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+ Pulcatius * fervile Punishinent, and inflicted upon their Slaves and Fugitives. It was Gallicanus re- a high Crime to put that Dishononr upon any Free-man ; and the greatest lateth of Avi- Indignity which the most undeserving Roman could possibly suffer in himself, dius Callius, in the case of or could be contrived to shew their Detestation to such Creatures as were befome Centuri- low † Humane Nature. And because when a Man is beyond Possibility of ons which had fuffering Pain, he may still be subject to Ignominy in his Fame; when by oross, that in ther exquisite Torments fome Men have tasted the Bitterness of Death, after fighting wish- that, they have in their * breathless Corps, by virtue of this Punishment, fufout Orders given, Kapi cos fered a kind of surviving Shame. And the exposing the Bodies of the Dead juflit, & in to the View of the People on the Cross, hath been thought a t fufficient lgcrucem tolli, m, nominy to those which died, and Terror
hose which died, and Terror to those which lived to see it. servilique
Yea. füpplicio af- where the bodies of the Dead have been out of the Reach of their surviving fici: quod Enemies, they have thought it highly opprobrious to their Ghosts, to take exemplum non estabat. their Representations preserved in their . Pictures, and affix them to the
Crofs. Thus may we be made sensible of the the two grand Aggravations of Speaks with our Saviour's Sufferings, the Bitterness of Pain in the Torments of his Body, relation to this ou Custom, Pone and the Indignity of Shame in the Interpretation of his Enemies. cruccm servo. So Palæstrio in Plautus ; Nisi quidem illa nos volt, qui servi sumus, propter suum amorem omnes crucibus contubernales dari. And again : Noli minitari; scio crucem futuram mihi sepulchrum. Ibi majores mei fiti funt, pater, avus, proavus, abavuş. So in Terences Pam. Quid meritus es? Da. Crucem. And Horace. Si quis eum servum patinam qui tollere jussus, Semesos pisces tepidumque ligurierit jus, in cruce suffigat. So Capitolinus of Pertinax, in cruceim fublatis talibus fervis ; and Herodian of Macrinus, δολοι όσοι δενότας καλόγελλον ανασκολοπίθησαν. This punilhment of the Cross did fo properly belong to the Slaves, that when Servants and Freemen were involved alike in the same Crime, they were very careful to make a distinction in their death, according to their condition : Ut quisque liber aut ferrus, fuæ fortunæ à quoque sumptum fupplicium eft. Liv. 1. 3. And then the Servants were always crucified. As Servius observes among the Lacedæmonians; Servos patibulis suffixerunt filios strangulavere, nepotes fugaverunt. Æneid. 3. Novercæ quidem perpetuum indicitur exilium ; servus verò patibulo suffigitur. Apul. Metam. l. 1o. Thus in the come bustion at Rome, upon the death of Julius Cæsar ; 'Anurópoluor congéonoarviol, rj audampfévleg Pte eg, ongtuáatroar Fox Jigoyles doar, oi jinoclegan ser tã xgapev Š xaleppionei. Appian. de Bell. civil. l. 3. Ea nocte speculatores prehenfi fervi tres, & unus ex legione vernacula ; servi sunt in crucem sublati, militi cervices abscissæ. Hirtius l. de Bell. Hispan. So Africanus : Gravius in Romanos quàm in Latinos transfugas animadvertit: illos enim, tanquam patriæ fugitivos, crucibus affixit; hos, tanquam perfidos socios, securi percussit. Valer. Max. l. 2. This punishment of the Cross was a proper unto Servants, that servile supplicium in the Language of the Romans fignifies the same : and tho' in the Words of Vulcatius before cited, they go both together, as also in Capitolinus, Nam & in crucem milites tulit, & servilibus fuppliciis femper affecit ; yet either is sufficient to express Crucifixion: as in Tacitus, Malam potentíam servili supplicio expiavit, Hiji. 4. And again, fumptum de eo fupplicium in servilem modum ; Hist. 2. And therefore when any Servants were made free, they were put out of fear of ever suffering this punishment. An verò servos nostros horum suppliciorum omnium metu dominorum benignitas una vindicta liberavit vos à verberibus, ab unco, crucis denique terrore, neque res geftæ, neque acta ætas, neque noftri honores vindicabunt ? Cic. Orat. pro Rabir... Carnifex, & obdu&tio capitis, & nomen ipsum Crucis abfit, non modo à corpore civium Romanorum, sed etiam à cogitatione, oculis, auribus. Harum enim omnium rerum non folum eventus atque perpeffio, sed etiam conditio, exspectatio, mentio denique, indigna cive Romano atque homine libero