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Hence Bafil Bishop of Seleucia, makes Lazarus eome out of the Grave to live like an Infant in Swadling-cloaths. 'Ereiber ανεπήδα νεκρως τροφήμες» τα τα θανάτε «οικεί μεμο- Cύμβολα και το θάνατον λιπιδυσά μμ, f τάφε σολίω έκ ήλλαξα αλλ' ορίσαλο ταϊς καρίαις ως κ τάφο τεχθείς και με τόκον φέρων τα ασάρ ανα. Οrat. in Publican & Pharif. The κερία then were inftita', as the Vulgar Latin ; fafciæ, as Juvencus and the Syriack Translation, popa 70N, vinctus fafciis of the same nature I conceive were the debuie mentioned in our Saviour's Burial; and so S. Auguftine does express them in reconciling the rest of the Evangelists, who mentioned only Jofeph and the findon, with S. John, who addeth Nicodemus and ihe óbóvice

. Neque hic aliquid repugnet rectè intelligentibus. Neque eniin illi qui de Nicodemo tacuerunt, affirmaverunt à folo Joseph Dominum fepulium, quamvis folius commemorationem fecerint; aut quia illi una findone à Josepho involutum dixerunt, propterea prohibuerunt intelligi & alia lintea potuiffe afferri à Nicodemo 80 superaddi :, ut verum narraret Johannes quod non uno linteo, sed linteis, involutus fit; quamvis & propter sudarium quod capiti adhibebatur, & inltitas quibus totum corpus alligatum est, quia omnia de lino erant, etiamfi una findon ibi fuit, verifiimè dici potuit; ligaverunt eum linteis. De consensu Evang. l. 3. c. 23. These which he calls institæ quibus totuin corpus alligatum elt, were the non ignon, involucra mortui. Beside these we read in the History of Lazarus sjófes wrš Cosueig creusé6:70, John Ir. 44. And of our Saviour, ry to Goddesov ô l évi of xezañs outs. The Same is rendred by the Syriack 97710, and Nonnus makes it a Syriack word, Kai swów estiraso xahópu.27s xvx7.com rópol, Exocesov tí we seeint Euşav sóun. Whereas the Word is not of a Syriack, but Latin Origination; and from the Látins came to the Greek and Eastern People, Sudor and Sudare, from thence Sudarium. Vatinius reus, agente in eum Calvo, sudario candido frontem deterfit

. Quintil

. Suetonius of Nero, Plerunq; prodiit in publicum ligaro circa collum fudario. This was translated into their own Language by the latter Greeks, to signifie that which before was called ημιτύβιον and καψιδιώτιον, ας is obfered by Julius Pollux: To 3 ήμύβιον, κι μου και τότο Αιγύπτιον, άη και αν και το ω τη μέση Κωμωδία καψειρώτιον καλάμινον, νιώ (εδάριον ονομάζε). 'Αριστοφάνη και ο πλέτω τοιαύτη της η δόξα, "Επεία καθαρών ημιύβιον λαβών, Τα βλέφαρα σειέψησε : where τα βλέφαρα στέκεψησε, is the fame with that in Quintilian, frontent deterlit; ip7 võion then was the same with Sudarium, so the Scholiaft upon this place : 'Hg4s766 sov jaza nuiter bis 2ov v 74 olov in rešor. This is the proper signification of Estáesor, viz. 4 Linen Cloth used to wipe off sweat : byt when it was translated into the Chaldee or Syriack Language, it received å more general signification, of any cloth, or Veil, or Covering of Linen, for any other use,, As Ruth 3.15: Bring the Veil that thou hast upon ihee : the Chaidee rendreth it T5y19 N7710 27, and it held fix measures of Barley. So when Mofes is said to put a veil on his face, Exod. 34. 32. the Chaldee

again rendreth it N7710 DIN 57127 pp' yy 30m. So the Rabbins ordinarily use Sy 970 Sim the veil or covering of his head; and in that sense it is here taken, not with any relation to the Erymology, as Nonnus conceived in those Words, Oscar im w idęūta xunurówka megráns, as if Lazarus bad come sweating out of his Grave; but the only use, is being bound about ihe Head, and covering the Face, which the Epistle of Martialis calls fudarium mortuorum.

