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Although therefore that God is, be of itself an immediate, certain neceffa- * Hæc propory truth, yet must it be * evidenced and made apparent unto us by its con- litio,Deus est;

con- quantum in se nexion unto other truths ; so that the Being of the Creator may appear unto us eft,per se nota by his Creatures, and the dependency of inferior Entities may lead us to a clear eft, quia præ

dicatum eft in acknowledgement of the supreme and independent Being. The Wisdom of dem cum lub the Jews thought this method proper, a for by the greatness and beauty of je&to, Deus ethe creatures, proportionably the maker of them is seen : and not only they, nim ex fuum

esse. Sed quia but S. Paul hath taught us, that b the invisible things of God, from the nos non richia Creation of the World, are clearly seen, being understood by the things mus de Deo

quid eft, non that are made, even his eternal Power and Godhead. For if + Phidias y

as eft nobis per could so contrive a piece of his own work, as in it to preserve the memory se nota, sed of himself, never to be obliterated without the destruction of the work, indiget de

monftrari per well. may we read the great Artificer of the World in the Works of his own ea quæ funt hands;andby the existence of any thing demonstrate the first Cause of all things. magis nota

quoad nos, & minùs nota quoad naturam, fcilicet per effectus. Aquin. I. p.q. 2. art. 2. a Wisd. of Sol. 13. 15. b Rom. 1. 20. This place must be vindicated from the falfe glofs of Socinus, who contends that it cannot be proved from the Creature that there is a God, and therefore to this place of S. Paul answers thus : Sciendum eft verba à creatione mundi debere conjungi cum verbo Invisibilia --- Ait igitur eo in loco Apostolus, æternam divinitatem Dei, quod nos Deus perpetuo facere vult, (Divinitas enim hoc sensu alibi quoque apud ipsum enunciatur, ut Col. 2.9.) eternamque potentiam, i. promisfiones quæ numquam intercident, (quo sensu paulò superiùs dixerat Evangelium esse potentiam Dei) hæc, inquam, quæ nunquam poftquam mundus creatus eft ab hominibus visa fuerant, i. non fuerant eis cognita, per opera, hoc eft per mirabiles iplius Dei & divinorum hominum, præfertim v. Christi & Apoftolorum ejus, operationes, conspecta fuisse. In which explication there is nothing which is not forced and distorted: for though his first observation seem plausible, get there is no validity in it. He bringeth only for proof, Mat. 13:35. xergure pelúce do xalaboañs xóous, which proves not at all that dro x71cews has the same sense: and it is more probable that it hath not, because that is usually expressed by andexñs xlirews, Mar. 10.6. and 13,19. 2 Pet. 3. 4. never by a'zo xlicews. Besides, the xexquue pelúa in S. Matthew bears not that Analogy with sogala which Socinus pretends, signifying not things unseen or unknown till then, but only obscure sayings or parables; for which purpose those words were produced out of the Psalms by the Evangelist, to prove that the Messias was to speak in Parables, in the Original p ionnitin LXX. Wegbahnele estáezős, i. wise, ancient sayings, which were not unseen and unknown, for it immediately followeth, which we have heard and known, and our Fathers have told us, Pfal. 78.3. And though he would make out this Interpretation, by accusing other Interpreters of unfaithfulness, Plerique interpretes ex præpofitione à, ex fecerunt, contra ipforum Græcorum Codicum fidem, qui non éx x7iqews sed dve xlicews habent: get there is no ground for such a calumny, because d'oo may be, and is often, rendred è or ex as well as éx, as Matt. 3.4. Storerxãv xauéno; è pilis camelinis, 7.4. doi ř opladný 68, ex oculo tuo, 16. die cravdãy, ex fpinis; and even in the sense which Socinus contends for Mat. 17. 18. dio mens creions, V. T. ex illâ horâ, as Tully, ex eo die, and Virgil, Ex illo Corydon, Corydon eft tempore nobis, and, Tempore jam ex illo casus mihi cognitus urbis Trojanæ. Sa the Greek die négos the Latins render ex parte, dveř748, ex æquo: of which examples are innumerable. There is no unfaithfulness then imputable to the Interpreters: nor can such pitiful Criticisms give any advantage to the first part of Socinus's Exposition. Howsoever the Catholick Interpretation depends not on those words d'xlícews, but on the consideration of the perfons, that is the Gentiles, and the other words, tockuari vooluce, which he farther perverts, rendring them the miraculous Operations of Christ and his Apoftles, or, as one of our learned men, their doings, mistaking toinuce, which is from the passive witoinuas, for woimais, from the active

