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the God of Nature died ? Why did all the People, who came to see him crucified, and love to feed their Eyes with such Tragick Spectacles, why did they beat upon their Breasts and return, but that they were assured it was finished, there was no more to be seen, all was done? It was not out of Compassion that the merciless Soldiers brake not his Legs, but because they found him dead whom they came to dispatch; and being enraged that their Cruelty should be thus prevented, with an impertinent Villany they piercé his Side, and with a foolish Revenge endeavour to kill a dead Man; thereby becoming stronger Witnesses than they would, by being less the Authors thån they defired, of his Death. For out of his fácred, but wounded Side, came Blood and Water, both as evident Signs of his present Death, as certain Seals of our future and eternal Life: Thele are the two blessed Sacraments of the Spouse of Christ, each affuring her of the Death of her Beloved. The Sacrament of Baptism, the Water through which we pass into the Church of Christ, teacheth us that he died to whom we come. For know you not, faith S. Paul, Rom. 6.2. that so many of us as are baptized into Jesus Christ, are baptized into his death? The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the Bread broker Wine poured forth, signifie that he died which instituted it, and as often as 1 Cor. 11. 26. we eat this bread, and drink this cup, weshew forth the Lord's death till be come.
Dead then our Blessed Saviour was upon the Cross; and that not by a feigned or metaphorical, but by a true and proper, Death. As he was truly and properly Man, in the fame mortal Nature which the Sons of Adam have; fo did he undergo a true and proper Death, in the fame manner as we die. To get oxor
Co rğ atóxo de a 'Our Life appeareth principally in two Particulars, Motion and Sensation ; out more to come and while both or either of these are perceived in a Body, we pronounce it als piqur doves. Not that the Life it self confifteth in either or both of these, but in
in sy TS Listeve
minte that which is the Original Principle of them both, which we call the Soul ; af. Jegoro and the intimate Presence or Union of that Soul unto the Body is the Life vele z basen Tagen
weggfussia thereof. The real Distinction, of which Soul from the Body in Man, our Bleffed Saviour taught most clearly in that Admonition. b Fear not them which kill raid code the body, but are not able tp kill the foul, but rather fear him which is yuzas. Arift.
de Anim. l. 1. able to destroy both body and soul in helt. Now being Death is nothing elfe c. 2. 2 Alca* but the Privation or < Receflion of Life, and we are then properly
ο die φέρ¢ τα άψυwhen we cease to live; being Life confifterh in the Union of the Soul unto d the Body, from whence, as from the Fountain, flow Motion, Sensation, and tóxwv, što whatsoever vital Perfection; Death can be nothing else but the Solution of th
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1 glupied 3 xr vital Union, or the actual Separation of the Soul, before united to the Body.mortece As therefore when the Soul of Man doth leaye the Habitation of its Body. Baviccią, voksen
L' s. Sallust. and being the sole Fountain of Vitality bereaves it of all viral Activity, we say de Düsen that Body or that Man is dead: so when we read that Christ our Saviour died, Mundo. c. 8. we must conceive that was a true and proper Death, and consec
6 Mat. 10. 28.
AL CA's Secundus, his Body was bereft of his Soul, and of all viral Influence from the fame. . Quan se erba'
270815 Bix. d As the Philfophers have anciently expressed it, efucially Plato, who by the Advantage of an Error in the Original of Souls, best understood the end of Life : Tģto ye geval a ovouzz, dúcis e xwestuós fuxãs como Cares?G, in Phædone. Again, 'o. Jávko Tuliard av, ws émoi dantñ idev dato š ovoir zegtudtol Alcaudis, fugas xg 78 Casual G, ad annadoxv. in Gorgia. And more plainly and fully yet : 'Hy nebo si F Jávolov siva ; Nevo y, con webws. • Esnuies, Aege μη άλλο τι ή τη ψυχής από τα Cώμα7G- απαλλαγω; και είναι τέτο τεθνάναι, χωρίς και από τψυχής απαλλαγω αυτό καθ' South To Camper yelorsvan, Xweis 3 e fuxli rõ cual árannalticun wirki nocl tkw elvar; ecce per conó to go foco Vorej Tšto; oirs canci răto, ion. in Phædone. Thus with four several Words, aúcisi Alsauris, xwesopis, and opene heyri, doth Plato express the Separation of the Soul from the body, and maketh Death formally to consist of that Sepera: tion. This Solution is excellently expressed by Phocylides;
uvets, vejt understood the end of Life? Type de
So Tertullian: Opus autem mortis in medio eft, discretio corporis animæque. De Anim. c. 51. Si mors non aliud determinatur quam disjunctio corporis animæque, contrarium morti vita non aliud definietur quam conjunctio corporis animæque. 16. c.27. This Description of Death is far more philosophical than the Notion of Aristotle, who makes it to const in the Corruption of Natural Heat ; ('Ανάγκη τoίνω αμα το, τε ζην υπάρχουν και το θερμό φυσικά Cωτηρίαν, και je rodó refeon Scénce7oy Givar Tóty peopgév. in Parv. Natur. In as much as the soul is not that natural Heat, and the Corruption of that Heat followeth upon the Separation of the Soul.