As for the Preparation of the Sepulchre to receive the body of our Saviour, the Custom of the Jews was also punctually observed in that. Jofeph of Arimathea had prepared a place of Burial for himself, and the manner of it is expressed : For in the place where he was crucified, there was a garden, and in Matth. 27. the garden a new fepulchre wherein never man was laid, which Joseph had Mark 15. hewn out of the rock for his own tomb : there laid they Jesus, and rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre. And fo Christ was buried after the manner of the Jews, in a Vault made by the * Excavation of the rocky firm + Strabo obpart

of the Earth, and that Vault secured from external Injury by a great serverto of ! cmally Stone rolled to the Mouth or Door thereof. After which Stone was

rusalem, that

the Ground once rolled thither, the whole Funeral Adion was performed, and the Sepul- about it,cimos

εξήκονία σαdiar, was iaémileges; for nine miles rocky underneath. It is therefore no wonder that in a Garden so near Jerusalem there should be found Ground which was petrosa. It is said therefore of Joseph, that pinusov irenéuno e añ aítegaof the Sepulchre, that his afde?opnuilíos en wetegs, and dazoumov, which signifie no less than that it was cut out of a Rack: and Nonnus makes a particular Paraphrase to that purpose of nazou7ov, only "Elu co nerovi xát Tóma adwoasiolo ExBuvo julgens die mites l'autlos oro viétours. Where Bærusopeturn fognifies the Excavation of the Rock, and yavr los the manner by which that Excavation was performed by Injcision, or Exsculption. But Salmafius hath invented another way, making the Earth to be digged, and a sepulchre built by art, of stone, within it. And this. Interpretation he endeavours to prove out of the Text; first alledging that mirage signifies, in the Writers of that Age, a Stone, not a Rock, and therefore acadlo umpelíos cr wéteges is in aids, made of stone : otherwise the Article would have been added one of wireys, if he meant the Rock which was there. But this is soon answered ; for in S. Matthew the Article is expressly added, i Ace7bvencev CV Tñ wéteqe. S. Matthew therefore understood it of that Rock which was in the Garden: and the rest without question understood the same. Again, he objects that 147gués, fignifies not only lapides ex lapicidina cædere, but also polire & quadrare ad ædificandum; and nažsiev signifies the last only. Wherefore being it is said not only as ace/oua políor, which may be understood of building, but also natury, which can be undersiood of no other; therefore he concludes that it was a Vault built of a square stone within the Ground. But there is no necessity of fruch a precise sense of sažsúcsv, which may be extended to any sense of nehouár. (as Origen indifferently 7c7ouentov našoutio minuão év mérea) and that, when it speaks of a Jewish Cujtom, must be iaken in that sense which is most congruous to their Cuftom, and as they used the Word. Now they rendred the Word in by Axlopéir, as 1 Kings 5. 15. 972 an actóme any co. gs. Ifa. 51. 2. Onayn 118 x 1927, fubaénele eis segear wétegov li inayopeńouls, unde excisi. As therefore Deut. 6. 11. helyzes afλαγομημδύας 25 εκ εξελατίμησας. Το 1fa. 22. Ι6. "Οτι ελατόμησας ζεαυτω ώδε μνημείον, και έΓραψας (εαυτού ω σίτρα (κηνήν in both places ac?optiv is nothing else but ym, and there mogubos dera lorempikov, in the Language of the Jews, is to be taken in the jame sense with róuxou deda?opmešos, that is, digged or hewn out of the Ground. This is well expressed by Orig. “Η ταφή έχει το καθαρότηλα Αξε τα ζυμβολικά δηλαμένω ώ τω οπόλεθείο αυτό το Cώμα μνημείων καινώ υφικώτι: έκ οκ λογάδων λίθων οικοδομηθει, και + ένωσιν και φυσικά έχονλι, αλλ' ν μιά και δί όλων ηνωμομη πίτσα λαγομηλή και λαξευτή 1. 2. adν. Celfum. And this cutting the Sepulchre out of the Rock; rather than building it in the Earth, is very material in the Opinion of S. Jerome, who makes this observation on Matth. 27. In monumento novo, quod excifum fuerat è Petra, conditus est, ne fi ex multis lapidibus ædificatum esset, fuffoflis tumuli fundamentis, ablatus furto diceretur ; and gives this Interpretation of the Prophet Ifaiah, Quod autem in fepulchro ponendus effet, Prophetæ testimonium eít dicentis,

