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milh and withont spot. We all had sinned, and so offended the Justice of God, and by an Act of that Justice the Sentence of Death passed upon us ; it was necessary therefore that Christ our Surety should die, to satisfie the Justice of God, both for that Iniquity, as the Propitiation for our Sins, and for that Penalty as he which was to bear our Griefs. God was offended with us. and he must die who was to reconcile him to us. For when we

mies, faith St. Paul, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son. We Col. I. 21.

were sometimes alienated, and enemies in our mind by our wicked works
were J
yet now hath he réconciled us in the body of his flesh through death. Thus
the Death of Christ was necessary toward the great Act of his Priesthood, as
the Oblation, Propitiation and Satisfaction for the Sins of the whole World:

and not only for the Act it self, but also for our Assurance of the Power and Heb.9.13,14. Efficacy of it, (For if the blood of bulls and goats fanctifieth to the purify

ing of the flesh: How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the

eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge our consciences Rom. 8. 22. from dead works ?) and of the Happiness flowing from it, (for he that pared

not his own Son, 'but delivered him up for us all, how shall be not with

him also freely give us all things?) Upon this Assurance, founded on his Death, Heb. 10. 19, we have the freedom and boldness to enter into the Holiest by the blood of Hea 20. jus, by a new and living way which he hath confecrated for us, through the

veil, that is to say, his flesh. Neither was the Death of Christ necessary only in respect of us immediately for whom he died, but in reference to the

Priest himlelf who died, both in regard of the Qualification of himie Heb: 2. 17,18. Consummation of his Office. For in all things it behoved him to be made

like unto his Brethren : that he might be a merciful and faithful Highpriest, and having suffered being tempted, might be able to fuccour them that are tempted : so that passing through all the previous Torments, and at last through the Pains of Death, having fuffered all which Man can fuffer, and much more, he became, as an experimental Priest, most sensible of our Infirmities, most compassionate of our Miseries, most willing and ready to support us under, and to deliver us out of, our Temptations. Thus being qualified by his utmost Suffering, he was also fitted to perfect his Offering. For

as the High-priest once every year for the Atonement of the Sins of the Heb.9. 1;11, People 'entred into the Holy of Holies not without blood; fo Christ be

ing come an High-priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect Tabernack, not made with hands, by his own blood entred in once into the holy place, having obtained éternal Redemption for us. And this is the grand Necessity of the Death of Christ in respect of his Sacerdotal Office.

Thirdly, There was a Necessity that Christ should die in reference to his Regal Office. O King, live for ever, is either the loyal or the flattering Vote for Temporal Princes; either the Expression of our Desires, or the Suggestion of their own : whereas our Christ never shewed more sovereign Power than in his Death, never obtained more than by his Death. It was not for nothing that Pilate suddenly wrote, and resolutely maintained what he had written, This is the King of the Jews. That Title on the

Cross did signifie no less than that his Regal Power was active even there : Col. 2. 4. for having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them oHeb. 2.14. penly, triumphing over them in it; and through his death destroyed him

that had the power of death, that is, the Devil. Nor was his Death

only necessary for the present Execution, but also for the Assecution of farI Pet. I. II. ther Power and Dominion, as the means and way to obtain it. The Spirit

of Christ in the Prophets of old testified before-band the fufferings of Christ, Pfal. 110. 7. and the glory that should follow. He shall drink of the brook in the way, Phil. 2.8, 9. faith the Prophet David; therefore Mall he' lift up his head. He humbled




himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross, Wherefore God also bath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name. For to this end Christ both died and rofe, and revived, that he might be Lord of the dead and living. .

Thus it is necessary to believe and profess our Faith in Christ who died: for by his Blood and the Virtue of his Death was our Redemption wrought, as the Price which was paid, as by the Atonement which was made, as by the full Satisfaction which was given, that God might be reconciled to us, who before was offended with us, as by the Ratification of the Covenant made between us, and the Acquisition of full Power to make it good unto us.

