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mish and withont spot. We all had finned, and so offended the Justice of God, and by an Act of that Justice the Sentence of Death passed upon us ; it was necessary therefore that Christ our Surety should die, to satisfie the Justice of God, both for that Iniquity, as the Propitiation for our Sins, and for
that Penalty as he which was to bear our Griefs. God was offended with us, Rom. 5.10. and he must die who was to reconcile him to us.
For when we were enemies, faith St. Paul, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son. We Col. 1. 21. were sometimes alienated, and enemies in our mind by our wicked works
; yet now hath he réconciled us in the body of his flesh through death. Thus the Death of Christ was necessary toward the great Act of his Priesthood, as the Oblation, Propitiation and Satisfaction for the Sins of the whole World
and not only for the Act it felf, but also for our Assurance of the Power and Heb.9. 13,14. Efficacy of it, (For if the blood of bulls and goats sanctifieth to the purify
ing of the flesh: How much more all the blood of Christ, who through the
eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge our consciences Rom. 8. 32. from dead works ?), and of the Happiness flowing from it, (for he that spared
not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how mall he not with
him also freely give us all things?) Upon this Assurance, founded on his Death, Heb. 10. 19, we have the freedom and boldness to enter into the Holiest by the blood of Je
sus, by a new and living way which he hath confecrated for us, through the veil
, that is to say, his flesh. Neither was the Death of Christ necessary only in respect of us immediately for whom he died, but in reference to the
Priest himself who died, both in regard of the Qualification of himself, and Heb. 2. 17,18. Consummation of his Office. For in all things it behoved him to be made
like unto his Brethren : that he might be a merciful and faithful Highpriest, and having suffered being tempted, might be able to fuccour them that are tempted: fo that passing through all the previous Torments, and at last through the Pains of Death, having fuffered all which Man can suffer, and much more, he became, as an experimental Priest, most sensible of our Infirmities, most compassionate of our Miseries, most willing and ready to support us under, and to deliver us out of, our Temptations. Thus being qualified by his utmost Suffering, he was also fitted to perfect his Offering. For
as the High-priest once every year for the Atonement of the Sins of the Heb.9. 9, 11, People entred into the Holy of Holies not without blood; fo Christ be
ing come an High-priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfe&t Tabernack, not made with hands, by his own blood entred in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal Redemption for us. And this is the grand Necessity of the Death of Christ in respect of his Sacerdotal Office.
Thirdly, There was a Necessity that Christ should die in reference to his Regal Office. O King, live for ever, is either the loyal or the flattering Vote for Temporal Princes; either the Expression of our Desires, or the Suggestion of their own: whereas our Christ never shewed more fovereign Power than in his Death, never obtained more than by his Death. It was not for nothing that Pilate suddenly wrote, and resolutely maintained what he had written, This is the King of the Jews. That Title on the
Crofs did signifie no less than thật his Regal Power was active even there : Col.2.4.
for having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them 0-. Heb. 2.14 penly, triumphing over them in it; and through his death destroyed him
that had the power of death, that is, the Devil. Nor was his Death
only necessary for the present Execution, but also for the Assecution of far1 Pet. 1. 11. ther Power and Dominion, as the means and way to obtain it. The Spirit
of Christ in the Prophets of old teftified before-hand the sufferings of Christ, Pfal. 110. 7. and the glory that should follow. He shall drink of the brook in the way, Phil, 2.8, 9. faith the Prophet David; therefore Mall he' lift up his head. He humbled
himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross,
For to this end Chrift both died and rose, and re-
Thus it is necessary to believe and profess our Faith in Christ who died: for by his Blood and the Virtue of his Death was our Redemption wrought, as the Price which was paid, as by the Atonement which was made, as by the full Satisfaction which was given, that God might be reconciled to us, who before was offended with us, as by the Ratification of the Covenant made between us, and the Acquisition of full Power to make it good unto
After which Exposition thus premised, eyery Christian is conceived to express thus much when he makes Profession of Faith in Christ Jesus which was dead: I do really and truly assent unto this, as a most infallible and fundamental Truth, That the Only-begotten and Eternal Son of God, for the working out of our Redemption, did in our Nature, which he took
upon him, really and truly die, so as by the Force and Violence of those Torments which he felt, his Soul was actually separated from his Body; and although neither his Soul nor Body was separated from his Divinity, yet the Body bereft of his Soul was left without the least Vitality. And thus I believe in Jefus Christ which was crucified and dead.