Toizou for woimpea is properly the thing made or created, not the operation or doing of it; as xliais is sometimes taken for the Creature, sometimes for the Creation, but rlíona is the Creature only. As therefore we read, 1 Tim.4.4. wãy x liquece Of 8 xanóv. So Eph. 2. 10. aútô gás capelle toinka. In this sense spake Thales properly, Nigerbúralov % y 7 ar Ords, cyfórnlov gs: xóarisov xóoua, toinua gs. ots, Laert. The other Interpretations which he was forced to, are yet more extravagant : as when he renders the eternal Godhead, that which God would always have us do, or his everlafting will, and proves that rendition by another place of S. Paul, Col. 2.9. For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily, that is, says he, all the will of God (whereas it is most certain, that where the Godhead is, especially where the fulness, even all the fulness of the Godhead is, there must be all the Attributes as well as the Wil of God :) and when he interprets the eternal Power to be the promises which shall never fail ; and thinks he has sufficiently prov'd it, because the same Apostle calls the Gospel the power of God. For by this way of Interpretation no sentence of Scripture can have any certain sense. In the shield of Pallas. Arist. de mundo.

We find by the experience of our selves, that some things in this World have a beginning, before which they were not; the account of the years of our Age fufficiently infer our Nativities, and they our Conceptions, before which we had no Being. Now if there be any thing which had a beginning, there must necessarily be something which had no beginning, because no. thing can be a beginning to itself. Whatsoever is, muit of necessity either have been made, or not made; and something there must needs be which was never made, because all things cannot be made. For whatsoever is made, is made by another, neither can any thing produce it self; otherwise it would follow, that the same thing is and is not at the same instant in the fame respect : it is, because a producer ; it is not, because to be produced : it is therefore in being, and is not in being; which is a manifest contradi

D 2


wewtoy, ohows hath its being


ction. If then all things which are made were made by some other, that other which produced them either was it self produced, or was not: and if not, then have we already an independent Being; if it were, we must at last

come to fomething which was never made, or elle admit either a circle of * 'Anne peli productions, in which the effect shall make its own cause, or an * infinite ömre ist die fucceffion in causalities, by which nothing will be made: both which are xh ris, rg Š x

nem di- equally impossible. Something then we must confess was never made, fomeThe Otar, thing which never had beginning. And although these effects or dependent št' ús südwes w

Beings fingly considered by themselves, do not infer one fupreme Cause and Ada, lõkov. Maker of them all, yet the admirable order and † connexion of things shew Arift. Metaph. as much; and this one fupreme Cause is God. For all things which we fee again, rip or know have their Existence for fome end, which no man who confidereth vendén isi, to the uses and utilities of every Species can deny. Now whatsoever is and αίτιον έδεν

for some end, of that the end for which it is, must be tho iso. the Cause; and a final Cause is no otherwise the cause of any tl tábey, di non as it moves the efficient Caufe to work : from whence we cannot but collect Hi © rws isi ge- as és ; Ex a prime efficient Cause of all things, indued with infinite Wisdom, who 77a ousárs- having a full comprehension of the ends of all, designed, produced, and ás te soramone Simhin. difpofed all things to those ends.

eft. refp. Again, as all things have their existence, so have they also their operations ad Grecos. , for fome # end; and whatsoever worketh so, must needs be directed to it. 'Ey colg ési,

then those creatures which are indued with reafon can theretéry évena by apprehend the goodness of the end for which they work, and make எ :) * rejte egy rej Thi

choice of fuch means as are proportionable and proper for the obtaining of ipstics oxšu it, and so by their own counsel direct themselves unto it : yet can we not ws wedre), conceive that other natural Agents, whose operations flow from a bare InŠtw wépuxe rg wis tépuxer,

ev, stinct, can be directed in their actions by any counsel of their own. The exy pa to turo- stone doth not deliberate whether it shall descend, nor doth the wheat dibm T, take counsel whether it shall grow or no. Even men in natural actions at egéole y precesoy. 677e), use no act of deliberation : we do not advise how our heart shall beat, 3 ivexá Ts; as though without that pulfe we cannot live; when we have provided nutri