His

* This hath

it is prohibited for any man to open the fepulchre after it is אסור לפתוח הקבר אחר שנסתם הגולל. ,themselves

Hic habitabit in excisa spelunca petra fortissime, statimque poft duos versiculos fequitur, Regum cum gloria videbitis. Another use of the fame Supposition is made likewise by St. Ambrose: Domini corpus tanquam per Apostolorum doctrinam infertur in vacuam & in novam requiem lapidis excisi; scilicet in pectus duritiæ gentilis quodam do&trinæ opere excisum Christus infertur, rude scilicet ac novum, & nullo antea ingreffu timoris Dei pervium, in Marth. cap. 27. Thus ruas the Sepulchre prepared for the Body: and when Joseph had laid it there, egtexúžice nitor piler areas Svegi he rolled a great stone to the door, the last part of that Solemnity. For this great Stone was faid to be rolled, by reason of the bignefs, as being not portable, (from whence arose the Women's Doubt, Mark 16. 3. Who shall roll us away the itone from the fepulchre ?), and that very properly, for it had its Name from that rolling, being called constantly by the

, , . . . .VN 7 DN Obadias de Bartenora.

ture completed; so that it was not * lawful by the Custom of the Jeres any been observed by the Jews more to open the Sepulchre, or disturb the interred Body. ihemselves, Thut with the rolled stone. So they are

Thirdly, Two eminent Persons did concur unto the Burial of our Saviour, lyled in the a fRuler and a Counsellor, Men of those Orders among the Jews as were of Forening

is greatest Authority with the People; Joseph of Arimathea, rich and honouvis, and Nico-rable, and yet inferior to Nicodemus, one of the great Council of the Sanhedemus ás xav drim: These two, though fearful while he lived to acknowledge him, are Powers ruled brought by the hand of Providence to interr him; that fo the Prediction might all them at be fulfilled which was delivered by Isaiah to this purpose. The Counsel of his Jerusalem un- Enemies, the Design of the Jews, a made his grave with the wicked, that he

As might be buried with them which were crucified with him: But because he appeared hath done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth ; because he was when Agrippa no ways guilty of those Crimes for which they justly suffered; that there might War by the be a Difference after their Death, though there appeared little Distinction in it; Sudden raising the Counsel of his Father, the Design of Heaven put him with the rich in of a Tax: Eis his death, and caused a Counsellor and a Ruler of the Jews to bury him. 3 οι τε άρχονες και οι βελο7αι μεριθέντες φόρες Cωίλιον • Jofeph. 1. 2. C, 29. 2 Ια. 53.9.

The Necessity of this part of the Article appeareth, First, In that it gives a Testimony and Assurance of the Truth both of Christ's Death preceding, and

of his Resurrection following. Men are not put into the Earth before they b Mark 15.

die : Pilate was very inquisitive whether our Saviour bhad been any while 44, 45.

dead, and was fully satisfied by the Centurion, before he would give the body to Joseph to be interred. Men cannot be said to rise who never died;

nor can there be a true Resurrection, where there hath not been a true Dissolution. That therefore we might believe Christ truly rose from the Dead, we muft be first assured that he died: and a greater Assurance of his Death than this we cannot have, that his Body was delivered by his Enemies from the Cross, and laid by his Disciples in the Grave.

Secondly, A Profession to believe that Christ was buried is necessary, to

work within us a Correspondence and Similitude of his Burial. For we are Coloff. 2. 12. c buried with him in Baptism, even d buried with him in Baptism unto death; d 6.4.

that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, gelum et in even so we also should walk in newness of life. That nothing may be done cruce Chrifti, or suffered by our Saviour in these great Transactions of the Mediator, but in refurrectio. may be acted in our Souls, and represented in our Spirits. ne tertio die, in ascensione in cælum, & in sede ad dextram Patris, ita gestum est, ut his rebus, non myfticè tantùm di&tis, sed etiam geftis, configuraretur vita Christiana quæ hic geritur. Nam propter ejus crucem dictum est