HEN the most precious and immaculate Soul of Christ was really
separated from his Fleih, and that Union in which his Natural Life consisted was dissolved, his Sacred Body, as being truly dead, was laid up in the Chambers of the Grave: so that as we believe him dead, by the Separation of his Soul; we also believe him buried, by the Sepulture of his Body.
And because there is nothing mysterious or difficult in this part of the Article, it will be sufficiently explicated when we have shewn, first, that the promised Messias was to be buried; and, secondly, that our Jesus was so buried as the Messias was to be.
That the Messias was to be buried, could not possibly be denied by those who believed he was to die among the Jews; because it was the universal Custom of that Nation to bury their Dead. We read most frequently of * It is obferthe Sepulchres of their Fathers: and though those that were condemned by their lupreme Power were not buried in their Fathers Graves, yet publick Jews, in opSepulchres there were appointed even for them to lie in: and not only pofotion to she they, but all the Instruments which were used in the Punishment were bu- stom, Corporied with them. And yet besides the general Confequence of Death among ra condere, the Jews, there was a perfect Type in the Person of Jonas: for as that Prophet a was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so was the Ægyptio. Messias, or the Son of man, to be three days and three nights in the heart Hipids
of the Egyof the earth.
ptians by o
thers, Oc77875 gl Airúr7000 vê saertotov7es, 'Paspeciñor ö raíovies, Taíones gois tods aóperces pole1765. Laert. Pyrrh. But the Jews received ibis Cuftom no more from the Ægyptians than from ihe Persians, whom they may be rather said to follow, bem cause they used not the Ægyptian taeixouris neither were they more distinguished from the Románs than from the Græcians, who also burned the Bodies of the Dead. Alfaópefu as set toidun tas rapos, "Enalu čx.cevoir: • Dégons itate, • j ludos caras aerxeis. • ģ Exións xc7eticstaeixóük Aigúria Lucian wei w ovogs. Although therefore it be not true, that the Jews received their Custom of burying their Dead from the Ægyptians, because Abraham at the firf purchased a Burying-place; yet it hath been observed, and is certainly true, that their general Custom was to interr. Philo, one of their Writers, 'Ανθρώπους και πάσι χερσαίους οικειότερον η φύσις χωρίον απένειμε γώ, και μόνον ζώσιν αλλα και Αθανάσιν, ίν' η αυτή και το πρώτω υποδέχη2 βόεσιν, και τ κ τα βία τελευταίας ανάλυσιν. 1. 1. in Flaccun:
quam cremare è more
a Mitt. !2.40.