Nor is this o
s only our Conception, or a doubtful Truth; but we are as much assured of the Propriery of his Death, as of the Death it felf. For that the unspotted Soul of our Jesus was really and actually separated from his Body, that
his Flesh was berefi of natural Life by the Secession of that Soul, appeareth Luke 23. 46. by his own Resignation, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit; and * This is ex- by the Evangelist's Expression, and having said thus, he* gave up the Ghost. pressed three. When he was to die, he resigned his Soul; when he gave it up; he died; ways, all signifying these t when it was delivered out of the Body, then was the Body dead: and so Separation of the Eternal Son of God upon the Cross did properly and truly die. his soul from bis Body." St. Mark and St. Luke ili vouce, which is of the same force with izby u xe.' But because crtózes doth not always fignifie an absolute Expiration, but sometimes a Lipothymie only: as Hesychius, 'Ex46x861, Todvuôos. So Hippocrates useth it, Eiri j ožútaloo (xavogi) örors en lúxogo dež si wpeañoan. 1. 1. de Morbis. And again, 'Extúx8c1
la reš o vec? o seu uelesuri izations govopestile. Left therefore we should take itiroure in such an imperfe&t sense, Š. Matthew hash it coñrs to TVEūpm, and S. John wagidwxe co wyünc. Which is a full Expression of the Secession of the Soul from the Body, and consequently of Death, which is, in the Language of Secundus, wróúp c?drósaris.
t here three points or Distinctions of Time I have therefore noted, that I might occür to any objetion which possibly mieht arise out of the ancient Philosophical Subtilty, which Aulus Gellius reports to be agitated at the Table of Taurus. The Question was propounded thus, Quæfitum eft, quando moriens moreretur, cùm jam in morte esset, an tun etiam cùm in vita foret. Where Taurus admonisheth the rest, that this was no light question; for, Says he, graviffimi Philofophorum super hac re ferio quæfiverunt; & alii moriendi verbum atque momentum manente adhuc vitâ dici atque fieri putaverunt: alij nihil in ilo teinpore vitæ reliquerunt, totuinque illud quod mori dicitur morti vendicarent. The ancienter Philofopbers were divided; fome saying a Man died in the time of his Life, others in the time of his Death. But Plato ebrervei a Contradiction in both ; for a Man can neither be said to die while he is alive, nor when he is dead: & idcircò peperit ipfe aliud quoddam novum in confinio tempus, quod verbis propriis atque integris mežakørns púorn appellavit; which he thus describes in his Parmenides; To go izatvas TOS TOV 746 701%€ Cnuasver, as it irting ue?56 anoy
is exámeegy. So A. Gellius. 2. 6. c. 13. Thus when our Saviour commended his soul into the hands of the Father, he was vet alive: when the soldier. pierced his side, he was already dead: and the Instant in which he gave up the Ghost was the oë i gasoins when he died.
This Reality and Propriety of the Death of Christ is yet farther illustrated from the Cause immediately producing it, which was an external Violence and Cruciation, fufficient to dissolve that Natural Disposition of the Body which is absolutely necessary to continue the Viral Union of the Soul: the Torments which he endured on the Cross did bring him to that State in which Life could not longer be naturally conserved, and Death, without Interyention of supernatural Power, must necessarily follow.
