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serving it from Dissolution, as many of the Fathers thought. This Soul thus existing after Death, and separated from the Body, though of a nature spiritual, is really and truly in some place; if not by way of Circumscription, as proper Bodies are, yet by way of Determination and Indistancy; so that it is true to say, this is really and truly present here, and not ellewhere.

Again, the Soul of Man, which, while he lived, gave Life to the Body, and was the Fountain of all vital Actions, in that separate Existence after Death, must not be conceived to seep, or be bereft and stript of all vital Operations, but still to exercise the Powers of Understanding and of Willing, and to be subject to the Affections of Joy and Sorrow. Upon which is grounded the different Estate and Condition of the Souls of Men during that Time of Separation ; some of them by the Mercy of God being placed in Peace and Rest, in Joy and Happiness ; others by the Justice of the fame God left to Sorrow, Pains and Misery.

As there was this different State and Condition before our Saviour's Death, according to the different kinds of Men in this Life, the Wicked and the Just, the Elect and Reprobate: So there were two Societies of Souls after Death; one of them which were happy in the Presence of God, the other of those which were left in their Sins and tormented for them. Thus we conceive the Righteous Abel, the first Man placed in this Happiness, and the Souls of them that departed in the fame Faith to be gathered to him. Whosoever it was of the Sons of Adam which first died in his Sins was put into a Place of Torment; and the Souls of all those which departed after with the Wrath of God upon them were gathered into his fad Society

Now as the Souls at the Hour of Death are really separated from the Bodies; so the place where they are in Rest or Misery after Death is certainly distinct from the Place in which they lived. They continue not where they were at that Instant when the Body was left without Life; they do not go together with the Body to the Grave; but as the Sepulchre is appointed for our Flesh, so there is another Receptacle, or Habitation and Mansion for our Spirits. From whence it followeth, that in Death the Soul doth certainly pass by a real Motion from that Place, in which it did inform the Body, and is translated to that Place, and unto that Society, which God of his Mercy or Justice hath allotted to it. And not at present to enquire into the Difference and Distance of those several Habitations, (but for Method's fake to involve them all as yet under the Notion of the Infernal Parts, or the Mansions below) it will appear to have been the general Judgment of the Church that the Soul of Christ contradistinguished from his Body, that better and more noble part of his Humanity, his Rational and Intellectual Soul, after a true and proper Separation from his Flesh, was really and truly carried into those Parts below, where the Souls of Men before departed were detained ; and that by such a real translation of his Soul, he was truly said to have descended into Hell.

Many have been the Interpretations of the Opinion of the Fathers made of late; and their Differences are made to appear so great, as if they agreed in nothing which concerns this Point : whereas there is nothing which they agree in more than this which I have already affirmed, the real Descent of the Soul of Christ unto the Habitation of the Souls

departed. The Persons to whom, and End for which he descended, they differ in; but as to a Local Descent into the Infernal parts, they all agree. Who were then in those Parts, they could not certainly define; but whosoever were there, that Christ by the Presence of his Soul was with them, they all determined. That this was the general Opinion of the Church, will appear, not only


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by the Testimonies of those * ancient Writers which lived successively, and * As Irenæus, wrote in several Ages, and delivered this Exposition in such express Terms as Cum

enim Domiare not capable of any other Interpretation, but also because it was generally

nus in medio used as an Argument against the Apollinarian Heresie : than which nothing umbræ morcan fhew more the general Opinion of the Catholicks and the Hereticks, and tis abierit that not only of the present, but of the precedent Ages. For it had been lit- mortuorum tle less than ridiculous to have produced that for an Argument to prove a erant, poft

deinde corPoint in Controversie which had not been clearer than that which was con

poraliter retroverted, and had not been some way acknowledged as a Truth by both. furrexit