Nor was his Burial only represented Typically but foretold Prophetically, both by a suppositive Intimation, and by an express Prediction. The Psal
mift intimated and supposed no less, when speaking in the Person of the Pfal. 16.9,10. Christ, he said, My flesh shall rest in hope, for thou wilt not leave my soul
in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. That So the Mi- Flesh is there fupposed only luch, that is, a Body * dead; and that Body drash Tillim resting in the Grave, the common Habitation of the Dead; yet refting there pounded it, in hope that it should never fee corruption, but rise from thence before that My filesh thall time in which Bodies in their Graves are wont to putrifie. Beside this Intima
ning Any tion, there is yet a clear Expression of the Grave of the Messias in that emiafter death; nent Prediction of Isaiah; · He was cut off out of the land of the living,
pan and he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death. 5. 12. For whatsoever the true Interpretation of the Prophecy be, (of which we Sysim shall speak hereafter), it is certain that he which was to be cut off, was to
have a Grave : and being we have already shewn that he which was to be
cut off was the Mesias; it followeth, that by virtue of this Prediction the taught by these words, promised Messias was to be buried. and Worm should have no power over him. Whence by the Argument of St. Peter, it must be understood not of David; for his flesh Saw Corruption ; nor of any other but the Messias
. And although the Rabbins are wont to say, That the Worms Thall never eat the Juft, in opposition to the last words of Efay; yet they muft confess there is no Difference in the Grave: And therefore that Worm must fignifie nothing else but the Corruption of the Body. Well therefore are those words paraphrased by Didymus, in' larida xalcoxúywoe sj Coist, Afg' of Chins isopelble árásarsr. a ifa. 53. 8, 9.
שלט בו ותולעת•
that Rabbi Ifaac faid, hc
that the Moth
Secondly; That our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Messias, was thus buried, we shall also prove, although it seem repugnant to the manner of his Death. For those which were sentenced by the Romans to die
upon * To this Cw- the Cross, had nor the Favour of a Sepulchre, but their Bodies were * 'exalludes, Epift. posed to the Fowls of the Air, and the Beasts of the Field; or if they escaped 16. 1.1. Non their Voracity, to the longer Injury of the † Air and Weather. A Guard hominem occidi. Non pa
was also usually # ser about them, lest any pitying Hand Thould take the Bosces in cruce dy from the cursed Tree, and cover it with Earth. çorvos. And Juvenal, Vultur, jumento & canibus crucibusque reli&tis, Ad fætus properat, partémque cadaveris affert. So Prudentius, Crux illum tollat in auras, Viventesque oculos offerat alitibus, wei soo, Hymn.4. This Punishment did appear in the Mythology of Prometheus; who though he were by some represented fimply as deopárns, by others particularly he is described as aveseweapoléo, especially by Lucian, who delivers him weganatufuos, requá plysov, wegar c77&accópfuós, ávce sagópuluer, ávartodoxisomilor. And Tertullian, speaking of Pontus, from whence Marcion came; Omnia torpent, omnia rigent: nihil illic nifi feritas calet, quæ fabulas scenis dedit, de sacrificiis Taurorum, & amoribus Colchorum, & crucibus Caucasoruin. Adv. Marc. l. 1.6.1. He touches the subject of three Tragedies, Medæa, Iphigenia in Tauris, and Prometheus Vinctus, or rather Crucifixus. As therefore the Eagle there did feed upon his Liver, so were the Bodies of crucified Persons left to the promiscuous Rapacity of carnivorous Fowls
. So true it was of them what Augustus once said, Cuidam sepulturam petenti respondit, jam illam in volucrum esse poteftate. Suet. c. 13. Nor were they only in the Power of the Fowls of the Air, as Prometheus was, whom they durft not hang too low, left Men should succour him, Šte 78 taruvos reglesov isangwats xen, says Vulcan in Lucian for that Reason; but ordinarily they hung the Cross, that the ravenous Beasts might reach them, as Apuleius describes; Patibuli cruciatum, cum canes & vultures intima protrahunt viscera. t so the Bodies were often left upon the Cross till the Sun and, Rain had putrified and consumed them. As when the Daughter of Polycrates did see her father's face in a Dream, to be washed by Jupiter, and to be anointed by the Sun when he hung upon the Cross
, it was performed. Nouxegéons 3aivaxçepé pele irtlisce πάσαν τ' όψιν η θυμάρος, ελάτο και οι τυ Διός όκως ύoι, έχεiείο και αν τα ηλία ανείς αυτός οκ τ8 σώμα7%- ικμάδα. Herod. Thalia. Of which Tertull
. de Anim. 6.46. Ut cum Polycrati Samio filia crucem profpicit de Solis unguine & lavacro Jovis. And which is farther thus expressed by Valerius Maximus : Putres ejus artus, & tabido cruore manantia membra, atque illam lævam cui Neptunus annulum manu piscatoris reftituerat, fitu marcidam, Samos lætis oculis aspexit, l. 6. c.9. Thus were the Bodies of the Crucified left: ut in fublimi putrescerent. Quid ? Cyrenæum Theodorum Philosophum non ignobilem nonne miramur ? cui cum Lyfimachus Rex crucem minaretur, Iftis, quæso, inquit, ista horribilia minitare purpuratis tuis, Theodori quidem nihil interest humile an sublime putrescat. Cicero, l. 1. Tusc. Quæft. And so they perished, as the Scythians generally did, according to the Description of Silius Italicus, l. 13.