eft. Cic. Orat. pro Rabir. Facinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, parricidium necare: quid dicam in crucem tollere, crudelissimum teterrimumque fupplicium? verbo satis digno tam nefaria res appellari nullo modo poteft. Idem 5. in Verrem. As when the Capitol was betrayed by the silence of Dogs, but preserved by the noise of Geese; they preserved the Memory by a folemn honouring of one yearlý, and disonouring of the other. Eadem de causa supplicia annua canes pendunt, inter ædem Junonis &. Summani vivi in furca sambucea arbore fixi. Plin. l. 9.6.4. Nour búd vé xet vũ ini keránn og róte ovuilwuátwo oj túxn, xúwn dvesavewpo, xav ä piena ini semurns module dõs ry Pogeix xogausluGu. Plutarch, de Fort. Rom. * As Osætes the Persian, when he had treacherously and cruelly murthered Polycrates the Tyrant of Samos, d'roulevas de peso óx átíws órayhrieuresaúgwri · Herod. b. 3. So Antiochus first cut off the Head of Achæus, and then fastned his Body to a Cross. "Edože agüter i ακρωτηριάσαι ή ταλαίπωρον, και ταύτα κεφαλήν λύπτεμόντας αυτ8, και καλαρρίψωνίας ας όνειον ασκόν, ανασυρώσαι το σώμα. + This was the Design of Tarquinius Priscus, when the Extremity of Labour which he had laid upon his Subjects made many lay violent hands upon themselves; Paslim conscita nece Quiritibus tædium fugientibus, novum & inexcogitatum antea posteaque remedium invenit ille Rex, ut omnium ita defunctorum figeret crucibus corpora, spectanda civibus fimul, & feris volucribusque laceranda. Plin. l. 36. 15. who makes this handsome observation of it: Quamobrem pudor Romani nominis proprius, qui sæpe res perditas fervavit in præliis, tunc quoque subvenit: sed illo tempore impofuit, tum erubescens cum puderet vivos, tanquam puditurum effet extinctos. Thus they used Celsus, one of the 30 Tyrants of Rome, as Trebellius Pollio teftifieth : Novo injuriæ genere imago in crucem fublata, persultante vulgo, quafi patibulo ipse Celsus videretur affixus.
It is necessary we should thus profess Faith in Christ Crucified, as that Punishment which he chose to undergo, as that way which he was pleafed to die. First, Because by this kind of Death we may be assured that he hath taken up
on himself, and consequently from us, the Malediction of the Law. For we Dent. 27.26. were all under the Curfe, because it is expressly written, Cursed is every one Gal. 3. 10. that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the
Law to do them. and as it's certain none of us hath fo continued; for the firsdag Srripture bath concluded all under Sin, which is nothing else but a Breach Gal. 3. 22. of the Law: therefore the Curse must be acknowledged to remain upon all. But now Christ bath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a Gal. 3. 13. Curfe for us ; that is, he hath redeemed us from that general Curie, which kay upon all Men for the Breach of any part of the Law, by taking upon him that particular Curse, laid only upon them which underwent a certain Punishment of the Law; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a Deat. 21. 12, tree. Not that Suspension was any of the Capital Punishments prescribed by * UPIN ME) the Law of Mofes ; not that by any Tradition or Custom of the Jews they need were wont to punish Malefactors with that Death: 'but such as were punished with Death according to the Law or Custom of the Jews, were for the Enor oura mity of their Fact oft-times after Death exposed to the Ignominy of a Gib-s antan ber; and those who * being dead were so hanged on a Tree, were accursed * Deut.21.22, by the Law. Now though Christ was not to die by the Sentence of the If a man have
committed a Weaus, who had lost the Supreme Power in Causes Capital, and so not to be sin worthy of condemned to any Death according to the Law of Mofes; yet the Provi- death, and he dence of God did so dispose it, that he might fuffer that Death which did
be put to
nat Death which did death, and contain in it that Ignominious Particularity to which the Legal Curse belong thou hang ad which is the hanging on a tree. For he which is crucified, as he is af- him on
tree. In fited to, fo he hangeth on the Cross: And therefore true and formal Cruci- which words fixion is often named by the general word † Suspension; and the Jews them- being put to felves do commonly call our Blessed Saviour by that very # Name to which dochopite the Cures is affixed by Moses; and generally have objected that he died a* cur- hanged : But, sed Death...
