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he took upon himself the Sins of those which otherwise had been damned; yet that Act of his was a most vertuous, charitable, and most glorious Act; highly conformable to the Will of God, and consequently could not be the Object of Remorse. The Grief and Horror in the Soul of Christ, which we have expressed in the Explication of his Sufferings antecedent to his Crucifixion, had reference to the Sins and Punishment of Men, to the Justice and Wrath of God; but clearly of a nature different from the Sting of Conscience in the Souls condemned to eternal Flames. Again, an essential part of the Torments of Hell is a present and constant fenfe of the everlasting displea

fure of God, and an impossibility of obtaining favour, and avoiding pain ; : an absolute and complete defpair of any better condition, or the least res

laxation : Bur Christ, we know, had never any fuch resentment, who looked upon the reward which was set before him, even upon the Crofs; and offered up himself a sweet-fmelling Sacrifice: which could never be efficacious, except offered in Faith. If we thould imagine any damned Soul to have received an exprefs Promise of God, that after, 10000 Years he would releafe him from those Torments, and make him everlastingly happy, and to have a true Faith in that Promise, and a firm Hope of receiving eternal Life; we could not fay that Man was in the fame condition with the rest of the damned, or that he felt all that Hell which they were senfible of, or all that pain which was due unto his Sins : becaulé hope and confidence,' and relying upon God, would not only mitigate all other pains, but wholly take away the bitter anguifh of Despair. Christ then, who knew the beginning, continuance, and conclufion of his Sufferings, who underftood the determinate minute of his own Death and Refurrection, who had made a Covenant with his father for all the degrees of his Paffion, and was fully affared that he could fuffer no more than he had freely and deliberately undertaken, and should continue no longer in his Paffion than he had himself determined, he who by thofe Tormenţs was assured to overcome all the Powers of Hell, cannot pofsibly be said to have been in the same condition with the damned, and strictly and properly to have endured the Pains of Hell.

Again, If we take the Torments of Hell in a metaphorical sense, for those Terrors and Horrors of Soul which our Saviour felt, which may therefore be called infernal Torments, because they are of greater Extremity than any other Tortures of this Life, and because they were accompanied with a sense of the Wrath of God against the Unrighteousness of Men ; yet this cannot be an interpretation of the Descent into Hell, as it is an Article of the Creed, and as that Article is grounded upon the Scriptures. For all those Pains whichi our Saviour felt (whether, as they pretend, properly infernal, or metaphorically fuch) were antecedent to his Death ; part of them in the Garden, part on the Cross; but all before he commended his Spirit into the hands of his Father, and gave up the Ghost. Whereas it is fufficiently evident that the Descent into Hell, as it now stands in the Creed, fignifieth fomething commenced after his Death, contradiftinguished to his Burial; and, as it is confidered in the Apostle's Explication, is clearly to be understood of that which immediately preceded his Resurrection; and that also grounded upon a confidence rorally repugnant to infernal Pains. For it is thus particularly expressed:

I forefaw the Lord always before my face; for he is on my right hand, that Pfal.16.9,10. I Mould not be moved. Therefore did my heart rejoyce, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flej Shall rest in hope: because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell

. Where the Faith, Hope, Confidence, and Assurance of Chrift is shewn, and his flesh, though laid in the Grave, the place of Corruption, is said to rest in hope, for this very reason, because God would not leave his foul in hell. I conclude therefore, that the Descent into Hell is not the enduring


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the Torments of Hell: because, if strictly taken, it is not true ; if metaphorically taken, though it be true, yet it is not pertinent.