After which Exposition thus premised, eyery Christian is conceived to exprefs thus much when he makes Profession of Faith in Christ Jesus which was dead: I do really and truly assent unto this, as a moft infallible and fundamental Truth, That the Only begotten and Eternal Son of God, for the working out of our Redemption, did in our Nature, which he took upon him, really and truly die, so as by the Force and Violence of those Torments which he felt, his Soul was actually separated from his Body; and although neither his Soul nor Body was separated from his Divinity, yet the Body bereft of his Soul was left without the least Vitality. And thus I believe in Jesus Christ which was crucified and dead.

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And Buried.
T H EN the most precious and immaculate Soul of Christ was really

W separated from his Fleih, and that Union in which his Natural
Life consisted was dissolved, his Sacred Body, as being truly dead, was laid
up in the Chambers of the Grave: so that as we believe him dead, by the
Separation of his Soul; we also believe him buried, by the Sepulture of his

And because there is nothing mysterious or difficult in this part of the Article, it will be fufficiently explicared when we have shewn,' first, that the promised Messias was to be buried; and, secondly, that our Jesus was so buried as the Melias was to be.

That the Mejias was to be buried, could not possibly be denied by those who believed he was to die among the Jews; because it was the univerfal. Custom of that Nation to * bury their Dead. We read most frequently of* It is obfer

ved by Tacithe Sepulchres of their Fathers : and though those that were condem

y tus of the their lupreme Power were not buried in their Fathers Graves, yet publick Jews, in opSepulchres there were appointed even for them to lie in : and not only Plan

only position to the

Y Roman Cuthey; but all the Instruments which were used in the Punilhment were bu- stom, Corporied with them. And yet besides the general Consequence of Death among ra condere, .

2 quam cremathe Jews, there was a perfect Type in the Person of Jonas: for as that mee more Propher a was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; fo was the Ægyptio. Meffias, or the Son of man, to be three days and three nights in the heart Hill.As

of the Ægy. of the earth.

ptians by 0

thers, Ocmlazs ģAiyó lloc ll taerxolorles, Pauciñor ä raboyles, Naíones i b's Tod's hópuvees per781785. Laert. Pyrrh. But the Jews received this Cuftom no more from the Ægyptians than from the Persians, whom they inay be rather said to follow, beCaxfe then used not the Ægyptian taeixouais neither were they more distinguished from the Romans than from the Græcians, who also burned the Bodies of the Dead. Alfaópefuar se Toe Oun tas tapa's, ó de "Enalu éxager ó négons

Fata: z ʼlydos vára meixeita. o Exúons xcheaties taerxour ö ö Aigúria Lucian. wei évogs. Although therefore it be not true, that the Jews received their Custom of burying their Dead from the Ægyptians, because Abraham at the first purchased a Burying-place ; yet it hath been observed, and is certainly true, that their general Custom was to interr. Philo, one of their Writers, 'Ay@gurois xy tão inegrators oixeróte egy si púris xwehov úteverde ylü, jóvor Gãru no

g mieści, j aury my best mogutlu wwodexon) gfósolv, og in Tš Bio tinuta svénuroy. l. 1. in Flaccum. a Mart. !2. 40.

i Nor

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Nor was his Burial only represented Typically but foretold Prophetically, both by a fuppofitive Intimation, and by an express Prediction. 'The Prai

milt intimated and supposed no less, when speaking in the Person of the Pfal. 16.9,10. Christ, he said, My flesh shall rest in hope, for thou wilt not leave my foul

in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to fee corruption. That * So the Mi- Flesh is there supposed only luch, that is, a Body * dead; and that Body drash Tillim resting in the Grave, the common Habitation of the Dead; yet resting there anciently expounded it, in hope that it should never see corruption, but rise from thence before that My flesh thall time in which Bodies in their Graves are wont to putrifie. Beside this Intimareining homestion, there is yet a clear Expression of the Grave of the Mesias in that emiafter death; nent Prediction of Isaiah; *He was cut off out of the land of the living, adding 'n want to play and he made

ve with the wicked, and with the rich in his death. $505727 For whatsoever the true Interpretation of the Prophecy be, (of which we