D aca ment for our stomach, we take no counsel how it shall be digested there, τάτε ένεκα. Arift. Phys. or how the chyle is distributed to every part for the reparation of the whole ;

the Mother which conceives takes no care how that Conceptus shall be framed, how all the parts shall be distinguished, and by what means or ways the Child shall grow within her womb: and yet all these operations

are directed to their proper ends, and that with a greater Reason, and there*"Totoy tó sore

fore by a greater Wisdom, than what proceeds from any thing of human unmsil oils af, fv:- derstanding. What then can be more clear, than that those natural Agents xa vivsat, which work constantly for those ends which they themselves cannot perεαν μη ίδωσι To nov v Brndi- Ceive, mult de dire

ceive, must be directed by some high and over-ruling Wisdom? and who of uitvov . xai can be their director in all their operations tending to those ends, but he TOP STE which gave them their beings for those ends ? and who is that, but the great

Sonou: 7. 20. si Evli v Artificer who works in all of them? For Art is so far the imitation of Nature, {úrou vertin- that if it were not in the Artificer, but * in the thing it self which by Art is v i ourj :

framed, the works of Art and Nature would be the fame. Were that which zoif. Arift. ib. frames a Watch within it, and all those curious wheels wrought without the + Kæbínsörre hand of man, it would seem to grow into that form; nor would there be iv vai zubiçv- any distinction between the making of that Watch, and the growing of a 775, ex opucato Plant. Now what the Artificer is to works of Art, who orders and disposes svionov, év 70gw i nogua them to other ends than by nature they were made, that is the Maker of Cuie, is zónd all things to all natural Agents, directing all their operations to ends which ä vóu , v 50orido" they cannot apprehend; and thus appears the Maker to be the Ruler of the il tesby 787o World, † the Steerer of this great Ship, the Law of this universal Commonaritm de mues. wealth, the General of all the hosts of Heaven and Earth. By these ways, as Mund.



by the * testimony of the Creature, we come to find an eternal and inde- * Habet Do- pendent Being, upon which all things else depend, and by which all things minus tefti

ings moniuin toelse are governed ; and this we have before Tupposed to be the first notion tum hoc quod of God.

sumus, & in

quo sumus. Neither is this any private collection or particular ratiocination, but the Terrel publick and universal reason of the world. f No Age so distant, no Country t'Agxaia lo remote, no People fo barbarous, but gives a fufficient testimony of this res, tóz@, ej

σατριός έσι truth. When the Roman Eagle flew over most parts of the habitable world, Fär my mind a they met with Atheism no-where, but rather by their miscellany Deities at Fols, as in

Θε8 τα σάνRome, which grew together with their victories, they fhewed no Nation was ist

on was ra, si alg Ois without its God. And since the later Art of Navigation improved hath dif- juis omina covered another part of the world, with which no former commerce hath mv. Arift. de been known, although the Customs of the people be much different, and their manner of Religion hold small correspondency with any in these parts of the world professed, yet in this all agree, that fome religious obfervances they retain, and a Divinity they acknowledge. Or if any Nation be difcovered which maketh no profession of piety, and exerciseth no religious obfervances, it followeth not from thence that they acknowledge no God : for they may only deny his Providence, as the Epicureans did ; or if any go farther, their numbers are so few, that they must be inconsiderable in respect of mankind. And therefore so much of the Creed hath been the general Confession of * all Nations, I believe in God. Which were it not a most * Nulla gens certain truth grounded upon principles obvious unto all, what reason could usquam ett abe given of so universal a consent ; or how can it be imagined, that all men ges moréique should † conspire to deceive themselves and their posterity ?

projecta, ut Nor is the reason only general, and the consent unto it univerfal, but God non aliquos

"Deos credat. hath still preserved and quickened the worship due unto his Name, by the Sen. patefaction of himself. Things which are to come are fo beyond our know- | Nec in hunc Iedge, that the wisest man can but conjecture : and being we are assured of nes mortales the contingency of future things, and our ignorance of the concurrence of confenfiffent several free causes to the production of an effect, we may be sure that certain alloquendi

“surda numina and infallible predictions are clear divine patefactions. For none but he & inefficaces who made all things, and gave them power to work, none but be who ru- Deos. Sen. leth all things, and ordereth and directeth all their operations to their ends, none but he upon whose will the actions of all things depend, can possibly be imagined to foresee the effects depending merely on those causes. And therefore by what means we may be assured of a Prophecy, by the fame we may be secured of a Divinity. Except then all the Annals of the world were forgeries, and all remarks of History designed to put a cheat upon posterity, we can have no pretence to fulpect God's existence, having fo ample testimonies of his influence.