The Third Opinion, which is also very late, at least in the manner of Explication, is, that in those words, Thou shalt not leave my Soul in Hell; the Soul of Christ is taken for his Body, and Hell for the Grave, and consequently, in the Creed, He descended into Hell, is no more than this, that Christ'in his Body was laid into the Grave. This Explication ordinarily is rejected, by denying that the Soul is ever taken for the Body, or Hell for the Grave; but in vain: For it must be acknowledged that sometimes the

Scriptures are rightly so, and cannot otherwise be, understood. First, the *The Hebrew fame Word in the * Hebrew, which the Psalmist used, and in the Greek, and the Greek which the Apostle used, and we translate the Soul, is elsewhere used for the

Body of a dead Man, and translated fo. And when we read in Mofes of a SINUS Prohibition given to the High Priest or the Nazarite, of going to or sx iyxor mine, coming near a dead Body, and of the Pollution by the Dead; the dead Bohet dy in the Hebrew and the Greek is nothing else but that which elsewhere sigPfal. 16. 1o. nifieth the Soul. And Mr. Ainsworth, who translated the Pentateuch nearer But both WD)

the Letter than the Sense, hath so delivered it in compliance with the origiand luxy, are used for the nal Phrase; and may be well interpreted thus by our Îranslation, o re shall Body of a dead not make in your flesh any cutting for a foul, that is, for the dead: - For a 6. and it is to foul he shall not defile himself among the people, that is

, There shall none be translated; defiled for the dead among his people; d He that toucheth any thing that is for Moses

unclean by a soul, that is, by the dead: « Every one defiled by a foul, that is, Speaking there of a Nazarite, by the

dead: * He Mall not come at a dead foul, that is, He Mall come at no

dead Body. Thus Ainsworth's Translation lieweth, that in all these places the , day's that he original word is that which originally signifieth the Soul; and our Translation separateth teacheth us, that though in other places it signifieth the Soul, yet in himself unto must be taken for the Body, and that Body bereft of the Soul. Thall come at no dead Body, in the Original N'No va y, and in the LXX. ini wéon fuxiña Telenobrança 8x cirradíreg. - In the same manner the Law for the High-Priest. Lev. 21.11. Neither shall he go in to any dead body NIN Dwo 5 byl, sy imi créon toxí telenbutnxúę or directory. And the general Law, Lev. 22.4. And whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the dead, VDJ ADU 522 yašom og ó- 477óvišu au wéons désodozrias fogas. which is farther cleared by that of Num. 19.11. He that touches the dead body of any man, Qui tetigerit cadaver hominis; and v. 13. Whosoever toucheth the dead body of any man that is dead, Omnis qui tetigerit humanæ aninæ morticinum. Therefore the WD) and fuxi, in Lev. 29. 4. do signifie the cadaver or morticinum; as also Num. 5.2, Whosoever is defiled by the Dead, vpb ano, wává excluemov foxñ, pollutum super mortuo. And U9 NDU dxálazio iri yoxñ, Hag. 2. 13. is rightly translated, one that is unclean by a dead body. Thus several times U9) and foxs are taken for the body of a dead Man; that body which polluted a Man under the Law by the touch thereof.

And Maimonides hath observed, that there is no pollution from the Body till the Soul be departed. Therefore WB) and fuxo did signifie the Body after the Separation of the Soul. And this was anciently observed by S. Augustine, that she Soul may be taken for the Body only. Animæ nomine corpus folum poffe fignificari modo quodam locutionis oftenditur, quo significatur per id quod continetur illud quod continet; ficut ait quidam, Vina coronant, cùm coronarentur vasa vinaria ; vinum enim continetur, & vas continet. . Sicut ergò appellamus Ecclefiam Bafilicam quâ continetur populus, qui verè appellatur Ecclesia, ut nomine Ecclefiæ, id eft, populi qui continetur, fignificemus locum qui con, tinet: ita quòd aniinæ corporibus continentur, intelligi corpora filiornm per nominatas animas poffunt. Sic enim meliùs accipitur etiam illud, quod Lex inquinari dicit eum qui intraverit super animam mortuam, hoc eft, fuper defunci cadaver ; ut nomine animæ mortuæ mortuum corpus intelligatur, quod animam continebat, quia & absente populo, id eft Ecclefia, locus tamen ille nihilominus Ecclefia nuncupatur. Epift. 157. ad Optatum, de Animarum Origine. b Lev. 19. 21.