B 7 CH I confefs, in
1. Translat. it bath another fenje, (and he be to be put to death), as if he were. to die by, hanging. And so the Vulgar Latine, Et adjudicatus morti appensus fuerit patibulo, as if he were adjudged to be hanged, and so his Sentence were suspension. And the Syriack yet more exprefly, & appendatur ligno atque interficiatur. But there is no such Sentence contained in the Original as the Vulgar, nor Futurition of Death as our English Translation mentioneth. The Hebrew is 11.71 in Hophal. that is, interfectus, occisus, mori factus fuerit; or, as the LXX. clearly translate it, si dimon, and the Chaldee hopn'& occisus fuerit. As we before noted on the Words of Seneca, Thus the Greeks do often use xgençēr, for crucifigere. For Curtius, Speaking of the taking of Tyre by Alexander, says, Duo millia crucibus affixa per ingens littoris fpatiüm pependerunt. And Diodorus Siculus relating the same. To's z vérs wholas vas óx inários dogsaia c'rgéhaqey:
So the same Curtius teftifies that Musicanus was in crucem fublatus : Of whom Arianus speaks thus; tõmov xogeneous ''aaékeude meNOCH A aj autó rñ. Thus in the language of the Scriptures, as xequeat 607 60 xamógłw is one of the crka
cified Thieves, Luke 23. 39. And the Jews are said to have pain our Saviour, ageur av 7es émi bax, Acts 5. 30. and 10. 39. The Latins likewise often use the word fuspendere for crucifigere. As Ausonius, in the Idyllium, whose Title is Cupido cruci affixus, describes him thus,
Hujus in excelso suspensum ftipite Amorem. And when we read in Polybius, that they did évæsovpãou so Cãuice of Achæus; Ovid describes his Punishment thus,
More vel intereas capti suspensus Achæi,
Qui miser auriferâ tefte pependit aquả. The Words of Moses are, Deut.21.23. 1156 0175 5 , maledi&io Dei suspensus : and this Word by which is of it felf simply suspensus, as 2 Sam. 18.10. I saw Absolom: 782 187 hanged on an Oak, is ordinarily attributed by the Jews to our Saviour, 10. signifie that he was crucified. Hence they term Christians "5007 21y cultores suspensi; and they call the Crucifix 1150 : 7718 figuram suspensi. * So Trypho the Jew objected to Juftin Martyr: grö ö ö opée Treasurópfe a xersos diope@ seu mooza géyover, as set tñ égáty zápagçe rãi cu test róueço oš Otő weiterer isaga on vág. Dial. cum Tryph.
Secondly, it was necessary to express our Faith in Christ crucified, thát we might be assured that he hath abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments; which if he had not done, the strength and power of the whole Law had still remained: For all the People had faid Amen to Curse upon every one that kept not the whole Law; and entred into a curse and into an oath, to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the fervant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the Lord their God, and his judgments and his statutes. Which was in thë nature of a Bill, Bond, or Obligation, perpetually standing in force against them, ready to bring a Forfeiture or Penalty upon them, in case of non-performance of the Condition. But the strongest Obligations may be cancelled ; and one ancient Custom of cancelling Bonds was, by striking a Nail through the
Col. 2. 14. Writing : and thus God by our crucified Saviour, blotted out the hand-wris
ting of Ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his Crofs.