, maNow the Error of Apollinarius was, That Christ had no proper Intellectual nifeftum eft, or Rational Soul, but that the Word was to him in the place of a Soul: and evalor uli the † Argument produced by the Fathers for the Conviction of this Error was, ejus, propter that Christ descended into Hell ; which the Apollinarians could not deny ; quos dilac and that this Descent was not made by his Divinity, or by his Body, but by Dominus, athe Motion, and Presence of his Soul, and consequently that he had a Soul nimæ abibunt

in invisibidistinct both from his Flesh and from the Word. Whereas if it could have

lem locum then been answered by the Hereticks, as now it is by many, that his Descent definitum eis into Hell had no relation to his Soul, but to his Body only, which descended a Deo, ca. to the Grave; or that it was not a real, but only virtual, Descent, by which lexandrinus his Death extended to the Destruction of the Powers of Hell; or that his Soul was so clear

ly of that owas not his intellectual Spirit, or immortal Soul, but his living Soul, which

pinion, that defcended into Hell, that is, continued in the State of Death: I say, if any he thought of these Senses could have been affixed to this Article, the Apollinarians An- the sound of swer might have been found, and the Catholicks Argument of no validity. ed salvation But being those Hereticks did all acknowledge this Article; being the Catho-so

the souls in lick Fathers did urge the same to prove the real Distinction of

the Soul of lib. 6. And Christ both from his Divinity and from his Body, because his body was real- Tertullian ly in the Grave when his Soul was really present with the Souls below : it proves that followeth that it was the general Doctrine of the Church, that Christ did de-a Cavity in scend into Hell by a local Motion of his Soul, separated from his Body, to the Earth the Places below where the Souls of Men departed were.

Souls of dead

Men are, betause the Soul of Christ went thither. De Anima, cap. 55. Quòd fi Chriftus Deus, quia & homo mortuus secundùm Scripturas, & fepultus secundùm eafdem hic quoque legi satisfecit, formà humanæ mortis apud Inferos functus, nec antè ascendit in sublimiora cælorum quàm descendit in inferiora terrarum, ut illic Patriarchas & Prophetas compotes fui faceret; habes & regionem Inferûm subterraneam credere, & illos cubito pellere qui satis superbè non putent ani1mas fidelium inferis dignas. Γυμνή Cώμα/G- κυόμμΘ- ψυχή ταϊς γυμναϊς Cωμάτων ωμίλα ψυχαίς. Orig. contra Cel/um. lib. 2. Ipfa anima, etfi fuit in abyflo, jam non eft, quia fcriptum eft, Non derelinques animam meam in inferno. S. Ambrof. de incarn. cap. 5. Si ergo fecundùm hominem quem Verbum Deus suscepít putamus dictum esse, Hodie mecum eris in Paradiso, non ex his verbis in cælo existimandus eft effe Paradisus. Neque enim ipso die in cælo futurus erat homo Christus Jesus, sed in inferno secundùm animam, in sepulchro autem fecundùm carnem. Et de carne quidem, quod eo die in sepulchro fit pofita, manifeftum eft Evangelium. Quod verò illa anima in infernum defcenderet, Apoftolica doctrina prædicat. Quandoquidem B. Petrus ad hanc rem teftimonium de Pfalmis adhibet, Quoniam non derelinques animam meam in inferno, rieque dabis sanctum tuum videre corruptionem. Illud de anima dictum eft, quia ibi non eft derelicta, unde tam citò remeavit; illud de corpore, quòd in fepulchro corrumpi celeri resurrectione non potuit. S. Auguft. Epist