d Lev. 22. 4.
e Num. 5. 2,

f Num. 6. 6. *The Hebrew Secondly, * The word which the Psalmist used in Hebrew, and the Apo

is the Greek ons bows up aiyn as ng 'Ono igra? ciddiyes yoxclus les ris o dw, (or sis ads as it is read in the AAs and in the Psalıns, also by the ancient Ms. at s. James's.) And these generally run together, and sometimes fignife no more than the Grave, as. Gen. 37. 35. where Jacob, thinking that his son Joseph had been dead, breaks out into this. {ad Expression, 7520 Å 12 Song , "OTI *c726ýconcus as og's i jóy M8 Wovēão eis që do, which we translate, For I will go down into the grave unto my Son mourning, upon the Authority of the ancieni Targums. For although that of Onkelos keep the original word, Una; yet the Jerusalem Targum and that of Jonathan render it Nmiap 125, in domum sepulchri; and the Persian Targuin, to the same purpose, 722; as also the Arabick Translation, Imò descendam ad pulverem mæftus de filio meo. so Gen. 42:38. . In paia inaw na On77171, xj xalážité je to više estes per aúnns visady. which we translate, Then shall ye bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the grave: where the Jerusalem Targum and that of Jonathan have it again NM1235; and the Persian again 132 in sepulchrum; the Arabick bar se ad pulverem, or ad terram. And it is observed by the Jewish Commentators shat shole Chris fians are mistaken 'who interpret those words spoken by Jacob, I will go down into Sheol, of Hell; declaring that Sheol shere is nothing else but the Grave. ,


e Lev. 21. I.

,שאול ;ordi

a Gen. 37. 35;

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Atle in Greek, and is translated Hell

, doth certainly in some other Places fignifie no more than the Grave, and is translated fo. As where Mr. Ain fworth followeth the Word, a For I will go down unto my Son mourning to hell; our Translation aiming at the Sense, rendreth it; For I will go down into the grave unto my Son mourning. So again he, v Te shall bring down my gray hairs with forrow unto hell, that is, to the grave. And in this sense we lay, 642. 38. c The Lord killeth and maketh alive; he bringeth down to the grave, and oi Sam. 2.6. bringeth up.

Now being the Soul is sometimes taken for the Body deserted by the Soul, and Hell is also sometimes taken for the Grave, the Receptacle of the Body dead; therefore it is conceived that the Prophet did intend these Significations in those Words, Thou shalt not leave my soul in hell; and consequently the Article grounded on that Scripture mult import no more than this, Christ in respect of his Body bereft of his Soul, which was recommended into, and deposited in the hands of his Father, descended into the

grave. This Exposition hath that great Advantage, that he which first mentioned this Descent in the Creed, did interpret it of the Burial ; and where this Article was expressed, there that of the Burial was omitted. But notwithstanding those Advantages, there is no Certainty of this Interpretation : First, Because he *which did so interpret it, at the same time, and in the Tenure * Ruftinus, of that Expression, did acknowledge a Descent of the Soul of Christ into who firfi menHell; and those other f Creeds which did likewise omit the Burial, and ex-ticle, didina press the Descent, did shew, that by that Descent they understood not that terpret it of of the Body, but of the Soul. Secondly, Because they which


these Words
into the Roman Creed, in which the Burial was expressed before, must cer- ready obser-
tainly understand a Descent distinct from that ; and therefore though it might ved; but yet
perhaps be thought a probable Interpretation of the Words of David, cipe-he
cially taken as belonging to David, yet it cannot pretend to an Exposition of fiinet from
the Creed, as now it stands.

that, in the
Exposition of

the Creed: Sed & quòd in infernum descendit, evidenter prænunciatur in Pfalmis, cc. and then citing that of S. Peter, Unde & Petrus dixit