. Qui autem Jefu Chrifti Junt, carnem suam crucifixerunt cum vitiis o concupiscentiis, propter sepulturam, Consepulti enim fumus cum Christo per baptismum in mortem ; propter resurrectionem, ut quemadmodum Christus resurrexit à mortuis per gloriam Patris, ita & nos in novitate vite ambulemus, propter ascensionem in cælum, sedemque ad dextrain Patris, si astem refurrexiftis cum Chrifto, que fursum funt quærite, ubi Chriftus eft ad dextram Dei fedens, S. Auguft. Enchirid. ad Laur. And this was before observed by Origen, l. 2. adv. Cell. Ta oupérSnxeva avarereserepetáce Tz Incã ez ús ya λίξ και την ιστορία τ πάσαν έχει θεωρίαν τ' αληθείας. “Εκασον δ αυτών και σύμβολόν τινΘ- είναι δια τοϊς σιωεότερο» ώυχάνυσι τη γραφή επιδείκνυ 3. "Ωσπερ ήν η συρωθέναι αυτον έχω ? δηλεύω αλήθειαν ή των Χρισώ, σμυες αύρομαι, και του τη μαινομένων εκ τ8, Εμοί και μη βίαιο καυχάαλ α μη ω το ταυρώ τη Κυρία ημών Ιησε Χριση: δι και έμοι.κόσμG- έσαύρου, κάτω τω κόσμω. και ο θάνα/G- αυτά ανακαια, Ag το, "Ο δ απέθανεν αμαρτία απέθανεν επάφαξ, και με τη δίκαιον λεfess, συμμορφέ μόνο των θανάτων αυτ8, και το, Ει εσωαπεθάνο μου, και συζήσομαι ότι και η ταφή αυτή φθάνει επί τες συμμόρφές το θανάτω αυτά, και τες συναυρωθένας αυτο κ σωαποθανόνας, καθο και τον Παύλο λέλεκ το, Συνελάφημβργο αυτό με το βαπτίσμαθG-, και σμυανέςημα αυτό.

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Thirdly, It was most convenient that those Pious Solemnities should be

performed on the Body of our Saviour, that his Disciples might for ever learn what Honour was fit to be received and given at their Funerals. When Ananias died, though for his Sin, yet they wound him up, and carried him out, Afts 5. and buried him : when Stephen was stoned, devout men carried him to his Aits 8. burial, and made great lamentation over him: and when Dorcas died, they Acts 9. 37. washed her, and laid her in an upper Chamber : So careful were the Primitive Christians of the Rites of Burial. Before, and at our Saviour's time, the Greeks did much, the Romans more use the burning of the Bodies of the Dead, and reserved only their Alhes in their Urns: but when Christianity began to encrease, the Funeral Flames did cease, and after a few

Emperors

appear

eth by Macrohad received Baptism, there was not a Body burnt in all the Roman Empire. bius, who live For the first Christians wholly abstained from consuming of the dead Bodies ed in the time

of Theodofiwith Fire, and followed the Example of our Saviour's Funeral, † making use

us junior, and of precious Ointments for the Dead, which they refused while they lived, teftifierhilus and spending the Spices of Arabia in their Graves. The Description of the much; Licet

urendi corpoPerfons which interred Christ, and the Enumeration of their Virtues, and the

ra defunctoeverlasting Commendation of her who brake the Box of precious Ointment for rum ufus nohis Burial, have been f thought fufficient Grounds and Encouragements for fruseculo the careful and decent sepulture of Christians. For as natural Reason will lectio tamen teach us to give some kind of Respect unto the Bodies of Men, though dead, docet, co

tempore quo in reference * to the Souls which formerly inhabited them: so, and much

igni dari homore, the Followers of our Saviour, while they looked upon our Bodies as normortuis

habebatur, living Temples of the Holy Ghost, and bought by Christ, to be made onc

cr. l. 7. 6. 7. Day like unto his glorious Body, they thought them no ways to be f neglected That this was