At gente in Scythica fuffixa cadavera truncis
Lenta dies fepelit, putri liquentia tabo. Thus 'whether by the Fowls or Beasts, or by the Injury of Time or Weather, the Flesh of those which were crucified was consumed; as Artemidorus observed, who concluded from thence, that it was bad for the Rich to dream of being crucified: Tες 3 πλυσίες βλάπα" γυμνοί και σαυρών), και τας σάρκας δηλλύεσιν οι σωρωθέντες: Oneirocr. 1.Σ. c.g8. As appeareth by that Relation in Petronius Arbiter: Imperator Provinciæ latrones jussit crucibus affigi-Proxima autem no&e, cum miles qui cruces asservabat nequis ad sepulturam corpora detraheret, o'c. And when that Soldier was absent, Itaque cruciati unius parentes, ut viderunt laxatam custodiam, detraxere nocte pendentem, supremoque mandaverunt officio. Where we see the Soldier set for a guard, and the end of thar cuftodia, which the Gresk Lexicographers do not well confine to the segrownie
To decreoinesw irixeiuefe on to keep the Body of him which was crucifed from being buried by his friends. Thus when Cleomenes was dead, his Body was fastned to a Cross (another Example of the ignominy of his punishment) by the command of Ptolemy: Ο 5 Πτολεμαι», ως έγνω ταύτα προσέταξε, το ζωμα τα Κλεομέρες κρεμάσαι καλαβυρσώσαντας. Where sgrucica is again to be observed as taken for evascup woce, for not long after in the same Author it follows, 'oniΓαι, ύσερον ημέραις, οι το Cώμα το Κλεομηγίες άνεσαυρωμένον -αφυλάττοντες είδαν ευμεγέθη δράκοντα τη κεφαλή αιπεπλεμον, και λοκρύπ7ον7α το πρόσωπον, ως μηδέν όρνεον εφίπλεξ (αρκοφάΓον. where we fee a Guard let to keep him from ourial, and the voracious Fowls ready to seize on him, had they not been kept off by a Serpent involving his Head. Thus were soldiers, upon the Crucifixion of any person set as a Guard, i avesanawpelion and puncés70v7es, or ong8v765, & crucem allervantes, viz. ne quis ad sepulturain corpus detraheret.
Under that Custom of the Roman Law was now the Body of our Saviour on the Cross, and the Guard was set; there was the Centurion and they that Mat. 27.54. were with him, watching Jesus. The Centurion returned as soon as Christ was dead, and gave Testimony unto Pilate of his Death; but the Watch continuieth still. How then can the ancient Predictions be fulfilled ? How can this Jonas be conveyed into the Belly of the Whale? Where shall a he make · Isa. 53. 9. bis grave with the wicked, or with the rich, in his death of crucifixion? By the Providence of him who did foretel it, it shall be fulfilled. They which petitioned that he might be crucified, fhall intercede that he may be interred. For the * Custom of the Jews required, that whosoever suffered by the Sentence of their Law should be buried, and that the same Day he suffered. Particularly they could not but remember the express words of Mofes, bIf a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou maar bang him on a tree" ; His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day. Upon this general Custom and Maimon. particular Law, especially considering the Sanctity of the Day approaching, bed. cap. is.
the Jews, that the bodies should not remain upon the Cross on the Sabbath so Josephus, day, befought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be Toscurilan Is And this is the first step to the Burial of our Saviour.