. 57. ad Dardanum. Kc7d5a's réxes rej moovòs 'Ezidnea ipapéegis, Karécas δ' υπό τάρταρα, Ψυχών 39ι: μυρία ΘάνατG- νέου έθνεα. Φρίξενζε γέρων τότε 'λίδας και παλαιβυής. Και λαοβόρG- κύων 'Aνε χάσατο βηλά. Syner. Hymn. 9. Ψυχή 3 η θεία προς αυτόν λαχέσα ζωδρομίω τε και ένωσιν καλαπεφοίτηκε και ας αδα, θεοπρεπεί και δυοάμει και εξεσία χρωμμβρη και τους εκάσε πνεύμασι καλαφαίνετο. Cyril. Αlex. Dial. de Incarn. ο Ε τάφο autó Cua móvov va editalo, tuxlu 3 kovlu i dns. Anaft. apud Euthy. Panopl. Poftquam igitur exaltatus est, id eft, à Judæis in cruce suspensus, & fpiritum reddidit, unita fuze Divinitati Anima ad inferorum profunda descendit. Autor Serm. de tempore. Corpore in sepulchro sepofito, Divinitas cum anima hominis ad inferna descendens vocavit de locis suis animas sanctorum. Gaudentius Brix. Tract. 10. In hoc Divinitas Christi virtutem suæ impassibilitatis oftendit, quæ ubique, semper & ineffabiliter præsens, & secundùm carnem suam in inferno sine doloribus fuit, & secundùm animam fuam in fepulchro fine corruptione jacuit ; quia nec carni fuæ defuit, cum animam fuam in inferno dolere non fineret; nec animam fuam in inferno deferuit, cùin in sepulchro carnem fuam à corruptione fervaret. Fulgent. ad Trafimund. I. 3. c.31. # What the Apollinarian Herejie was is certainly known : they denied that Chrift had an Humane Soul, affirming the Word was to him in the place of a Soul. Apollinaristas Apollinarius inftituit qui de anima Christi à Catholicis dissenserunt, dicentes, ficut Ariani, Deum Christum carnem fine anima suscepisse. In quæstione testimoniis Evangelicis vi&ti, mentem, quâ rationalis est anima hominis, non fuiffe in anima Chrifti, sed pro hac ipsum Verbum in ea fuisse, dixerunt. S. Aug. de Hares. Against this Heresie the Catholicks argued from the Descent into Hell, as that which was acknowledged by them all, even by the Arians, (with whom the Apollinarians in this agreed) as we have shewn before by three several Creeds of theirs in which they expressed this Descent. This is the Argument of Athanafius in his fourth Dialogue de Trinitate, which is particularly with an Apollinarian: "Secres ax εδώα. Ο Θεός και μνήματι και ο ταφή ψυές, και μη εχιν το τιθέμθμον Cώμα" έτως έκ αν ελέχθη καταχωρίς το Cώμα7Φ-, 3