Sysim shall speak hereafter) it is certain that he which was to be cut off, was to that Rabbi have a Grave : and being we have already shewn that he which was to be Ifaac Said, he cut off was the Mefias ; it followerh, that by virtue of this Prediction the these words, promised Messias was to be buried. that the Moth and Worm should have no power over him.' Whence by the Argument of St. Peter, it must be understood not of David; for his flesh faw Corruption ; nor of any other but the Messias. And although the Rablins are wont to say, That the Worms shall never eat the Juft, in opposition to the last words of Efay; yet they muft confess there is no Difference in the Grave: And therefore that Worm must fignifie nothing else but the Corruption of the Body. Well thereβιre are thefe words paraphrafed by Didymus, επ' ελπίδι κατεσκήνωσεν και ζουξ, f θέως εσομερω ανάσασεν. * Ifa. 53. 8, 9.

Secondly; That our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Mefias, was thus buried, we shall also prove, although it seem repugnant to the manner

of his Death. For those which were sentenced by the Romans to die upon * To this Cu- the Cross, had not the Favour of a Sepulchre, but their Bodies were. *exRom Horace aludes, Epiß. posed to the Fowls of the Air, and the Beasts of the Field; or if they escaped 16.1.1. Non their Voracity, to the longer Injury of the † Air and Weather. A Guard hominem oco widi Non so was also usually & fer about them, lest any pitying Hand should take the Bosces in cruce dy from the cursed Tree, and cover it with Earth. çorvos. And Juvenal, Vultur, jumento & canibus crucibusque relietis, Ad fætus properat, partémque cadaveris affert. So Prudentius, Crux illum tollat in auras, Viventesque oculos offerat alitibus, wei sep. Hymn.4. This Punishment did appear in the Mythology of Prometheus; who though he were by some represented fimply as decuárns, by others particularly he is described as avesawgwfc, especially' by Lucian, who delivers him wegonaxplov, xgqué pilyor, wegaw atlanbuófuor, alvao savgópefuor, ávarxodor i soppor. "And Tertullian, Speaking of Pontus, from whence Marcion came; Omnia torpent, omnia rigent: nihil illic nifi feritas calet, quæ fabulas scenis dedit, de sacrificiis Taurorum, & amoribus Colchorum, & crucibas Caucasorum. Adv. Marc. 1. 1.c.1. He touches the subject of three Tragedies, Medæa, Iphigenia in Tauris, and Prometheus Vinctus, or rather Crucifixus. As therefore the Eagle there did feed upon his Liver, so were the Bodies of crucified Perfons left to the promiscuous Rapacity of carnivorous Fowls. So true it was of them what Augustus once said, Cuidam sepulturam petenti respondit, jam illam in volucrum esse poteftate. Suet. c. 13. Nor were they only in the Power of the Fowls of the Air, as Prometheus was, whom they durf not hang too low, left Men should succour him, Što god tutuvor my as ego fesor esowgwat xpna Says Vulcan in Lucian for that Reason; but ordinarily they hung so low upon the Cross, that the ravenous Beasts might reach them, as Apuleius describes; Patibuli cruciatum, cum canes & vultures intima protrahunt viscera. † So the Bodies were often left upon the Cross till the Sun and, Rain had putrified and consumed them. As when the Daughter of Polycrates did see her Father's Face in a Dream, to be washed by Jupiter, and to be anointed by the Sun when he hung upon the Cross, it was performed. No duregions que evangeneéiuf@ irenese wrão ar em for Sufalegs, iašto g5 wad zg Aids oxas voi, ixeirlo z ojax áveis autos on rõ opalo ispadow Herod. Thalia. Of which Tertull. de Anim. 6. 46. Ut cum Polycrati Samio filia crucem profpicit de Solis unguine & Javacro Jovis. And which is farther thus exprefed by Valerius Maximus : Putres ejus artus, & tabido cruore manantia membra, atque illam lævam cui Neptunus annulum manu piscatoris reftituerat, situ marcidam, Samos lætis oculis afpexit, l. 6. c.9. Thus were the Bodies of the Crucified left: ut in fublimi putrescerent. Quid? Cyrenæum Theodorum Philosophum non ignobilem nonne miramur ? cui cum Lyfimachus Rex crucem minaretur, Iftis, quæso, inquit, ifta horribilia minitare purpuratis tuis, Theodori quidem nihil interest humile an sublime putrescat. Cicero, I. 1. Tufc. Queft. And so they perished, as the Scythians generally did, according to the Description of Silius Italicus, l. 13.