, Quia Chriftus mortificatus carne, vivificatus autem fpiritu, in ipso, ait, c eis qui in carcere inclusi erant in diebus Noe, in quo etiam quid operis egerit in inferno declaratur, as we before more largely cited the same place. f 1 fneved before, that in the Creed made at Sirmium there was the Descent mentioned, and the Burial omitted, and

yet that Descent was so expressed that it could not be taken for the Burial : Besides now I add, That it was made by i be Arians, who in few Years before had given in another Creed, in which both the Burial and the Descent were mentioned; as that of Nice in Thracia, λοθανόντα, και ταφίνια, και εις τα καταχθόνια κατελθόντα, όν αυτός ο αδης έτρόμαξεν. Theodoret. Hift. I. 2. c. 21. and not long after gave in another at Constantinople to the same purpose, scegweivia, video sev6v7dt, og ταρένια, και ας τα καταχθόνια διεληλυθότα, όν τινα και αυτός ο άδης έπληξεν. Socrat. lib. 2. τ. 4.

the Grave; as

we have al

The next Opinion is, That the Soul may well be understood either for the Noble part of Man distinguished from the Bódy; or else for the Person of Man consisting of both Soul and Body, as it often is; or for the Living Soul, as it is distinguished from the Immortal Spirit: but then the term Hell shall signifie no Place, neither of the Man, nor of the Body, nor of the Soul; but only the State or Condition of-Men in Death, during the Separation of the Soul from the Body. So that the Prophecy shall run thus, Thou shalt not leave my Soul in Hell, that is, Thou shalt not suffer me to remain in the common State of the Dead, to be long deprived of my Natural Life, to continue without Exercise, or Power of exercising my vital Faculty: And then the Creed will have this Sense, that Christ was crucified, dead and buried, and descended into Hell; that is, he went unto the Dead, and remained for a Time in the State of Death, as other Men do.

But this Interpretation supposeth that which can never appear, that Hades signifieth not Death it felf, nor the Place where Souls departed are, but the State and Condition of the Dead, or their Permansion in Death; which is a Notion wholly new; and consequently cannot interpret that which repre



* The Opinion senteth something known and believed of old, according to the Notions and of the ancient Conceptions of those Times. And that this Notion is wholly new, will

apcale is excel- pear, because not any of the ancient Fathers is produced to avow it, nor lently expref- any of the Heathen Authors which are produced do affirm it: Nay, it is fed by Tertul- evident that the Greeks did always by Hades understand a Place into which

, shews three

the Souls of Men were carried and conveyed, distinct and separate from that kinds of men Place in which we live ; and that their different Opinions fhew, placing it, so be thought, fome in the Earth, fome under it, fome in one unknown Place of it, fome ad inferos in another. But especially Hades, in the Judgment of the ancient Greeks, when they cannot consist in this Notion of the State of Death, and the Permansion die ; the first Infepulti

, the in that Condition, because there were many which they believed to be Second Aori

, dead, and to continue in the State of Death, which yet they believed not the third Biæ

to be in Hades, as * those who died before their Time, and those whose
othanati. Cre-
ditum eft, in- Bodies were unburied. Thus likewise the ancient Fathers differed much con-
fepultos non cerning the Place of the Infernus; but never any doubted but that it figni-
ros redigi quam justa perceperint. De Anim. c. 36. Aiunt & immaturâ morte præventas eoufque vagari ifthic, donec
reliquatio compleatur ætatis quâcum pervixissent fi non intempestivè obiissent. Ibid. Proinde extorres inferûm habe-
bantur, quas vi ereptas arbitrantur, præcipuè per atrocitates fuppliciorum ; crucis dico & fecuris, & gladii, & feræ.
1b. The Souls then of those whose Bodies were unburied were thought to be kept out of Hades till their Funerals were
performed, and the Souls of them who died an untimely or a violent Death, were kept from the same place until the Time
of their natural Death should come. This he farther expresses in the Terms of the Magicians, whose Art was conversant
about Souls departed. Aut optimum est hic retinere fecundùm ahoros, (i. e. diaq8s) aut peffimum, secundùm Biæotha-
natos, (Blasw@cvét85) ut ipsis jam vocabulis utar, quibus auctrix opinionum istarum Magica sonat, Hoftanes, & Typhon,
& Dardanus, & Damigeron, & Nectabis, & Bernice. Publica jam literatura eft quæ animas etiam jufta ætate lopitas,
etiam probâ morte disjunctas, etiam promptâ humatione dispunctas, evocaturam fe ab inferùm incolatu pollicetur,
cap. 57. Of that of the Insepulti, he produceth the Example of Patroclus : Secundùm Homericum Patroclum funus in
fomnis de Achille flagitantem, quod non alias adire portas inferûm posset, arcentibus eum longè animabus sepultorum,
The Place he intended is that, Iliad. t.

