To Thew the promised Messias was to rise from the Dead; and Secondly, That Jesus, whom we believe to be the true and only Mefias, did so rise as it was promised and forerold. As the Messias was to be the Son of David, fo was he particularly typified by him and promised unto him. Great were the Oppositions which David suffered both by his own People and by the Nations

round about him; which he expressed of himself, and foretold of the MefPsal. 2. 2. fias in those Words, The Kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers

take counsel together against the Lord and against his anointed, that is, his Acts 4.27,28. Christ. From whence it came to pass, That against the holy child Jefus,

whom God had anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Ifrael, were gathered together to do what foever the hand and the counsèl of God determined before to be done, which was to crucifie and say the Lord of Life. But notwithstanding all this Opposition

and Perfecution, it was spoken of David, and foretold of the Son of DePfal. 2. 6,9. vid, Tet have I set mine anointed upon my holy hill of Sion. I will de

clare the Decree, the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.' As therefore the Persecution in respect of David a. mounted only to a Depression of him, and therefore his Exaltation was a fettling in the Kingdom; so being the Conspiration against the Mesias amounted to a real Crucifixion and Death, therefore the Exaltation must include a Resurrection. And being he which rises from the Dead, begins as it were to live another Life, and the Grave to him is in the manner of a Womb to bring him forth, therefore when God said of his Anointed, Thou art my fon, this day have I begotten thee, he did foretel and promise that he would raise the Mefias from Death to Life.

But

But because this Prediction was something obfcured in the Figurative Expresfion, therefore the Spirit of God hath cleared it farther by the fame Prophet, speaking by the Mouth of David, but such Words as are agreeable nor to the Person, but the Son of David, My flesh shall rest in hope; for thou wilt Psal. 16.10. not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine holy One to see cor. ruption. As for the Patriarch David, he is both dead and buried, and his Fleth consumed in his Sepulchre ; bur being a Prophet, and knowing that Acts 2. 31. God hath fworn with an oath to him, that of the

fruit of his loyns according to the flesh he would raise up Christ to fit on his throne ; be seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. They were both to be separated by his Death, and each to be disposed in that place which was respectively appointed for them: but neither long to continue there, the Body not to be detained in the Grave, the Soul not to be left in Hell, but both to meet, and being re-united to rise again.

Again, Lest any might imagine that the Messias dying once might rise from Death, and living after Death, yet die again, there was a fărther Prophecy to affure us of the Excellency of that Resurrection and the Perpetuity of that Life to which the Messias was to be raised. For God giving this Promise to his People, I will make an everlasting covenant with you, (of which the Messias isa. $5.3. was to be the Mediator, and to ratifie it by his Death) and adding this Expression, even the sure mercies of David, could signifie no less than that the Christ, who was given first unto us in a frail and mortal Condition, in which he was to die, should afterwards be given in an immutable State, and confequently that he being dead should rise unto eternal Life. And thus by virtue of these three

Predictions we are assured that the Messias was to rise again, as also by those Types which did represent and prefignifie the fame. Jofeph, who was ordained to save his Brethren from Death who would have sain him, did represent the Son of God, who was Nain by us, and yet dying saved us ; and his being in the Dungeon typified Christ's Death ; * his being taken out * Poft dugó from thence represented his Resurrection, as his Evection to the Power of annos dieEgypt next to Pharaoh, signified the Session of Christ at the Right Hand of incipiente de his father. Ifaac was facrificed, and yet lived, to show that Christ should carcere educitruly die, and truly live again. And Åbraham offered him up, ,* accounting Ex hoffet sothat God was able to raise him up even from the dead from whence also he seph Chriftus received him in a figure. In Abraham's intention Ifaac died, in his expe-fering a more ctation he was to rise from the Dead, in his Acceptation being spared he was tuis refurrexit. received from the Dead, and all this acted to presignifie, that the only Son Præsentatur of God was really and truly to be facrificed and die, and after Death was mundo refurreally to be raised to Life. What was the Intention of our Father Abraham reétio declanot performed, that was the Resolution of our Heavenly Father and fulfilled. ratur---Data And thus the Refurrection of the Messias was represented by Types, and Pharaone, in foretold by Prophecies ; and therefore the Christ was to rise from the Dead. tota Ægypto

poteftas. Et noster Joseph Christus Dominus poft refurrectionem dicit, Data eft mihi omnis poteftas in cælo & in terra. Profper. de Promis. o Predict. p. 1. c. 29.