done by the Chrißians is certain, because the Heathens anciently did object it to the Christians. Inde videlicet & exsecrantur' rogos. & damnant ignium fepulturas. And the Answer given to this Objection was, Nec, ut creditis, ullum damnum sepulturæ timemus, sed veterem & meliorem consuetudinem humandi frequentamus. Minut. Fælix in Octavio. And Tertull. Et hoc etiam in opinione quorundam eft; proptereà nec ignibus funerandum aiunt, parcentes superfluo animæ. Alia eft autem ratio pietatis iftius, non reliquiis animæ adulatrix, sed crudelitatis etiam corporis nomine averfatrix, quòd & ipsum homo non utique mereatur pænali exitu impendi. De anima. c.51. At ego magis ridebo vulgus tunc quoque, cùm ipsos defunctos atrocissimè exurit, quos postmodùm gulosissimè nutrit, iisdein ignibus & promerens & offendens. O pietatem de crudelitate ludentem: facrificet, an insultet, cum crematis cremat? idem de Refur. Carn. 4. I. | The Heathens objected it to the Primitive Chriftians; Reservatis unguenta funeribus. Minutius Felix. And Tertullian confesseth it, Thura planè non emimus. Si Arabiæ queruntur, fciant Sabæi pluris & cariores suas merces Chriftianis sepeliendis profligari, quàm Diis fumigandis. Apol. c. 42. And speaking of Spices, lib. de Idololat. Etiam hominibus pigmenta medicinalia, nobis quoque infuper ad folatia sepulturæ usui sunt. So Clem. Alex Muersorg, or 78 vexegi. And again, ai gS iniquilege xeions i múgav xndobas, ši Cure biacows arenviron. Padag l. 2. c. 8. Iple Dominus die tertio resurrecturus religiofæ mulieris bonum opus prædicat, prædicandumque commendat, quòd unguentum pretiosum super membra ejus effuderit, atque hoc ad eum sepeliendum fecerit. Et laudabiliter commemorantur in Evangelio, qui corpus ejus de cruce acceptum diligenter atque honorificè tegendum fepeliendumque curâ

Verùm iftæ authoritates non hoc admonent, quod infit ullus cadaveribus sensus: fed ad Dei providentiam, cui placent etiam talia pietatis officia, corpora quoque mortuorum pertinere fignificant, propter fidem resurrectionis aftruendam. S. Auguft. de Civitate Dei, l. 1. c. 13. * Ουδέν 3 λυπά ημάς εδε το αο Ηρακλίτα λεγόμενον, όπες Κέλσε: περίληψεν, ότι νέκνές εισι κοπρίων εκβληλότεροι, και τοιγε είπoι τις αν και οι τότε, ότι τα , κόπρια κύληλα έσιν, οι δ' εξ ανθρώπων νέκυες, Αξε τ' ώοικήσασαν ψυχίω και μάλισα εαν ή αραολέρ, εκ ευβλητοί. Καλα γδ τες ασεογέρες ή νόμων, με ή ωδεχομδύης ως προς τα τοιαύτα τιμής ταφής αξιες: ένα μή υβρίζουν τη διωάμς + ώοικήσασαν ψυχίω λιρριπλάνες, to itcaxi, awski ao Côjece, as wej Toe T xtlwão Canale. Orig. adv. Celfum, bos.

Νεμεασώμαι γι 2 δεν
Κλαίων ος κε θάνησι βολών και πότων επίση.
Tõró w my viegs ievaiguegies Begleios

Κίρσθαί τε κόμίω, βαλίειν τ' Χι δάκρυ παρειών. Οdyf. δ'. | Nec ideò tamen contemnenda & abjicienda funt corpora defun&orum, maximéque justorum atque fidelium, quibus tanquam organis & vafis ad omnia bona opera San&us ufus eft Spiritus. Si enim paterna veftis & annulus, ac fi quid hujusmodi tanto charius eft pofteris, quantò erga parentes major exstitit affectus; nullo modo ipsa spernenda sunt corpora, quæ utique multò familiariùs atque conjunctiùs quàm quælibet indumenta geftamus. Hæc enim non ad ornamentum vel adjutorium quod adhibetur extrinfecus, fed ad ipfam naturam hominis, pertinent. S. Aug. de Civir. Dei, 1. 1. ο. 13. Ταύτα τελέσας και ιεράρχης, λίθησιν ώ οίκω τιμίω το Cώμα μεθ' ετέρων ομολαγών ιερών (ωμάτων. Εί δ ώ ψυχή και Cώμαλε το θεοφιλή ζωω ο κεκοιμημαίG- εβίω, τίμιον έσαι: όσιας ψυχής και η ζωαθλήσαν αυτή Cώκα και τες ιερες ιδρώτας, ένθεν η θέα δικαιοσύνη και το Cφετέρι Cώμα7%- αυτή δωρά τας αμοιβαίας λήξας, ως όμοποιούτω mg countló xu orias cvarias Cañs. Dionyf. Eccl. Hierarch. c.7. Propter patrein militiam Chrifti deferam, cui sepulturam Christi caufâ non debeo, quam etiam omnibus ejus caufà debeo : S. Hieron. Epist. ad Heliodorum.