At gente in Scythica fuffixa cadavera truncis

Lenta dies sepelit, putri liquentia tabo. Thus 'whether by the Fowls or Beasts, or by the Injury of Time or Weather, the Flesh of those which were crucified was consumed ; as Artemidorus observed, who concluded from thence, that it was bad for the Rich to dream of being crucified: To's j warrios Brán14° yurvol go sawgov 7, xe tais coéqxas dindaúxon oi sawgwbérles. Oneirocr.l.2.6.58. As appeareth by that Relation in Petronius Arbiter: Imperator Provinciæ latrones jussit crucibus affigi-Proxima autem nocte, cum miles qui cruces afservabat nequis ad sepulturam corpora detraheret, or. And when that Soldier was absent, Itaque cruciati unius parentes, ut viderunt laxatam cuftodiam, detraxere nocte pendentem, fupremoque mandaverunt officio. Where we see the soldier ser for a guard, and the end of thar cuftodia, which the Greek Lexicographers do not well confine to the segéround

tu dious

Table de cualnetw i inférfon) to keep the Body of him which was crucified from being buried by his Friends. Thus when Cleomenes was dead, his Body was fastned to a Cross (another Example of the ignominy of his punishment) by the command of Ptolemy; 'o jlltodeud , wis ryva Taree wegritasi, to Cãrece Karofu og agencíon xalo@ugoocarlas. Where respecérou is again to be observed as taken for evasaugūscu, for not long after in the same Author it follows, 'onía Γεις ύσερον ημέραις, οι το Cώμα το Κλεομίες άνεσωρωμίον αλαφυλάττοντες είδαν ευμεγέθη δράκοντα τη κεφαλή ωοιπεπλε -filov, Jinxgún loyla to segrwtov,' ws und der ögreov ipinleaf Cagxopolov. Where we see a Guard set io keep him from burial, and the voracious Fowls ready to seize on him, had they not been kept off by a Serpent involving his Head. Thus were soldiers, upon the Crucifixion of any person set as a Guard, i ovesaugwidov a punet7ov765, or regules, & crucem affervantes, viz. nc quis ad sepulturam corpus detraheret.

Under that Custom of the Roman Law was now the Body of our Saviour on the Cross, and the Guard was set; there was the Centurion and they that Mat. 27.54. were with him, watching Jesus. The Centurion returned as soon as Christ was dead, and gave Testimony unto Pilate of his Death; but the Watch continuieth still. How then can the ancient Predictions be fulfilled ? How can this Fonas be conveyed into the Belly of the Whale? Where shall a be make a lfa. 53. 9. bis grave with the wicked, or with the rich, in his death of crucifixion? By the Providence of him who did foretel it, it shall be fulfilled. They which petitioned that he might be crucified, shall intercede that he may be interred. For the * Custom of the Jews required, that whosoever suffered by the Sentence of their Law should be buried, and that the same Day he suffered. Par

Twy ticularly they could not but remember the express words of Mofes, b If a man have committed a fin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou m bang him on a tree; His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but Songs thou shalt in any wise bury him that day. Upon this general Custom and Maimon.