where the

πανταχύ ών και τα πάντα τοίχων, ο μη εχε τ' χωριζομδύω ψυχω, μεθ' ης και τοίς ώ άδε Κύηγίελίσαλο: ΑΙε γ αυτίω αναχωρών το Cώμα7G- λέΓε) και ν αδα γεγχυής και τετο εςι το ισές ημών ώ άδε βυές Αξε τ' ψυχω και ώ μνήματι τιθμώαι Ale to Cãua. But because these Dialogues may be questioned as not genuine, the same Argument may be produced out of his Book de Incarnatione Christi, written particularly againft Apollinarius: Neat ne Xv, öti o čowbév minär ävégwrésisi η ψυχή τετο και το πρώτης πλάσεως δεικννάσης, και η δεύτερος Αλαλύσεως δηλώσης, και μόνον εφ' ημίν τέτων δεικνυμένων, άλλα και αν αυτό το θανάτω τα Χριτά εδέκνυτο το ρτοι μέχρι τάφε φθάσαν, 5 μέχω άδι αβάσα" Αειρεθών και όντων και τόπων πολλών μέτρων και τα μ τάφο ζωμαλικω επιδεχομδύα 7 επίβασιν, οκάσε παρών το Cώμα, τα 3 αδε ασώμαλον πως εκεί παρων ο Κύριο ασωμάτως, ως άνθρωπG- νομίθη από τα θανάτε και ένα ψυχαίς ταίς ώ δεσμούς καλεκομψίαις μορφία ιδίας ψυχής ανεπιδεκτον ή δεσμών τ8 θανατε οατήσας παρέσαν παρόσαις, Αμαρρήξη τα δισμα ψυχών τώ αδα καλεχοpoftw. Thus Euthymius, in his Commentary upon the Words of the Psalmis, Thou shalt not leave my Soul in Hell; Τίθησι και η ελπίδα τ αιτίαν. Και δ εκ εγκαταλείψεις, φησί, ή ψυχώ με ές άδίω, όπα 7 τελελάληκότων αι ψυχαι κατέχνη: τόπG- και ο αδης από γω λπικεκληρωμένο ταίς ή λιθνησκόνων ψυχώς σε τoίνω ο λήρG- Απολλινάριο, και η προσληφθείσαν βάρκα δολματίζων άψυχον και έναν και ως ανόητο- ; And from hence we may undertand the Words of Theodoret, who at the end of his Exposition of this Psalm thus concludes; oire: Varpeds sj' m 'Apeir sej 'Ewouis, x Amortivaeix ogevordbes avenérxe. Which is in reference to those words, Thou shalt not leave my soul in Hell.' in the same manner, Leporius Presbyter (quòd malè senserat de Incarnatione Christi, corrigens, as Gennadius observe:h, and particularly disavowing that of the Arians and Apollinarians, Deum hominemque commixtum, & tali confusione carnis & Verbi quafi aliquod corpus effectum) does thus express the Reality and Distinction of the Soul and body of the same Christ: Tam Christus filius Dei tunc mortuus jacuit in sepulchro, quàm idem Christus filius Dei ad inferna descendit; ficut beatus Apoftolus dicit, quòd autem ascendit, quid eft nisi quòd defcendit primùm in inferiores partes ter. re? Ipfe utique Dominus & Deus nofter Jesus Christus unicus Dei qui cum anima ad inferna descendit, ipse cum anima & corpore ascendit ad Cælum. Libel. Emendationis. And Capreolus Bishop of Carthage, writing against the Nestorian Heresie, proveth that the Soul of Christ was united to his Divinity when it descended into Hell, and follows that Argument, urging it at large : In which Discourse among the rest he hath this Passage ; Tantum abeft, Deuin Dei filium incommutabilem ab inferis potuisse concludi, ut nec ipfam adsumptionis animam exitiabiliter susceptam aut tenaciter derelictam, sed nec carnem ejus credimus contagione alicujus corruptionis infectam. Ipfius namque vox est in Pfalmo, ficut Petrus interpretatur Apoftolus, Non derelinques animam meam apud inferos, neque dabis sanctum tuum videre corruptionem. Epist. ad Hispan. Lastly, The true Doctrine of the Incarnation agains all the Enemies thereof, Apollinarians, Nestorians, Eutychians, and the like, was generally expressed by declaring the Verity of the Soul of Christ really present in Hell, and the Verity of his Body at the same time really present in the Grave; as it is excellently delivered by Fulgentius : Humanitas vera Filii Dei nec tota in sepulchro fuit, nec tota in inferno; sed in sepulchro secundùm. veram carnem Christus mortuus jacuit, & fecundùm animam ad infernum Christus descendit, & fecundùm eandem animam ab inferno ad carnem quam in sepulchro reliquerat, redijt: secundùm divinitatem verò fuam, quæ nec loco tenetur nec fine concluditur, totus fuit in sepulchro cum carne, totus in inferno cum anima: ac pro hoc plenus fuit ubique Chriftus; quia non eft Deus ab humanitate quam susceperat separatus, qui & in anima fua fuit, ut solutis inferni doloribus ab inferno vi&rix rediret, & in carne sua fuit, ut celeri resurrectione corrumpi non posset. Ad Trafimund. lib. 3. C. 34.

Nor can it be reasonably objected, that the Argument of the Fathers was of equal force against these Hereticks, if it be understood of the Animal Soul, as it would be if it were understood of the Rational; as if those Hereticks had equally deprived Christ of the Rational and Animal Soul. For it is most certain that they did not equally deprive Christ of both; but most of

the Apollinarians denied an Humane Soul to Christ * only in respect of the * At first in- Intellectual part, granting that the Animal Soul of Christ was of the fame pollinarians Nature with the Animal Soul of other Men. If therefore the Fathers had did to speak, proved only that the Animal Soul of Christ had descended into Hell

, they

had as they de

brought no Argument at all to prove that Christ had an Humane Intellectual mane Soul in Soul. It is therefore certain that the Catholick Fathers in their Opposition both Acceptic to the Apollinarian Hereticks did declare, that the Intellectual and Immortal