The works of nature appear by observation uniform, and there is a certian sphere of every body's power and activity. If then any action be performed, which is not within the compals of the power of any natural agent, if any thing be wrought by the intervention of a body which beareth no proportion to it, or hath no natural aptitude fo to work; it must be ascribed to a cause transcending all natural caufes, and disposing all their operations. Thus every Miracle proves its author, and every act of Omnipotency is a fufficient demonstration of a Deity. And that man must be possessed with a strange opinion of the weakness of our Fathers, and the testimony of all former Ages, who Thall deny that ever any Miracle was wrought. We have heard with psal. 44. 1. our ears, O God, our Father's have told us what works thou didst in their days, in the times of old. Blessed be the Lord God, who only doth won- 72.18. drous works.

Nor are we only informed by the necessary dependency of all things on


God, as effects upon their universal cause, or his external patefections unto others, and the consentient acknowledgment of mankind; but every particular person hath a particular Remembrancer in himself, as a fufficient testi

mony of his Creator, Lord, and Judge. We know there is a great force of Rom. 2. 15.

Conscience in all men, by which their thoughts are ever accusing, or excusing them; they feel a comfort in those vertuous actions which they find themselves to have wrought according to their Rule, a sting and secret remorse for all vicious acts and impious machinations. Nay those who strive most to deny a God, and to obliterate all sense of Divinity out of their own Souls, have not been least sensible of this Remembrancer in their Breasts. 'Tis true indeed, that a false opinion of God, and a superstitious persuasion which hath nothing of the true God in it, may breed a remorse of Conscience in those who think it true; and therefore some may hence collect that the force of Conscience is only grounded upon an opinion of a Deity, and that opinion may be false. But if it be a truth, as the testimonies of the wisest Writers of molt different perfuations, and experience of all lorts of perions of most various inclinations, do agree, that the remorse of Conscience can never be obliterated, then it rather proveth than supposeth an opinion of a Divinity; and that man which most peremptorily denieth God's existence is the greatest argument himself that there is a God. Let Caligula profess himself an Atheist, and with that profession hide his head, or run under his bed, when the thunder strikes his ears, and lightning flashes in his eyes ; those terrible works of nature put him in mind of the power, and his own guilt of the justice of God; whom while in his wilful opinion he weakly denieth, in his involuntary action he strongly asserteth. So that a Deity will either be granted or extorted, and where it is not acknowledged it will be mani

fested. Only unhappy is that man who denies him to himself, and proves * Hæc est him to others; who will not * acknowledge his existence, of whose power fumma dell- we cannot be ignorant, a God is not far from every one of us. The proper cti, nolle agnofcere quem discourse of S. Paul to the Philosophers of Athens was, that they might feel

are non after him and find him. Some Children have been fo ungracious as to repoflis. com S.

fuse to give the honour due unto their parent, but never an Idol. Van. as to deny they had a Father. As for those who have dishonoured God, à Aét. 17.27. it may stand most with their interest, and therefore they may wish there

were none; but cannot consist with their reason to assert there is none, 6 AFT. 17. 28. when even the very Poets of the Heathen have taught us b that we are his


It is necessary thus to believe there is a God, First, because there can be no Divine Faith' without this belief. For all Faith is therefore only Divine, because it relieth upon the authority of God giving testimony to the object of it ; but that which hath no being can have no authority, can give no testimony. The ground of his authority is his Veracity, the foundations of his veracity are his Omniscience and Sanctity, both which fuppofe bis Essence and Existence, because what is not is neither knowing nor holy.

Secondly, it is necessary to believe a Deity, that thereby we may acknowledge such a nature extant as is worthy of, and may justly challenge from us, the highest worship and adoration. For it were vain to be religious and to exercile devotion, except there were a Being to which all such holy applications were most justly due. Adoration implies submission and dejection, so that while we worship we cast down our felves : there must be therefore some great eminence in the object worshipped, or else we should dishonour our own nature in the worship of it. But when a Being is presented of that intrinfecal and necessary perfection, that it depends on nothing, and all things else depend on that, and are wholly governed and disposed by it, this worthily



calls us to our knees, and shews the humblest of our devotions to be but jult and loyal retributions.