| Ideo Ifaac immolatus non est, quia resurrectio Filio Dei fervata est. Profper, de Prom. Pred. p. 1. c. 17. Obtws 78 cyix süsíma?o Toméle pushenoy TVFixūs dépe poliegis 175μερίσαν7%», το τε εΓαπημέρω γω και το ζυμπαραδεχθέντι προβάτω, ώστε δεχθώαι ω κ το προβάτω ο τύ θανάτε μυσήριον, C G TIN Morogfriz † (www, 7 min drexonlopsblu TW Serátą. Greg. Nys. Orat. 1. in Refur.

That Jefus, whom we believe to be the truie and only Meffias, did rise from the Dead according to the Scriptures, is a certain and infallible Truth, delivered unto us, and confirmed by Testimonies Humane, Angelical and Divine. Those Pious Women which thought with sweet Spices to anoint him dead, found him alive, held him by the feet, and worshipped him, and as the first Preachers of his Resurrection, with fear and great joy ran to bring his Disciples word. The blessed Apostles follow them, to whom also he shewed

himself

a Heb. II. 19.

Acts I. 3:

4. 33.

Afts 1.21,222

himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs; who with great power gave witness of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, the principal part of whose Office consisted in this Testimony, as appeareth upon the Election of Matthias into the Place of Judas, grounded upon this Necessity. Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, must one be ordained to be a witness

with us of his resurrection. The rest of the Disciples testified the same, to 1 Cor. 15.6. whom he also appeared, even to five hundred brethren at once. These were

the Witnesses of his own Family, of such as worshipped him, such as believed in him. And because the Testimony of an Adverfary is in such Cases thought of greatest Validity, we have not only his Disciples, but even his Enemies to confirm it. Those Soldiers that watched at the Sepulchre, and pretended to keep his Body from the Hands of his Apostles; they which felt the Earth trembling under them, and saw the countenance of an Angel like lightning, and his raiment white as snow; they who upon that Sight did shake and became as dead men, while he whom they kept became alive: even some of these came into the city and shewed unto the chief, priests all the things that were done. Thus was the Resurrection of Christ confirmed by the highest Humane Testimonies, both of his Friends and Enemies, of his Followers and Revilers.

But so great, fo necessary; so important a Mystery had need of a more firm and higher Testimony than that of Man : and therefore an Angel from

Heaven, who was ministerial in it, gave a present and infallible Witness to John 20.12. it. He descended down, and came and rolled back the stone from the door,

and sat upon it. Nay, two Angels in white, sitting the one at the head, the other at the feet where the body of Jesus had lain, said unto the Women, Wly seek ye the living among the dead? he is not here but is risen. These were the Witnesses fent from Heaven, this the Angelical Testimony

of the Resurrection. I John 3.9.

And if we receive the witness of Men, or Angels, the witness of God is greater, who did fufficiently attest this Resurrection: not only because there was no other Power but that of God which could effect it, but as our Sa. viour himself faid, The Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testifie of me; adding these words to his Apostles, and ye shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning. The Spirit of God sent down upon the Apostles did thereby testifie that Christ was risen, because he fent that Spirit from the Father ; and the Apostles witnefsed together with that Spirit, because they were enlightned, comforted, confirmed and strengthned in their Testimony by the fame Spirit. Thus God raised up Jesus, and Sheved him openly, not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to those who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. And thus, as it was foretold of the Messias, did our Jesus rise ; which was the first part of our Enquiry