Wols pwy, öse si ro's cr xa7adiens evæsou poufárs ar eg duara gjais antheir ts vej fátlev. De Bell. Jud. 1. 24. c. 18.
c John 19. 31.
רין ביוס הה ריגס
c Deut. 21, 22, 23.
For though by the common Rule of the Roman Law, those which were condemned to the Crols were to lose both Soul and Body on the Tree, as not being permitted either Sepulture or * Mourning; yet it was in the Power * Non folent of the Magistrate to indulge f the leave of Burial : and therefore Pilate who autem lugeri crucified Christ because the Jews desired it, could not possibly deny him
ait) hoftes, vel Burial when they requested it ; he which professed to find no fault in him perduelliones while he lived, could make no pretence for an accession of Cruelty after his damnati, nec Death.
suspendiofi, nec qui ma
nus sibi intulerunt, non tædio vitæ, sed malâ conscientiâ. Digeft. I. 3. tit. 2. I. Liberorum. . f so Ulpianus, l. 9. de Oficio Proconsulis; Corpora eorum qui capițe damnantur cognatis ipsorum neganda non funt: & id se observâsse etiam Divus Augustinus libro decimo de vita súa seribit. Hodiè autem eorum in quos animadvertitur corpora non aliter sepeliuntur quàm fi fuerit petitum & permiffum ; & nonnunquam non permittitur, maximè majestatis causà damnatorum. So Paulus, l. 1. Sententiarum : Corpora animadverforum quibuflibet petentibus ad sepulturam danda funt. Obnoxios criminum digno fupplicio subjectos fepulturæ tradi non vetamus. Cod. l. 3. tit. 43. I. 11.
Now though the Jews had obtained their request of Pilate, though Christ had been thereby certainly buried; yet had not the Prediction been fulfilled, which expressly mentioned the rich in his death. For as he was crucified between two Thieves, so had he been buried with them, because by the Jews there was appointed a publick place of Burial for all such as suffered as Malefactors.
Wherefore to rescue the Body of our blessed Saviour from the malicious hands of those that caused his Crucifixion, there came a rich man of Arimathea, Matth. 27. named Joseph, an honourable Counsellour, a good man and a just; who also Mark 15. himself waited for the kingdom of God, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly John 19: for fear of the Jews: this Joseph came and went in boldly unto Pilate,
and be fought him that he might take away the body of Jesus. And Pilate gave him leave, and commanded the body to be delivered: he came there
fore and took the body of Jesus. John 3. 1, 10. Beside, there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by and 19.39, night, a man of the Pharisees
, a ruler of the Jews, a master of Israel; this Nicademus came and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jefus, and wound it in linen clothes, with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.
And thus was the Burial of the Son of God performed, according to the cuftom of the People of God: For the understanding of which there are Three things considerable : First, what was done to the Body, to prepare it for the Graye; Secondly, How the Sepulchre was prepared to receive the Body; Thirdly, How the Persons were fitted by the interring of our Saviour to fulfil the Prophecy.
As for fulfilling the Custom of the Jews as to the Preparation in respect of Mark 14.3, 8. his Body, we find the spices and the linen clothes. When there came a wo
man having an alabaster box of ointment of Spikenard, very precious, and jhe brake the box and poured it on his bead; Christ made this interpreta
tion of that Action, she is come before-hand to anoint my body to the buMark 16. 1. rying. When Christ was risen, Mary Magdalen and the other Mary brought Luke 24. I. the spices which they had prepared, that they might come and anoint him.
Thus was there an interpreted and an intended Unction of our Saviour, bur . really and actually he was interred with the Spices which Nicodemus brought.