For Christ, who took upon him all our Infirmities, Sin only excepted, had in his Nature not only a Possibility and Aptitude, but also a Necessity of dying; and as to any extrinsical Violence, able, according to the common course of Nature, to destroy and extinguish in the Body such an Aptitude as is indifpensably required to continue in Union with the Soul, he had no natural Prefervarive: nor was it in the Power of his Soul to continue its Vital Conjun
ction unto his Body bereft of a Vital Disposition. John 10. 18. It is true that Christ did voluntarily die, as he said of himself, No man
taketh away my Life from me, but I lay it doen of my felf, I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. For it was in his power whether he would come into the power of his Enemies; it was in his power to suffer or not to suffer the Sentence of Pilate, and the nailing to the Cross; it was in his p ver to have come down from the Cross, when he was nailed to it: but wh by an Act of his Will he had fubinitted to that Death, when he had accepted and embraced those Torments to the last, it was not in the power of his Soul to continue any longer Vitality to the Body, whose Vigour was totally exhausted.So not by a necessary Compulsion, but voluntary
Election, he took upon him a Necessit Mark 15. 44. 'Tis true that Pilate marvelled he was dead jo foon, and the two Thieves
lived longer to have their Legs broken, and to die by the Accession of ano-
Should we imagine Christ to anticipate the time of Death, and to substract his Soul from future Torments necessary to cause an Expiration; we might rationally say the Jews and Gentiles were guilty of his Death, but we could not properly say they slew him : guilty they must be, because they inflicted those Torments on which in time Death must neceffarily follow ; but say him actually they did not, if his Death proceeded from any other Cause, and not from the Wounds which they inflicted: whereas St. Peter expressly chargeth his Enemies, a Him ve havi
hemies. a Him ye have taken, and by wicked have crucified and sain; and again, bThe God of our fathers raised up Jesus; b Acts 5. 30. whom ye few, and hanged on a tree. Thus was the Lamb properly sain; in bith chich
places ihe Oriz and the Jews Authors of his Death, as well as of his Crucifixion.
ginal Breweth more expressly, that by their Crucifixion they flew him : in the former thus, algo xeirão civóucy wegwaçarles úvcins76. In the latter thus, öv vucis ovexeteisaate xgépáscerles émis túño. · Wherefore being Christ took upon himself our Mortality in the highest fenfe, as it includeth a Necessity of dying; being he voluntarily submitted himself to that bloody Agony in the Garden, to the hands of the Plowers who made long their Furrows, and to the Nails which fåftned him to the Cross; being these Torments thus inflicted and continued did cause his Death, and in this condition he gave up the ghost; it followeth that the only-begotten Son of God, the true Messias promised of old, did die a true and proper Death. Which is the second Conclusion in this Explication. - But, Thirdly, because Christ was not only Man, but also God, and there was not only an Union between his Soul and Body while he lived, but also a Conjunction of both Natures, and an Union in his perfon: it will be farther necessary, for the understanding of his Death, to shew what Union was diffolved, what continued ; that we may not make that Separation either less or greater than it was.
Whereas then there were two different substantial Unions in Christ, one of the Parts of his Human Nature each to other, in which his Humanity did consist, and by which he was truly Man; the other of his Natures, Human and Divine, by which it came to that God was Man, and that Man God: First, It is certain, as we have already thewed, that the Union of the Parts of his Human Nature was dissolved on the Crois, and a real Separation made between his Soul and Body. As far then as Humanity consists in the essential Union of the Parts of Human Nature, so far the Humanity of Christ upon his Death did cease to be, and consequently he ceased to be Man. But, Secondly, the Union of the Natures remained still as to the Parts, nor was the Soul or Body separated from the Divinity, but still subsisted as they did before, by the Subsistence of the Second Perlon of the Trinity.
c Crediin us The Truth of this Assertion appeareth, first, from the Language of this very ceriè non in «Creed. For as we proved before, that the Only-begotten and Eternal Son of plum Dean
Patrem, sed God, God of God, very God of very God, was conceived and born, and suf- & in Jefum fered, and that the Truth of these Propositions relied upon the Communion Christum fili
uni ejus unicum, Dominum noftrum. Modò totum dixi, in Jefum Christum filium ejus inicum, Dominum noftrum, totuin ibi intellige, & verbụm, & animam, &carnem. Sed utique confiteris etiam illud quod habet eadem Fides, in eum Chriftum te credere qui crucifixus eft & fepultus. Ergo etiam fepultum Chriftuin esse non ncgas, & tainen fola caro fepulta eft. Sieniin erat ibi anima, non erat mortuus; si autein vera mors erat, & cjus vera fit refurreétio, fine apima fuerat in sepulchro, & tamen fcrultus elt Chriftus. Ergo Chriftus erat ctiam fine anima caro, quia non et lepulia nifi caro. S. Aug. in Joh. Tr. 48.