For the Second, concerning the Reality and Propriety of Christ's Resurre&ion, expressed in that Term from the dead, it will be necessary first to consider what are the essential Characters and Proprieties of a true Resurrection ; and secondly, to fhew how those Proprieties do belong and are agreeable to the raising of Christ. The proper Notion of the Resurrection consists in this, that it is a substantial Change by which that which was before, and was corrupted, is re-produced the fame thing again. It is said to be a Change, that it may be distinguished from a second or new Creation. For if God should annihilate a Man or Angel, and make the same Man or Angel out of nothing, though it were a Restitution of the same thing, yet were it not properly a Resurrection, because it is not a Change of proper Mutation, but a pure and

total

* Handle me and fee : for a Spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye * Thus Ignati

total Production. This Change is called a fubftantial Change to distinguish it from all Accidental Alterations: He which awaketh from his Sleep, ariferh from his Bed, and there is a greater Change from Sicknefs to Health, but neither of these is a Resurrection. It is called a Change of that which was, and hath been corrupted, because things immaterial and incorruptible, cannot be faid to rife again; Refurrection implying a Re-production, and that which after it was, never was not, cannot be re-produced. Again, of those things which are material and corruptible, of fome the Forms continue and fubfift after the Corruption of the whole, of others not. The Forms of inanimate Bodies, and all irrational Souls, when they are corrupted, ceafe to be; and therefore if they fhould be produced out of the fame Matter, yet were not this a proper Resurrection, because thereby there would not be the same Individual which was before, but only a Restitution of the Species by another Individual. Bur when a Rational Soul is feparated from its Body, which is the Corruption of a Man, that Soul fo feparated doch exist, and consequently is capable of Conjunction and Re-union with the Body ; and if the two be again united by an Essential and Vital Union, from which Life doth necessarily flow, then doth the fame Man live which lived before ; and consequently this Re-union is a perfect and proper Resurrection from Death to Life, because the same Individual Person, consisting of the fame Soul and Body, which was dead is now alive again.

Having thus delivered the true Nature of a proper Resurrection, we shall easily demonstrate that Christ did truly and properly rise from the Dead. For First, by a true, though miraculous, Generation he was made Flesh; and lived in his Humane Nature a true and proper Life, producing Viral Actions as we do. Secondly, He suffered a true and proper Diffolution at his Death ; his Soul being really separated, and his Body left without the least Vitality, as our dead Bodies are. Thirdly, The same Soul was re-united to the fame Body, and so he lived again the same Man. For the Truth of which, Two things are necessary to be shewn upon his appearing after Death ; the One concerning the Verity, the other concerning the Identity of his Body. All the Apostles doubred of the first ; for when Christ stood in the midit of them, they were affrighted and supposed that they had seen Luke 24. 37, a spirit. But he sufficiently assured them of the Verity of his Corporeity, 39. faying, fee me have. He convinced them all of the Identity of his Body, faying, us disputes aBebold

my hands and my feet, that it is I my self ; especially unbelieving gainfi the AThomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands, and reach hither was in his thy hand, and thrust it into my side, and be not faithless, but believing.pl teráriua

on co Cazzi The Body then in which he rofe, mult be the same in which he lived before, cum

σις δύω όντα.

Και ότε προς τις οι Πέτρον ήλθεν, έφη αυτοίς, λάβε7ε, ψηλαφήσαλέ κε και δελε ότι αν ειμί δαιμόνιον ασώματος. Και εμθύς αυτό ήψανο και επίσδυσαν κρα7ηθέντες τη ζαρκί αυτά και των σιεύμαι.---Μελα και τ' ανάσασιν ζωέφαξυ αυτούς και ζωέπιεν ως ζαρκικός, καί*g av suuz oxwa iwwskie Narçi Epift

. ad Smyrn. Palpandam carnem Dominus præbuit, quam januis claufis introduxit, ut effe poit resurrectionem oftenderet corpus suum & ejusdem naturæ & alterius gloriæ. Greg. Hom. 26. in Evang. Resurrexit Chriftus, absoluta res est. Corpus erat, caro erat, pependit in cruce, positus eft in sepulchro, exhibuit illam vivam qui vivebat in illa. 158. De Tempore.

And that we might be assured of the Soul as well as of the Body, First

, He gave an Argument of the Vegetable and Nutritive Faculty, saying unto them, Have ye here any meat ? and they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honey-comb, and he took it and did eat before them. Secondly, of the Sensitive párt, conversing with them, shewing himself, seeing and hearing them. Thirdly, He gave Evidence of his Rational and Intellectual Soul, by speaking to them and discoursing out of the Scriptures, concerning those things which he spake unto them while he was yet with them. Thus did he

Thew,

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