after

* This was

after Death, but carefully to be laid up in the Wardrobe of the Grave, with fuch due respect as might become the Honour of the Dead, and Comfort of

the Living. And the decent Custom of the Primitive Christians was so acobserved by

ceptable unto God, that by his Providence it proved most * effectual in the Julian the

Conversion of the Heathens and Propagation of the Gospel Apoftate, who, writing to an idolatrous High-Priest, puts him in mind of those things by which he thought the Christians gained upon the World, and recommends to them the Practice of the Heathen Priests. Of these he reckons three; the Gravity of their Carriage, their Kindness to Strangers, and their Care for the Burial of the Dead. Τι ον ημάς οιόμεθα ταύτα ezrežo šd! ambas soojalo o recédosa ábrórna (so he calls Christianity, because they rejected all the Heathen Gods) Cze καιύξησεν, η αεί τες ξένες φιλανθρωπία, και οι τας ταφας ή νεκρών προμήθεια, και η πεπλασμίνη Cεμνότης και τα βίον; ών έκασον orou as xeñves wag tuwo á arbós, érindste af. Epist

. 49. ad Arfacium. And as Julian observed the care of Burial as a great Encouragement to the Heathens to turn Christians, Lo Gregory Nazianzen did observe the same to the great Diffsonour of the Apostate, comparing his Funeral with his Predecessors. 'o 78 (that is Conftantius) agréuti) navdupois δυφημίαις τε και πομπαίς, και τέτοις 5 τοϊς ημετέροις σεμνούς, ωδαίς παννύχεις και διαδεχίαις, αις Χριστιανοί τιμών μελάσασιν ασεβή νομίζομεν και γίνε σανήγυρις με πάθος η οκκομιδή τα σώμα7G-. But as for Julian, μίμοι γελοίων ηγον αυτών, και τοίς λίπο σκίωής αίρεσιν έπομπύελο έως και Ταρσέων αυτον σιδέχε πόλις Ξένθα και οι τίμδυΘ- άτιμον, και τάφο εξάγισαν και εκπόπλυσύ, και δε θεατος ασεβών όψεσι. Steliteur. 2.

Thus I believe the Only-begotten and Eternal Son of God, for the Confirmation of the Truth of his Death already past, and the Verity of his Refurrection from the Dead suddenly to follow, had his Body, according to the Custom of the Jews, prepared for a Funeral, bound up with Linen Cloths, and laid in Spices; and after that accustomed Preparation, deposited in a Sepulchre hewn out of a Rock, in which never Man was laid before, and by rolling of a Stone unto the Door thereof, entombed there. Thus I believe that Christ was buried.

ARTI

ARTICLE V. ne descended into Hell : the third day he roft again

from the dead.

Some

HE former part of this Article, of the Descent into Hell

, hath

* First, it is to not been so * anciently in the Creed, or fo universally, as the rest.

be observed, The first Place we find it used in was the Church of Aquileia ; that the De· and the time we are sure it was used in the Creed of that Church Scent into Hell

was less than 400 Years after Christ. After that it came into the ancient Creeds Roman Creed, and others, and hath been acknowledged as a part of the or Rules of

Faith. Apostles Creed ever since.

tell us that it

was not in the Confession of Ignatius Epift. ad Magnes. But indeed there is no Confession of Faith in that Epifle ; for what is read there was thrust in out of Clemens his Conftitutions. In like manner, in vain is it objected that it was omitted by Polycarp, Clemens Romanus, and Justin Martyr, because they have not pretended any Rule of Faith or Creed of their Times. But that which is material in this Cause, it is not to be found in the Rules of Faith delivered by Irenæus, lib. 1. cap. 2. bry Origen. lib. mes de xã, in Proæm. or by Tertullian, adv. Praxcam, cap. 2. de Virg. veland. c. 1. de Præscript. adv. Hæset. cap. 13. It is not expressed in those Creeds which were made by the Councils as larger Explications of the Apoftles Creed: not in the Nicene or Constantinopolitan, not in that of Ephesus or Chalcedon ; not in those Confessions made at Sardica, Antioch, Seleucia, Sirmium, &c. It is not mentioned in several Confessions of Faith delivered by particular Per fons : not in that of Eusebius Cæsarienfis, presented to the Council of Nice, Theodoret