Tract. Sanparticular Law, especially considering the Sanctity of the Day approaching, bed. & the Jews, that the bodies should not remain upon the Cross on the Sabbath So Josephus; day, befought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be Toscósile lo

δαίων οι τας taken away. And this is the first step to the Burial of our Saviour. αφας πρόνοιας

Wols poliwr, üse sj og's i'r xa7adirns evæsoweggfúss Treg dwarto jaix averein te rij Fet7es. De Bell. Jud. 1. 24. c. 18.

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For though by the common Rule of the Roman Law, those which were condemned to the Crots were to lose both Soul and Body on the Tree, as not being permitted either Sepulture or * Mourning; yet it was in the Power * Non folent of the Magistrate to indulge fthe leave of Burial: and therefore Pilate who autem lugeri crucified Christ because the Jews desired it, could not possibly deny him with hoftes used Burial when they requested it ; he which professed to find no fault in him perduelliones while he lived, could make no pretence for an accession of Cruelty after his damnati, nec

fufpendiofi, Death.

nec qui ma

nus lîbi intulerunt, non tædio vitæ, sed malâ conscientiâ. Digeft. I. 3. tit. 2. I. Liberorum. ' f so Ulpianus, l. 9. de officio Proconsulis; Corpora eorum qui capite damnantur cognatis ipsorum neganda non funt: & id se observâffe etiam Divus Augustinus libro decimo de vita súa scribit. Hodiè autem eorum in quos animadvertitur corpora non aliter sepeliuntur quàm fi fuerit petitum & permiffum; & nonnunquam non permittitur, maximè majestatis caufâ damnatorum. So Paulus, l. 1. Sententiarum : Corpora animadversorum quibuslibet petentibus ad sepulturam danda sunt. Obnoxios criminum digno fupplicio subjectos fepulturæ tradi non vetamus. Cod. l. 3. tit. 43. 1. 11.

Now though the Jews had obtained their request of Pilate, though Christ had been thereby certainly buried; yet had not the Prediction been fulfilled, which expreflly mentioned the rich in his death. For as he was crucified between two Thieves, so had he been buried with them, because by the Jews there was appointed a publick place of Burial for all such as suffered as Malefactors.

Wherefore to rescue the Body of our blessed Saviour from the malicious hands of those that caused bis Crucifixion, there came a rich man of Arimathea, Matth. 27. named Jofeph, an honourable Counsellour, a good man and a just; who also Mark 15. himself waited for the kingdom of God, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly fohn 19. for fear of the Jews : this Joseph came and went in boldly unto Pilate,

Ff 2


2. Luke 23.

and be fought him that he might take away the body of Jefus. And Pilate gave him leave, and communded the body to be delivered: he came there

fore and took the body of Jesus. John 3. 1,10. Beside, there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by and 19.39, night, a man of the Pharisees, a ruler of the Jews, a master of Israel; 46.

this Nicademus came and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes, with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury..

And thus was the Burial of the Son of God performed, according to the custom of the People of God. For the understanding of which there are Three things confiderable: First, what was done to the Body, to prepare it for the Grave; Secondly, How the Sepulchre was prepared to receive the Bo: dy; Thirdly, How the Perfons were fitted by the interring of our Saviour to fulfil the Prophecy.

As for fulfilling the Custom of the Jews as to the Preparation in respect of Mark 14.3, 8. his Body, we find the spices and the linen clothes. When there came a wo

man having an alabaster box of ointment of Spikenard, very precious, and the brake the box and poured it on his bead; Christ made this interpreta

tion of that Action, she is come before-hand to anoint my body to the buMark 16. I. rying. When Christ was risen, Mary Magdalen and the other Mary brought Luke. 24. 1. the Spices which they had prepared, that they might come and anoint him. ... Thus was there an interpreted and an intended Unction of our Saviour, but .

really and actually he was interred with the Spices which Nicodemus brought.