; terwards they Soul of Christ descended into Hell, clearly affirmed the fuxn, and denied the võs alone. So Socrates testifies of them : negre egy jénetov ávceanpokvar i är@gwao vão rõ θεά Λόγω της οικονομία η ανανθρωπήσεως ψυχής άνοι: άτα ως κ μεθανοίας επιδιορθέμψοι, προσέθηκαν ψυχω και αναληφέναι, φέναι, νυν και εκ έχειν αυτω, αλλ' είναι ή Θεόν Λόον αντί να ας ή αναληφθένα άνθρωπον. Hit. 1. 2. c. 46. Νam & aliqui eorum fuisse in Christo aniriam negare non potuerunt. Videte absurditatem & insaniam non ferendam. Animai irrationalem eum habere voluerunt, rationalem negaverunt: dederunt ei animam pecoris, fubtraxerunt animam hominis. S. Aug. Tract. 47. in Joh. This was to properly indeed the Apollinarian Heresie, that it was thereby distinguished from the Arian. Nam Apollinaristæ quidem carnis & animæ naturam line mente adsumpsisse Dominum credunt, Ariani verò carnis tantummodo. Facundus, l. 2. c. 3.

nied the Hu

The only Question which admitted any Variety of Discrepance among the Ancients was, Who were the Persons to whose Souls the Soul of Christ descended ? and that which dependeth on that Question, What was the End and Use of his Descent ? In this indeed they differed much, according to their feveral Apprehensions of the Condition of the Dead, and the Nature of the Place into which the Souls before our Saviour's Death were gathered ; some looking on that Name which we translate now Hell, Hades, or Infernus, as the


had the same

common Receptacle of the Souls of all Men, both to the Just and Unjust, Some of the thought the Soul of Christ descended unto those which departed in the true anement de Faith and Fear of God, the Souls of the Patriarchs and the Prophets, and lieve that the the People of God.

word cdng in

the Scriptures fignification which it hath among the Greeks, as comprehending all the Souls, both of the Wicked and the Fruft; and so they took Infernus in the same latitude

: As therefore the ancient Greeks did afsign one odns for all which died, návics önás Punta's aidons dixe): and souvò ad lw tráves išgon Bogloi

. As they made within that one ons two several Receptacles, one for the Good and Vertuous, the other for the Wicked and Unjust, (according to that of Diphilus, Kai 78 recebe umeslu δύο τρίβες νομίζομδυ, Μίαν δικαίων, κατέρων ασεβών οδόν" and that of Plato, Ούτοι και δη έπαδαν τελετήσωσι, δικάσισ, αν το λιμάνι τη τριόδου, εξ ης φέρείον τα όδω, και μας μακάρων νήσας, ή ας τάρταραν" and that of Virgil.

Hic locus est partes ubi se via findit in ambas :
Dextera quæ Ditis magni sub mænia tendit ;
Hac iter Elyfium nobis: at læva malorum