. l. 1. c. 2. not in that of Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra, delivered to Pope Julius, Epiphap. Hær. 72. not in that of Arius and Euzoius, presented to Conftantine, Socrat. l. 1. c. 19, not in that of Acacius Bishop of Cæsarea, delivered in to the Synod of Seleuga, Socrat. 1. 2. C. 40 not in that of Eustathius, Theophilus and Silvanus, sent to Liberius, Socrat. I. 4. C. 12. There is no mention of it in the Creed of S. Bafil, Tra&. de Fide in Afceticis; in the Creed of Epiphanius, in Ancorato, C. 120. Gelafius, Damafus, Macarius, &c. It is not in the Creed expounded by S. Cyril, (though some have produced that Creed to prove it) it is not in the Creed expounded by S. Auguftine de Fide & Symbolo; not in that De Symbolo ad Catechumenos, attributed to S. Augustine; not in that which is expounded by Maximus Taurinenfis, nor in that so often interpreted by Petrus Chrysologus; nor in that of the Church of Antioch, delivered by Caffianus, de Incarn. I. 6. neither is it to be seen in the Ms. Creeds set forth by the learned Archbishop of Armagh. Indeed it is affirmed by Ruffinus, that in his Time it was neither in the Roman or the Oriental Creeds : Sciendum fanè eft, quod in Ecclefiæ Romanæ Symbolo non habetur additum, descendit ad inferna ; sed neque in Orientis Ecclefiis habetur hic sermo. Ruff. in Exposit. Symboli. It is certain therefore (nor can we disprove it by any acknowledged Evidence of Antiquity) that the Article of the Descent into Hell was not in the Roman or any of the Oriental Creeds.' That the Descent into Hell came afterwards into the Roman Creed appeareth, not only because we find it there of late, but because we find it often in the Latin Church many Ages fince: As in that produced by Etherius against Elipandus in the rear 785, in the 115 Serm. de Tempore, falfy ascribed to S. Augustine, where it is attributed to S. Thomas the Apostle; in the Exposition of the Creed falfy afcribed to s. Chryfyftome. # As in the Creed attributed to S. Athanafius, which though we cannot say was his, yet we know was extant about the rear 600, by the Epiftle of Ilidorus Hispalensis ad Claudium Ducem. It was also inserted into the Creed of the Council of Ariminum, Soc. 1. 2. c. 37. and of the fourth Council of Toledo, held in the Year 633 ; and of the fixteenth Council of the same Toledo, held in the Year 693.

Indeed the Descent into Hell hath * always been accepted, but with a * Quis nifi in

fidelis negavarious Exposition ; and the Church of England at the Reformation, as it

verit fuiffe received the three Creeds, in two of which this Article is contained, so did apud inferos it also make this one of the Articles of Religion, to which all who are ad Chriftum ? mitted to any Benefice, or received into Holy Orders are obliged to subscribe. Epift. 99. And at the first Reception it was propounded with a certain Explication, and thus delivered in the fourth Year of King Edward the Sixth, with reference to an express place of Scripture interpreted of this Descent : f That the Bo- 11 Pet. 3. 19. dy of Christ "lay in the Grave until his Resurrection ; but his Spirit, Nam corpus

usque ad Rewhich he gave up was with the Spirits which were detained in Prison, or

surrectionem in Hell, and preached to them, as the place in S. Peter teftifieth. So like-in sepulchro wise after the same manner in the Creed set forth in Metre after the manner jacuit

, Spiriof a Psalm, and still remaining at the end of the Psalms, the fame Expo-emiffus cum sition is delivered in this Staff ;

spiritibus qui

in Carcere fiAnd so he died in the flesh, ve in inferno detinebantur, fuit, illisque prædicavit, ut tefta

tur Petri locus, &c. Articuli ann. 1552. which place was But quickned in the spirit :

also made use of in the Exposition of the Creed contained in the His body then was buried,

Catechism set forth by the Authority of King Edward, in the As is our use and right.

seventh Year of his Reign.

His

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