Θάπλεμε, ότι τάχισα πύλας αίδιο περήσω.
Τηλέ με εργάσιν ψυχαν, άδωλα καμόντων.

Ουδέ με σως μίστε σίς ποταμοίο εώσιν. .
in the same manner he describes Elpenor, Odyff

. a.
Πρώτη και ψυχή ΕλπήνορG- ήλθεν εταίρα,

Ου γάρ συ ετέθαπο το χθονός ευρυοδείης.
where it is the obfervation of Euftathius, “Οτι δόξα ήν τοίς "Ελλησι, τας ή αθάπίων ψυχάς μη αναμίγινας ταϊς λοταϊς.
And the same Eustathius observes an extraordinary Accurateness in that Question of Penelope concerning Ulysses, upon
that same ground, Odyff.

Είπε έτι ζώς, και δεν φάG» ηελίοιο:

"Η έτι τεθνήκε, και αν αϊδαο δόμοισι. Το 5, και ορά φώς ηλία, δί ορθότητα αυνοίας κεί). ως διωατον ζήν , μη βλέπαν δέ. Ούτω 3 και το, εάν αιδαο δόμοισι, προς ακρίβειαν λόΓε ερρέθη εξετά τους εξής δηλοθησόμδυον Ελλωικών μύθον, και πάς τεθνηκως και ο αδε γίνε 3, 4 μή και πυρά δοθή, хава

* ο Ευριπίδε έμφαίνς Πολύδωρος ώσε το, και ήδη τέθνηκε, και αν αϊδαο δόμοισιν αν7ι τε, ή ήδη τέθνηκε, και τίθαση. It is here very observable tbat, according to the opinion of the Greeks, to be dead is one thing, and to be in Hades is another : and that every one which died was not in Hades, i wās tegenxais xej cv çdo vive), as Eustathius speaks. Legimus præterea in Sexto insepultorum animas vagas esse, Serv. in Æneid. 3. The place which he intended I suppose is this,

Hæc omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba eft ;
Fortitor ille Charon; hi quos vehit undâ sepulti,
Nec ripas datur horrendas nec rauca fluenta
Transportare priùs quàm fedibus ossa quiêrunt.

Centum errant annos, volitantque hæc littora circum. Virg. Æn. 6.
Thus he is to be understood in the Description of the Funeral of Polydorus, Æneid. 3.

Ergo instauramus Polydoro funus, & ingens
Aggeritur tumulo tellus, animamque sepulchro

Not that anima does there signifie the body, as some have observed; but that the soul of Polydorus was then in reft
when his Body received Funeral Rites, as Servius, Legimus præterea in Sexto insepultorum animas vagas effe, & hinc
conftat non legitimè sepultum fuisse. Ritè ergo redditâ legitimâ sepulturâ ; redit ad quietem sepulchri, faith Servius;
or rather, in the sense of Virgil, ad quietem inferni, according to the Petition of Palinurus,

Sedibus ut faltem placidis in morte quiescam. And that the Soul of Polydorus was so wandring about the place where his Body lay unburied, appeareth out of Euripides in Hecuba, where he speaketh thus, Nw waris unlegs pians 'Exáons diosa, Cães iemucoas inov

, Terlamov ion poyla aiweópuos. And in the Troades of the same Poet this aan, or erratio vagabunda infepultorum, is acknowledged by the Chorus in these Words, 'n piro, a cóct moi, Ej oli plum árahvas "A.Surm, dvozo. And when their bodies were buried, then their souls passed into Hades, to the resi. so was it with Polydorus, and that Man mentioned in the History of the Philosopher Athenodorus, whose umbra or phasma walked after his Death. Inveniuntur offa inserta.catenis & implicita, quæ corpus ævo terrâq; putrefactum, nuda & exesa reliquerat vinculis : collecta publicè fepeliuntur; domus poftea ritè conditis manibus caruit . Plin. l. 7. Epift. 27. This was the case of the Insepulti