the true Messias prom.ghoft; it followeth that the bis Death, and in this cheie
of Properties, grounded upon the Hypoftatical Union: fo while the Creed in: the fame manner proceedeth speaking of the fame Person, that he was buried and defcended into Hell, it sheweth that neither bis Body, in respect of which he was buried, nor his Soul, in respect of which he was generally conceiyed to defcend into Hell, had lost that Union:
Again, as we believe that God redeemed us by his own Blood, fo also it hath been the constant Language of the Church, that God died for us: which cannot be true, except the Soul and Body in the instant of Separation, were united to the Deity.
Indeed, being all the Gifts of God are without Repentance, nor doth he ever fubftract his Grace from any without their Abuse of it, and a sinful Demerit in themselves; we cannot imagine the Grace of Union should be taken from Christ, who never offended, and that in the highest act of Obedience, and the greatest Satisfaction to the Will of God.
'Tis true, Christ cried upon the Cross with a loud Voice, saying, My God, * Greg. Nyll my God, why halt thou forsaken me ? * But if that Dereliction should signifie Orat. 1. de Re
le a solution of the former Union of his Natures, the Separation had been made Pavewton að not at his Death, but in his Life. Whereas indeed those words infer no more Ors died op than that he was bereft of such Joys and Comforts from the Deity, as should προς εαυτός av en overra's afswage and mitigate the Acerbity of his present Torments. eis em Descer φύσιν με λασκάσαν7G-, ν τω καιρώ τ τι πάθG- οικονομίας και θαλές μέρες το άπαξ έκαθεν ανεχώρησεν αμελαμέληλα δ τε Θε τα χαρίσμαηα άλλα τ' η ψυχω. τ8 Cώμα7Gή θεότης έκεσίως διέζουξιν, εωτω 3 ν αμφοτέροις μύεσαν forge
It remaineth therefore, that when our Saviour yielded up the Ghost, he fuffered only an external Violence; and what was subject to fuch corporal Force did yield unto those dolorous Impressions. Being then such is the becility and frailty of our Nature, thar Life cannot long subsist in exquisite Torments; the Disposition of his Body failed the Soul, and the Soul deserted his Body. But being no Power hath any force against Omnipotency, nor could any corporal or finite Agent work upon the Union made with the Word, therefore that did still remain entire both to the Soul and
to the Body. The Word was once indeed without either Soul or Body ; * This is the but * after it was made Flesh, it was never parted either from the one or Conclusion of S. Auguft. Éx from the other. quo Verbum caro factum est, ut habitaret in nobis, & susceptus est à Verbo homo, id eft totus homo, anima & caro, quid fecit pallio, quid fecit mors, nisi corpus ab anima feparavit ? animam verò à Verbo non separavit. Si enim mortuus eft Dominus - fine dubio caro ipfius exspiravit animam, ad tempus enim exiguum aniina deferuit carnem, fed redeunte animâ resurrecturam) à Verbo autem animam separatam effe non dico, Latronis aniinæ dixit, Hodiè mecum eris in Paradiso. Fidelem latronis animam non deferebat, & deferebat suam? Absit : fed illius ut Dominus custodivit, suain verò inseparabiliter habuit. Si autem dixerimus, quia ipsa se anima posuit, & iterum, ipsa se fumpfit, absurdiflimus sensus est: non enim quæ à Verbo non erat separata à feipsa potuit separari. Tract. in Joh. 47.
on deferebat, & diefare anima pofuit, Seire
This Christ did really and truly die, according to the condition of Death to which the Nature of Man is subject: but although he was more than Man, yet he died no more than Man can die; a Separation was made between his
Soul and Body, but no disunion of them and bis Deity. They were dis*'ETH der give
as joined one from another, but not 'from him that took them both together ; p To dybę axı- * rather by virtue of that remaining conjunction they were again united after voy Curvegjia, their Separation. And this I conceive fufficient for the third and last part of staño move our Explication. onto púois, c's T xcuzón oš Caspec70 dve os fuxñs algesáížews ó Cew biegisTu Cwééru si dà aige.ov, adnce to przeczachon giveg. qñ 78 xvórna om Jesus Qurews, xt to icover ise poleggię šans, who aregs áranna rá 2195ūra Cumpúsg. Greg. Nyf. Orat, 1. de Refur. Tàm velox incorruptæ carnis vivificatio fuit, ut major ibi effet foporis fimilitudo quain inortis; quoniam Deitas, quæ ab utraque suscepti hominis fubftantia non recellit, quod potestate divilit; poteftate conjunxir. Leo Serm. I. de Refurr.