Exercet pænas, & ad impia Tartara mittit.)
As they did send the best of Men to odns, there to be happy, and taught Rewards to be received there as well as punish-
ments: (ΛέΓέο 5 ιωι το μελικά Πινδάρε ταυλι αει η δυσεβέων ν άδε, Τοίσι λάμης και μία σελία των ανθάδε νυκτα κάτω,
Φοινικορωδίαί τε λαμώνες ασι προάσεων αυτών. Ρlut. de confolat. ad Αpollon. Ω τρισόλβιοι Κάνοι βe97ών, οι ταύτα διερ-
Zeeves tian Morão' is ąda toiddo gs móvous cna Zlü isi, Tois d ännoiri wavinci xuxa, Sophocles.) So did the Jews alo
before and after our Saviour's time. For Josephus says the Soul of Samuel was brought up is çč os, and delivers the opis
nion of the Pharisees after this manner, Antiq. Jud. I. 18. c. 2. 'Abdívce?óv te ige wrisis autois, civas reis was zeovo ó-
καιώσως τε και τιμάς οίς αρετής ή κακίας επιτήδευσις" ώ τω βίω γέΓονε" and of the Sadducees after this manner, Ψυχής τε :
öraporlu, sta's xao timwelas rejtima's daugőol. Therefore the Jews which thought the Soals immortal did believe
that the Just were rewarded, as well as the Unjust punished, wo xoovòs, or xeb°dr. And so did also most of the ancient
Fathers of the Church. There was an ancient Book written de Universi natura, whith some attributed to Justin Martyr,
Some to Irenæus, others to Origen, or to Caius a Presbyter of the Roman Church in the time of Victor and Zephyrinus,
a Fragment of which is set forth by David Hoschelíus in his Annotations upon Photius, delivering the state of Adrs at
large. nes do, con (wixou tuxai oxahar toe sy dixwv, sva[nañor siner. Here then were the Just and Unjust in
Hades, but not in the same place. oi 3 discuoi Ton ve (wizor), ana' 8 TI CUTIS TÍTW I si o adixoi. Mice as
Gis Tšto to xwesov rádodos, &c. There was but one passage into the Hades, faith he; but when that Gate was passed,
the Just went on the right hand to a place of Happiness, (Tõro 3 @vopece zıxańczopefu xóatov 'A Gegecipe) and the Unjuji on
the left to a place of Milery, ΟύτG- ο ασθεί άδε λό/G-. ώ ψυχαί σάνων κατέχων άχρι και αν ο Θεός ώρισεν. Ter-
tullian wrote a Tract de Paradiso, now not extant, in which he expressed thus much: Habes etiam de Paradiso à nobis
libellum, quo constituimus omnem animam apud Inferos sequestrari in diem Domini, De Anima cap. 55. S. Jerome
on the third Chapter of Ecclefiaftes: Ante adventum Christi omnia ad Inferos paritèr ducebantur: Undè & Jacob ad
Inferos paritèr descensurum fe dicit ; & Job pios & impios in Inferno queritur retentari: & Evangelium, Chaos
magnum interpofitum apud Inferos ; & Abraham cum Lazaro, & divitem in suppliciis, esse teftatur. And in his 25th
Epistle, Perfacilis ad ifta responfio eft; Luxiffe Jacob filium, quem putabat occisum, ad quem & ipfe erat ad inferos
descensurus, dicens, Descendam ad Filium meum lugens in infernum : quia necdum Paradili januam Christus effregerat,
necdum flammeam illam romphæam & vertiginem præsidentium Cherubin fanguis ejus extinxerat. Undè & Abra-
ham, licèt in loco refrigerii, tamen apud inferos cum Lazaro fuisse scribitur. And again, Nequeo fatis Scripturze
laudare myfteria, & divinum sensum in verbis licèt fimplicibus admirari: quod, Moyfis plangitur; & Jesus Nave, vir
sanctus, fepultus fertur, & tamen fletus non effe fcribitur. Nempè illud, quod in Moyse, id eft, in lege veteri, sub
peccato Adam omnes tenebantur elogio & ad inferos descendentes consequentèr lacrymæ prosequcbantur- In Jesu
verò, id est, in Evangelio, per quem Paradisus est apertus, mortem gaudiâ prosequuntur. To regte egy ó Távela est
How xa7s[vwi Távx70 Tregs Xerson agriurd. S. Chryf. Panegyr. ad Sanctas Mart. And in his Tractate pro-
ving that Christ is God, he makes this Exposition of Isaiah 45. 2. núnas zaaxãs Cubreco, se morao's Coone õis Cemento,
και ανοίξω θησαυρες Cκοζανες, λιποκρύφες, αοράτες αναδείξω (οι τ'Αδω έτω καλών. Ει δ και άδης ώ, άλλα ψυχάς εκράτη
dylas.og (xbún tipice, 'Aegaese, I lovar, ' 'lazás. dio sj Sncawoo's cránce. This Doctrine was maintained by all those
who believed that the Soul of Samuel was raised by the witch of Endor: for though he were so great a Prophet, yet they
thonght that he was in Hades; and not only so, but under the power of Satan. Thus Justin Martyr in his Dialogue with
Trypho: Φαίνε53 και ότι πάσαι αι ψυχαί ή έτως δικαίων και προφητών υπό εξεσίαν έπιπλον ή τοιέτων δυνάμεων, οποία και και
á by fus eruulw ineiing authr, weglátwy opodoya). who was followed in this by Origen, Anaftafius, Antiochenus,
and others.