. And for that of the Bixos thapati, it is remarkable that Dido threatneth Æneas,


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fequar atris ignibus absens,
Et cum frigida mors animâ feduxerit artus;
Omnibus umbra locis adero.-

Upon which Place Servius observes, Dicunt Phyfici Biæothanatorum animas non originem suam, nifi vagantes legitimum tempus fati compleverint; quod Poetæ ad sepulturám transferunt, ut, Centum errant annos.

Hoc ergo nunc dicit Dido, Occisura me ante diem sum; vaganti mihi dabis pænas : Nam te persequar, & adero quàm diu erravero femper.

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fied some * Place or other : and if they had conceived any such Notion as * "Ada 3) the State of Death, and the Permansion of the Dead in that State, they need ed not to have fallen into Doubts or Questions; the Patriarchs and the Pro-vaisse dyrara, phets being as certainly in the State of Death, and remaining so, as Corah, tas yuzas Dathan, and Abiram, are, or any Person which is certainly condemned to endopuścres de everlasting Flames. Though therefore it be certainly true that Christ did xóuðuc. Antruly and Properly die, as other Men are wont to do, and that after Expi- in Apocal. ration he was in the State or Condition of the Dead, in deadlihood, as fome have learned to speak ; yet the Creed had spoken as much as this before, when it delivered that he was dead. And although 'tis true that he might have died, and in the next Minute of Time revived, and consequently his Death not (precisely taken) signifie any Permansion or Duration in the State of Death, and therefore it might be added, he descended into Hell, to signifie farther a Permansion or Duration in that Condition : yet if Hell do fignifie nothing else but the State of the Dead, as this Opinion doth fuppose, then to defcend into Hell is no more than to be dead; and so notwithstanding any Duration implied in that Expression, Christ might have ascended the next Minute after he descended thither, as well as he might be imagined to revive the next Minute after he died. Being then to defcend into Hell, according to this Interpretation is no more than to be dead; being no Man ever doubted but that Person was dead who died ; being it was before delivered in the Creed that Christ died, or, as we render it, was dead: we cannot imagine but they which did add this part of the Article to the Creed, did intend something more than this, and therefore we cannot admit this Notion as a full or proper Exposition.

There is yet left another Interpreration grounded upon the general Opinion of the Church of Christ in all Ages, and upon a probable Exposition of the Prophecy of the Pfalmift, taking the Soul in the most proper sense for the Spirit or Rational part of Christ, that part of a Man which, according to our Saviour's Doctrine, the Jews could not kill ; and looking upon Hell as a Place distinct from this part of the World where we live, and distinguished from those Heavens whither Christ ascended, into which Place the Souls of Men were conveyed after or upon their Death ; and therefore thus expounding the Words of the Psalmist in the Person of Christ; Thou shalt not suffer that Soul of mine which shall be forced from my Body by the Violence of Pain upon the Cross, but resigned into thy hands, when it shall go into that Place below where the Souls of Men departed are detained : I say, thou shalt not suffer that Soul to continue there as theirs have done; but ihalt bring it shortly from thence, and re-unite it to my Body.

For the better understanding of this Exposition, there are several things to be observed, both in respect to the Matter of it, and in reference to the Authority of the

Fathers. First therefore, this must be laid down as a certain and necessary Truth, That the Soul of Man, when he dieth, dieth not, but returneth unto him that gave it, to be disposed of at his Will and Pleasure; according to the ground of our Saviour's Counsel, Fear not them which kill the Matt. 10:28: body, but cannot kill the soul. That better part of us therefore in and after Death doth exist and live, either by virtue of its fpiritual and immortal Nature, as we believe ; or at least the Will of God: and his Power upholding and pre


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