The Necessity of this part of the Article is evident, in that the Death of Christ is the most intimate and essential part of the Mediatorship, and that which most intrinsically concerns every Office and Function of the Mediator, as he was Prophet, Priest, and King..
First, It was necessary, as to the Prophetical Office, that Christ should die; to the end that the Truth of all the Doctrine which he delivered might be confirmed by his Death. He was a the true and faithful witness; bwho before a Rev. 3. ta: Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession. This is he that came by wa- 5'1 Tim. 6. 12. ter and blood : and there are three that bare witness in earth, the Pirit, 's
cr Joh: 5.6,8 the water, and the blood. He preached unto us a new dand better cove- dHeb. 8.6. nant, which was established upon better promises, and that was to be ratified with his Blood; which is therefore called by Christ himself the & Blood of the emat.6.28. · New Testament, or, f Everlasting Covenant : for that Covenant was also a Luke 22. 20. Testament ; and 8 where a testament is, there must also of neceffity be the Heb;
Heb. 10. 29.
IWG f Heb. 13. 20. death of the testator. Beside, Christ, as a Prophet, taught us not only by $ Heb. 9.16. Word, but by Example, and though every Action of his Life who came to fulfil the Law, be most worthy of our Imitation; yet the most eminent Example was in his Death, in which he taught us much Variety of Christian Vertues. What Example was that of Faith in God, h to lay down his life, h John 10:17. that he might take it again ; in the bitterness of his Torments to commend Luke 2 3.46. his spirit into the hands of his Father; and k for the joy that was set be- k Heb. 12. 2. fore him, to endure the cross, and despise the foame? What a Pattern of Meekness, Patience, and Humility, for the Son of man to come not to be mi-1 Mat. 20.28. nistred unto, but to minister, and give his life a ransome for many; m to be n Afts 8.32. led like a sheep to the slaughter, and like a Lamb dumb before the learer, not to open his mouth; to hendure the contradictions of sinners against him. n Heb. 12. 3. relf, and to humble himself unto death, even the death of the cross? What 4 °Phil. 2.8. Precedent of Obedience, for the Son of God to learn Obedience by the things Heb. 5. 8. that he suffered; to be made under the Law, and, though he never broke Gal. 4.4. the Law, to become obedient unto death; to go with Chearfulness to the Cross Phil. 2. 8. upon this Resolution, as my Father gave me commandment, even f I do 3. John 14. 3P: What Exemplar of Charity, to die for us while we were yet finners and ene- Rom. 5.8. mies, when greater love hath no man than this, to lay down his life for his John 15.13. friends ; to pray upon the Cross for them that crucified him, and to apologize for such as barbarously New him ; Father, forgive them for they know not Luke 23. 34. what they do? Thus Christ did suffer for us, leaving us an example that we 1 Pet. 2. 21. Should follow his steps, that as he suffered for us, in the flesh, we would arm 4.1, 2. our felves likewise with the fame mind. For he that hath suffered in the flesh, hath ceased from fin: That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh, to the lusts of men, but to the will of God. And fo his Death was necessary for the Confirmation and Completion of his Prophetical Office.
Secondly, It was necessary that Christ thould die, and by his Death perform the Sacerdotal Office. For every High-priest taken from among men, is or- Heb. 5. 1... dained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and facrifices for fins. But Christ had no other Sacrifice to offer for our Sins than himself. For it was not possible that the blood of bulls and goạts should take Heb. 10.4. away sins: and therefore when Sacrifice and Offering God would not, then Ver. 8, 9. said be, Lo, I come to do thy will, o God; then did Christ determine to offer s up himself for us. And because the Sacrifices of old were to be sain, and generally without shedding of blood there is no remision; therefore if he will Heb. 9. 22. offer Sacrifice for Sin he muft of Necessity die, and so make his Soul an, Offer- 1sa. 53. 10. ing for Sin. If Chrift be our Passover, he must be sacrificed for us. We were fold under Sin, and he which will redeem us must give his Life for our Redemption : for we could not be redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and 1 Pet. I. 18, gold, but only with the precious blood of Christ, as of a Lamb without ble