Thirdly, Hereby we are to testifie the Power of the Death of Christ work*Exérciu os ing in us after the * manner of Crucifixion. For we are vjecas marionem. tbe likeness of his death; and that we may be fo, we must acknowledge, tropfes e aos xohto wiru, and cause it to appear, that our old man was crucified with him, that the äraras salon, body of fin might be destroyed; we must confess, that b they that are Christ's λω μύες και το
bave crucified the flesh, with the affections and lufts; and they which have eis inos Ker- not, are not his. We must noto glory, Jave in the Cross of our Lord Jesus ssement. Chrift: hor can we properly glory in that, except by it the World be cruwybie & 7. Ign. Epift.ad Smyr. cified unto us, and we unto the World. S. Augustine Speaking of the Church; Mundatur ut non habeat maculam, extenditur ut non habeat rugam : Ubi eam extendit fullo nifi in ligno? Videmus quotidie å fullonibus tunicas quodammodo crucifigi. Crucifiguntur ut rugam non habeant. Plalm 132. 'Arreppelpios eis ro vn Alle un lavõis 'incô Xerri, ő isi raw ng's, qoniqi xe ai piper til Tropiclo Top dyico. Ign, Epift, ad Eph. a Rom. 6. 5,6.
Gal. 5. 24. Gal. 6. 14.
Fourthly, By the Acerbity of this Paffion we are taught to medicate on that bitter Cup which our Saviour drank: and while we think on those Nails which pierced his Hands and Feet, and never left that torturing Activity 'till by their dolorous Impressions they forced a most painful Death, to acknow
ledge the Bitterness of his Sufferings for us, and to assure our felves that by * Mori voluit the * worst of Deaths he had overcome all kinds of Death ; and with Papro nobis, pa- tience and Chearfulness to endure whatsoever he shall think fir to la ruin dicimus;
pon crucifigi dig- us, who with all Readiness and Desire suffered far more for us. natus est; usque ad mortem Crucis obediens factus, elegit extremum & peffimum genus mortis, qui omnem fuerat ablaturus mortem ; de morte peffima occidit omnem mortem. S. Aug. Tract. 36. in Joan.
Fifthly, By the Ignominy of this Punishment, and universal Infamy of that Death, we are taught how far our Saviour descended for us, that while we
were Slaves and in Bondage unto Sin, he might redeem us by a fervile Death: Phil. 2. 7, 8. for He made him felf of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a fer
vant ; and fo He humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even *Humilitatis the death of the Crofs: teaching us the glorious Doctrine of * Humility and enim magia Patience in the most vile and abject Condition which can befał us in this fter est Chriftus, qui hu- World, and encouraging us to imitate him, a Who for the joy that was fet be militavit fe- fore him, endured the cross, despising the Name ; and withal deterring us ipsum, factus cum shot foorfil sin s from that fearful Sin of
lest we should b crucifie unto our obediens, ur-" que ad inor- felves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame, and so betem, mortem come worse than the Jews themselves, who crucified the Lord of Life withautem crucis. S. Aur. in 70. out the Walls of Jerufalem , and for that unparalleld Sin were delivered inTratt. 5r. to the hands of the Romans, into whose hands they delivered him, and ar
Heb. 12. 2. the fame Walls in such Multitudes were crucified, f till there wanted room b Heb. 6. 6. + Jof. de Bell. for Crosses, and Crosses for their Bodies. Jud.l.6.c.28. . 1Iogrýdeo doi sag717 di oyli w pico Ty's chovlas daday öanas gchuano tog's a noulw, as alge to wamoci xarege te Svenámil.. τους φαω ροίς, και σωροί τοίς ζώμασιν.