This necessary truth hath been so universally received, that we shall always find all nations of the World' more prone unto Idolatry than to Atheism, and readier to multiply than deny the Deity. But our Faith teacheth us equally to deny them both, and each of them are renounced in these words, I believe in God. First, in God affirmatively, I believe he is, against Atheism. Secondly, in God exclusively, not in Gods, against Polytheism and Idolatry. Altho’ therefore the Existence and Vnity of God be two distinct truths, yet are they of fo necessary dependence and intimate coherence, that both may * Solum De be expressed by * one word, and included in one † Article.

um confirmas

quem tantùm Deum nominas, Tertul. de Testim. Anime, c. 2. When Leo, Bishop of Rome, in an Epistle to Flavianus had written these words, Fidelium universitas profitetur credere se in Deumn Patrem omnipotentem, & in. Jesum Chriftum Filium eius : one of the Eutychians objected with this question, Cur non dixerit in unuin Deum Patrem, & in unum Jesum, juxta Nicæni Decretum Concilii ? To which Vigilius, Bishop of Trent, or rather of Tapsus, gives this answer, Sed Roma & antequam Nicæna Synodus conveniret, à temporibus Apoftolorum usque ad nunc, ità fidelibus Symbolum tradi. tur, nec præjudicant verba úbi sensus incolumis permanet : magis enim cum D.J. Chrifti fententia hæc fidei profeffio facit dicentis, creditis in eum or in me credite : nec dixit in unum Deum Patrem, & in unum meipsum. Ouis enim nesciat unum esse Deum, & unum J. Chriftum Filium ejus ? Vigil. 1. 4. contra Eutych. Rab. Chaldai in Or. Adonai. R. Joseph. Albo in hikarim.

And that the Unity of the Godhead is concluded in this Article is apparent, not only because the Nicene Council fo expressed it by way of exposition, but also because this Creed in the * Churches of the East, before the Council of *Orientales

Ecclesiæ omNice, had that addition in it, I believe in one God. We begin our Creed then nes ilta trans as | Plato did his chief and prime Epistles, who gave this distinction to his dunt, Credo in friends, that the Name of God was prefixed before those that were more se- uno Deo Patre

omnipotenti, rious and remarkable, but of Gods, in the plural, to such as were more vul- Ruff. in symb. gar and trivial. a Vnto thee it was shewed, faith Mofes to Ifrael, that thou Bene hæc mightest know that the Lord he is God at the Lord he is God, there is none else beside him. And until

ide him. And runt ad folos: as the Law, so the Gospel teacheth us the fame, b We know that an Idol is Hæreticos nothing in the World, and there is none other God but one. This Unity pertinere,

m y quia falsaveof the Godhead will easily appear as necessary as the existence, so that it runt Symbomust be as impossible there should be more Gods than one, as that there lum, dum al

ter dixerit should be none : which will clearly be demonstrated, first, out of the nature duos Deos of God, to which multiplication is repugnant; and, secondly, from the Go- cum Deus uvernment as he is Lord, in which we must not admit Confusion.

nus fit. Optar.

l. 1. Nos enim & fcimus, & legimus, & credimus, & tenemus, unum effe Deum, qui fecit cælum pariter ac terram, quoniam nec alterum novimus nec nôffe, cum nullus sit, aliquando poterimus. Novatianus de Trinit. c. 30. And before all these Irenæus, citing under the title of Scripture, a passage out of the Book of Hermas called Pastor. Bene ergo Scriptura dicit, primo omnium crede quoniam unus eft Deus, qui omnia constituit & consummavit, & fecit ex eo quod non erat, ut effent omnia, omniuin capax, & qui à nemine capiatur, l. 4. C. 37. Euseb. in prap. Evang. the passage is yet extant in the Epistles of Plato. a Deut. 4. 35. b i Cor. 8.4.

For first, the nature of God confifts in this, that he is the prime and original cause of all things, as an independent Being upon which all things else depend, and likewise the ultimate end or final cause of all; but in this sense two prime causes are inimaginable, and for all things to depend of one, and to be more independent beings than one, is a clear contradiction. This primity God requ res to be attributed to himself; Hearken unto me, O Jacob, ifa. 48. iz. and Israel my called, I am he, I am the first, I also am the last. And from this primity he challengeth his Unity; Thus faith the Lord, the King of 44. 6. Ifrael, and his redeemer the Lord of Hosts, I am the first, and I am the last, and beside me there is no God.

Again, if there were more Gods than one, then were not all perfections in one, neither formally, by reason of their distinction, nor eminently and virtually, for then one should have power to produce the other, and thar nature which is producible is not divine. But all acknowledge God to be absolutely and infinitely perfect, in whom all perfections imaginable which


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