But others there were who thought Hades or Infernus was never taken | S. Auguftine

began to doubt in † the Scriptures for any place of Happiness; and therefore they did not of that general conceive the Souls of the Patriarchs or the Prophets did pass into any

such Reason ordiInfernal Place; and consequently, that the Descent into Hell, was not his narily given going to the Prophets or the Patriarchs, which were not there. For as, iglechifoldi

, it had been only said that Christ had gone unto the Bosom of Abraham, or to bring zhe to Paradise, no Man would ever have believed that he had descended into and prophets thence, upon this ground, that he thought the word Infernus was never taken in the Scripture with a good sense;, Quanquam illud me nondum inveniffe confiteor, inferos appellatos ubi justorum animæ acquiescunt, De Genefi ad literam, 1. 12. c. 33. Proinde, ut dixi, nondùm inveni, & adhuc quæro ; nec mihi occurrit Inferos alicubi in bono pofuiffe Scripturam, duntaxat Canonicam. ibid. Non facilè alicubi Scripturarum Inferorum nomen pofituin invenitur in bono, Epifl. 57. Præsertim qui nè ipfos quidem Inferos uspiam Scripturarum locis in bono appellatos potui recipere. Quod fi nusquam in divinis authoritatibus legitur, non utique finus ille Abrahæ. id eft, fecretæ cujusdam quietis habitatio, aliqua pars Inferorum fuisse credenda est. Quanquam in his ipfis tanti Magistri verbis, ubi ait dixisse Abraham, Inter vos e nos chaos magnum firmatum eft, satis, ut opinor, appareat non esse quandam partem quafi membrum Inferozuin tanti illius felicitatis sinum. Epift. 99.


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Hell; so that being it is only written, Thou shalt not leave my soul in bell, it feems incongruous to think that he went then unto the Patriarchs who were not there.

Now this being the diversity of Opinions anciently in respect of the Persons unto whose Souls the Soul of Christ descended at his Death, the difference of the End or Efficacy of that Descent is next to be observed. Of those which did believe the Name of Hades to belong unto that general Place

which comprehended all the Souls of Men, (as well those which died in the This is the Opinion gene

Favour of God, as those which departed in their Sins) * some of them thought rally received that Christ descended to that place of Hades where the Souls of all the Faithin the schools, ful, from the Death of the Righteous Abel to the Death of Christ, were deas the sense of tained; and there dissolving all the Power by which they were detained bethe Church of low, translated them into a far more glorious Place, and estated them in a God in all A- condition far more happy in the Heavens above. though it were not lo general as the Schoolmen would persuade us, yet it is certain that many of the Fathers did so understand it. On επί ζωηρία ? ν αδε ψυχών σαρής, οκ μακρών αιώνων τ' άφιξιν αυτά σειμενασών. Εufet. de Demon/t. . το. Και ήλθεν εις τα καλαχθόνια, ένα κακάθεν λυτρώση) της δικαίος. Cyril. Catech. 4. "Ημελλε η θεότης τελειών τα πάντα τα 4 μυσήριον το πάθος, και Cω τη ψυχη κατέλθειν ας τα καταχθόνια, επί το έργάσαι τ' οκά προκεκοιμημένων (ωτηρίαν, Φημί τ αγιων to celaşmür. "Translatus erat Enoch, raptus Elias ; sed non est servus supra Dominum. Nullus eniin ascendit in cælum, nifi qui dcfcendit de cælo. Nam & Moyfen, licèt corpus ejus non apparuerit in terris, nusquam tamen in gloria cælesti legimus, nisi postquam Dominus suæ resurrectionis pignore vincula solvit Inferni, & piorum animas elevavit. S. Ambrof. l. de Fide ad Gratianum. Qui in eo loco detinebantur fancti vinculorum solutionem in Chrifti adventu sperabant. Nemo enim ab Inferni sedibus liberatur nifi per Christi gratiam. EoYigitur post mortem Christus descendit. Ut Angelus in caminum Babylonis ad tres pueros liberandos descendit, ita Christus ad formacein descendit Inferni, in quo claufæ justorum animæ tenebantur. Poftquam eò descendit, Inferorum clauftra perfodit, diripuit, valtavit, fpoliavit, vinctas indè animas liberando. S. Hier. in Ecclefiaften.

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* Just. Mart.