The Custom of wrapping in the Clothes we see in Lazarus rising from the John 11. 44. Graye; for he came forth bound band and foot with grave-clothes, and his
face was bound about with a napkin. In the same mapner when our SaJohn 20.6, 7. viour was risen, Simon Peter went into the sepulchre and saw the linen
clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by it felf. Thus according to the
Custom of the Jews, was the Body of Christ bound in * several Linen Clothes four words in the Gospel with an Aromatical Composition, and fo prepared for the Sepulchre. expressing the Linen Clothes in which the Dead were buried, Eudwv, idóvsce, xesescu, and Coddenor. The Ecvday is used by three Evangelists, as what was brought by Joseph: Kai álopticas Govôova, xj ræbe hain cu Tor creíande qñ Cordovi, Mark 15.46. and S. Matthew and s. Luke, cvetónitev aw to Groove. Otóvoce is used by s. Luke and S. John, "Enabor šv to Carua 'inos, si Shoar witò oborios. Now both these words shew that the Clothes were Linen. Endav, tunica linea, Glor: Dwarávcev, arv öv Ti, šton Codevov, Etym. So'ofovie, dovã ipátia, Hesych. This was according to the Custom of the Jews, amongst whom there was a kind of Law, That they should use no other Grave-clothes. As therefore the Egyptians in Herodotus, aéraules i vexegy xes1105 871 to ãy owră To Cãnear Coudóra Buasirns, so the Jews. But it is farther to be observed, that s. John saith Forcev auto óleviors, they bound up his Body with several Clothes, which signifies it was done fasciatim. As Herodotus in another case, Cuvęysi to implyos tá invece, x Cordóv@ Buasirns tiduwet xelenia oves. Whereas then Julius Pollux observes, cign) de weg te depan Cevdovírns. I conceive these obávsa in S. John were such todayūres Coucosi), lineæ fafciæ, or inftitæ, called in the case of Lazarus resercufor as he is described Oedeelóa xuseíaus, so it is said of the Body of Christ, köncar autò človíoss, they bound him with Linen Bandages or Swathes. These are the coláspia decuado as the Grammarians interpret xseice tanquam rneio. So the ancient M$. in the Library at St. James's reads it, dedo pešice Tas xeregs og og's wód as anesans. And so Hesychius reads it, when he made that Interpretation. Kuehaus (leg. Kaziais) επιθανάτια ελυλιμία. What anciently κηρία τυας, will appear by the words of Julius Pollux: Και μίω ταίΓε τη κλινη και Tad Cxinezodi c47e7cepufíor, w's Dépus ta tuntice, avaglia, av dela, sóvós, xesela, the Bands or Cords by which the Beds or Couches are fajtned, and upon which the Bedding lies. In this sense it is to be taken in that known place of Ariftophanes, in Avibus.
* There are
Σπάρω και αν θείμω εγώ τη μη πόλη,
Ουδ' αν καμίνω πάνε κερίαν έχων. of which Εuftathius iliad. β'. gives us this account : Φησί μη αν δεηθίώαι απάρτης, κυρίαν έχων: ήτοι μη δεηθlώαι παρ7ίνα whéfrece?os, iar daalwe xon xsesus, tou depór xaiuns. Hence the Grammarians give that interpretation of Kneis. As Étymologus, Kesela (maid to gouvion to occurvov ' xrivlw, viz. in reference to that place of Aristophanes, otherwise it bab no relation 10 a Bed, but indifferently. Signifieth any fascia or band. So the Scholiast of Aristophanes ; 'H 3 xrsebu cidos Çavns en gouría magcoiros ineár7o op de presao tas xaivas, not the Cord of a Bed, but a fáscia or Girdle like unto it. Witb such Linen fasciæ, Swathes, or Bandages, was the Body of Lazarus involved. '£% wodòs öxes xaclus Eo.szójeksos hexyőriy öncp dépeses cixe xegetaus, Says Nonnus. And Juvencus,
Nec mora, connexis manibus pedibusque repente