The Custom of wrapping in the Clothes we fee in Lazarus rising from the John 11.44. Graye; for he came forth bound band and foot with grave-clothes, and his

face was bound about with a napkin. In the fame mapper when our SaJohn 20.6,7. viour was risen, Simon Peter went into the sepulchre and saw the linen

clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen


clothes, but wrapped together in a place by it felf. Thus according to the * There are Custom of the Jews, was the Body of Christ bound in * several Linen Clothes four words in the Gospel "" with an Aromatical Composition, and fo prepared for the Sepulchre. expressing the Linen Clothes in which the Dead were buried, Endair, adóvsc, xkerau, and Coddens. The Enday is used by three 'Evan. gelists, as what was brought by Joseph: Kai áfordícas Crudoves, xj xodenais au tov cveiange Condórs, Mark 15:46. and S. Matthew and, S. Luke, etónev awii Crvdova 'odóvia is used by S. Luke and s. John, "EXQ6ox šv ro Cauc 'lnog, sen idmoen witò obaviors. Now both these words Mew that the Clothes were Linen. Enday, tunica linea, Glofl: dwar Ástev, angv ti, tot Coudersov, Etym. So 'oeórice, novã inétia, Hesych. This was, according to the Custom of the Jews, among! whom there was a kind of Law, That they should use no other Grave-clothes. As therefore the Egyptians in Herodotus, ašcarles veregy xolestias 804. Thãy oută To Cuide at Cordova Buarirns, fo the Jews. But it is farther to be observed, that s. John faith incen aurò oboriors, they bound up his Body with several Clothes, which signifies it was done fasciatim. As Herodotus in another case, Grúgunoi te iw pofuos ta ' Axea, xy Cordova Buairns Teadmãos xcluniosorles. Whereas then Julius Pollux'observes, 98 x tenopa's Goodovitns. I conceive these odbyse in S. John were such tenagaves Cordovi), lineæ fafciæ, or inftitæ, called in the case of Lazarus xHehou for as he is described dede púa xwehasse so it is said of the Body of Christ, concav atò ódovíoss, they bound him with Linen Bandages or Swathes. These are the colápice derud, as the Grammarians interpret receive tanquam xmerce. So the ancient . in the Library, at St. James's reads it, dodajúcom τας χώρας και τις σόδας κηρίαις. And o Ηefychius reads it, when he made that Interpretation. Kαρίαις (leg. Κηρίαις) επιθανάτια ευλιΓεύα. What anciently κηρία αυas, will appear by the words of Julius Pollux: Και μίω ταίΓε τη κλινη και Tupe Criptodo che la pefkov, ws véghy ta tuaća, auglice, avdela, sóvos, xheha, the Bands or Cords by which the Beds or Couches are fastned, and upon which the Bedding lies. In this sense it is to be taken in that known place of Ariftophanes, in Avibus.

Srégrlo gS &v Deipilis sya tñ pešti wóad,

Oude as you bóvli wasule mrielav čxar. of which Eustathius Iliad. b. gives us this account : noi men är denblūc ardens, xerekar xwe % tot per dezelvan a 2718 anélucelos, é a áralu 'rou xresuy, to decko xairns. Hence the Grammarians give that Interpretation of Kuehue. As Étymologus, Khera Coucibud ro goniov zo occuevos xnávku, viz. in reference to that place of Aristophanes, otherwise it basb no relation to a Bed, but indifferently signifieth any fascia or band. So the Scholiast of Aristophanes ; 'H Ø xheha ridos ζώνης κ χοινίων σαςεοικός ιμάνι και δεσμεσι τας κλίνας, not the Cord of 4 Bed, but a fafcia or Girdle like unto it. With such Linen fasciæ, Swathes, or Bandages, was the Body of Lazarus involved. 'Ex wodos äxes naplus Epifyógepos ghexdiriy nor dépas sixe sepercus, says Nonnus. And Juvencus, . .

Nec mora, connexis manibus pedibusque repente
Procedit tumulo, vultum cui linea texit,
Et totum gracilis connectit fascia corpus,



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