Others of them understood no such translation of place, or alteration of in his Dialogue with Trypho

condition there, conceiving that the Souls of all Men are * detained below first begins : still, and shall not enter into Heaven until the general Resurrection. They ' Added soda made no such distinction at the Death of Christ, as if those which believed λεπθνήσκειν φημί πάσας τας ψυχας έχω (έρμαιον γ ω ως αληθώς τους κακούς) αλλά τι και τας ά δυσεβών & κράτ7ονί σοι χώρω μίξν, τας και άδικος και tovnega's cs zeegye, 1 restews côe zoufáces xogvov róts. After him Irenæus, I. 5. c. 26. Cùm Dominus in medio umbræ mortis abierit ubi animi mortuorum erant, poft deindè corporaliter resurrexit, & poft resurrectionem affumptus eft; manifeftum eft quia & difcipulorum ejus, propter quos & hæc operatus eft Dominus, animæ åbibunt in invisibilem locum definitum eis à Deo, & ibi usque ad resurrectionem commorabuntur, fuftinentes resurrectionem; poft recipientes corpora & perfectè resurgentes, hoc eft, corporaliter, quemadmodum & Dominus relurrexit, fic venient in conspectum Dei. Nemo enim eft difcipulus fuper magiftrum ; perfectus autem omnis erit ficut magifter ejus. Quomodò ergò magister nofter non ftatim evolans abiit, sed substinens definitum à Patre resurrectionis lux tempus, (quòd & per Jonam manifeftum est) post triduum resurgens affumptus eft; fic & nos fubftinere debemus definitum à Deo resurrectionis noftræ tempus prænunciatum à Prophetis, & fic refurgentes aliumi, quotquot Dominus hoc dignos habuerit. Tertullian followeth Irenæus in this particular : Habes & regionem Inferam fubterraneam credere & illos cubito pellere qui satis superbè non putent animas fidelium Inferis dignas, servi super Dominum & discipuli super magistrum, aspernati si fortè in Abrahæ sinu expectandæ resurrectionis folatium carpere. De Anima. c. 55. Nulli patet cælum terrà adhuc falvâ, nè dixerim claufà. Cum transactione enim mundi reserabuntur regna cælorum. Ib. Eam itaque regionem finuin dico Abrahæ, etfi non coeleftem, sublimiorem tamen Inferis, interim refrigerium præbiturain animabus justorum, donec consummatio rerum resurrectionem omnium plenitudine mercedis expungat. Adv. Marci. 1.4. 6. 34. Omnes ergo animæ penes Inferos? Inquis, Velis & nolis, & supplicia jam illic & refrigeria habes, pauperem & divitem. Cur enim non putes animam & puniri & foreri in Inferis, interim fub exspectatione utriusque judicii in quadam ufurpatione & candida cjus ? De anima. cap.48. S. Hilary, in his Commentary upon these words of the Psalm. Dominus cuftodiet & introitum tuum exitum tuum ex hoc c usque in feculum: Non eniin temporis hujus & seculi eft ifta custodia, non aduri fole atque lunâ, & ab omni malo confervari; fed futuri boni exfpectatio eft, cùm exeuntes de corpore & introitum illum regni cælestis per custodiam Domini fideles omnes reservabuntur, in sinu scilicet interim Abrahæ collocati, quo adire impios interjectum Chaos inhibet, quoufque introeundi rurfum in regnum cælorum tempus adveniat. Cultodit ergò Dominus exitum, dum de corpore exeuntes secreti ab impiis interjecto Chao quiefcunt. Custodit & introitum dum nos in æternum illud & beatum regnum introducit. And at the end of the second Psalm, Judicii enim dies vel beatitudinis retributio eft æterna, vel pænæ: tempus verò mortis habet unumquemque suis legibus, dum ad judicium unumquemque aut Abraham reservat aut pæna. Thus Gregory Nyffen still leaves the Patriarchs in Abraham's Bofom, in expectation of admittance into Heaven : Kas moi wci i Asesius σαρχάρχαι το ε ιδείν τα απαθα επιθυμίαν έχον, και εκ ανήκαν επιζηενες τ' έπεράνιον πατρίδα καθώς φησιν ο 'Απότολα. αλλα ομως εν τω ελπίζειν έτι - χάριν εισί, τα Θιά κρείττόν τι πει ημών προβλεψαμεία, και τ' τα Πώλε φωνάω, ίνα μη, φησί, musis speãy tenewbwri. De Hominis Opificio, cap. 22. These therefore which conceived that the souls of the godly nozu after Christ's Ascension do go unto the Bofom of Abrahar), where ibe Patriarchs and Prophets were and are, and that both remain together till the general Resurrection, did not believe that Christ did therefore descend into Hell, that he might translate the Patriarchs from thence into Heaven.

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