Lastly, By the publick Visibility of this Death, we are assured that our Saviour was truly dead, and that all his Enemies were fully satisfied. He was crucified in the sight of all the Jews, who were made publick Witnesses that he gave up the Ghost. There were many Traditions among the Heathen, of Perlons supposed for some time to be dead, to descend into Hell, and afterwards to live again; but the Death of these Persons was never publickly feen or certainly known. It is easie for a Man that liveth to say that he hath been dead; and, if he be of great Authority it is not difficult to persuade fome cre
dulous Persons to believe it. But that which would make his preferit Life truly miraculous, must be the Reality and Certainty of his former Death. Thé feigned Histories of Pythagoras and Zamolxis, of Theseus and Hercules, of Orpheus and Protesilaus, made no certain mention of their Deaths, and therefore were ridiculous in the Assertion of their Resurrection from Death. * Christ, as he appeared to certain Witnesses after his Resurrection, celleneliu,
* * This is exso he died before his Enemies visibly on the Cross, and gave up the Ghost served and
expressed by conspicuously in the Sight of the World.
returneth this 'Answer to the objection made by the Jews in Celsus, of thofe fabulous returns from the Dead : digt aggsäcapeles to ; Juice ) to res 'Invõr, isogépelvor, ik vergão egnyigla, Tétois a yg berasaf. "Exas@ gS en de ronficer set's Toms's nieuws Brandeis åv idwsion law ton tarixxaby as of fans avgasawv, rj wán xeivees étavender wegs šs salaaé Otev 'Incs ö sauewSéc igi tómaine 'Isdahwv, xocdange0 év7G auto Cauala cold dýmo autô, wās olor y So mahosoy wháraat aéless ωτον τοίς ισορύλμοίς ήρώσιν ώς άδε καλαβεβηκέναι, και κάθε ανεληλυθέναι; φάμων ' ότι κήποτε προς λιλογίαν, το έσωeñat ^ 'Inc in i Toršton résoll av, pánisa Als' ta med ñ nizáw isogno év mee op ris a dy xc70686nx évou Braswellbein, öti e xcel'
wideon 'Ingi's its@výxes donum farára, órase dina rivou direlaras ago Top Donne qui tot 'Isdaher, era v rör sandūs lige avoo. sa's 'n vergwr, xámegv ei Xev în to twovendor meio sięáwy sy wei Týty dexolwar Meri w07 Šv area's aarois áv71015 tõ savewolü de
Inoivos; cģto dura Confáareas th, WTV Trouws iti rē savgó d'ele Ovnuévan, vel undeis xin hélery oto exown. Categisn Yews or ev@gmaww, vjedočen d'oe@yyxévai, öz doléoyinxe 3, öz iførýtri whain (niparris iteegi 76crapó in vexgāv éves ativi Adv. Celfum, l. 2.
And now we have made this Discovery of the true manner and nature of the Cross on which our Saviour suffered, every one may understand what it is he professeth when he declareth his Faith, and faith, I believe in Christ crucified. For thereby he is understood and obliged to speak thus much : I am really persuaded, and fully satisfied, that the Only-begotten and Eternal Son of God, Christ Jefus, that he might cancel the Hand-writing which was against us, and take off the Curse which was due unto us, did take upon him the Form of a Servant, and in that Form did willingly.and chearfully submit himself unto the falfe Accusation of the Jews, and unjust Sentence of Pilate, by which he was condemned, according to the Roman Custom, to the Cross; and upon that did suffer servile Punishment of the greatest Acerbity; enduring the Pain; and of the greatest Ignominy, despising the Shame.. And thus I believe in Christ crucifieds
T Hough Crucifixion of it felf involveth not in it certain Death, and he
which is fastried to a Cross is so leisurely to die, as that he being taken from the fame may live; though when the insulting Jeres in a malicious Derision called to our Saviour to save himself, and come down from the Cross; he might have come down from thence, and in faving himself have never saved us; yet it is certain that he felt the Extremity of that Punishment, and fulfilled the utmost Intention of Crucifixion : fo. that, as we acknowledge him crucified, we believe him dead.
For the Illustration of which part of the Article, it will be inecessary, First, to fhew that the Mefias was to die; that no Sufferings, howsoever shameful and painful, were sufficiently satisfactory to the Determination and Predictions divine, without a full Dissolution and proper Death: Secondly, to prove that our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Messias, did not only suffer Torments intolerable and inexpressible in this Life, but upon and by the fame did finish this Life by a true and proper Death : Thirdly, to declare in what the Nature and Condition of the Death of a Person fo totally singular did properly and peculiarly consist. And more than this cannot be necessary to Theiv we believe that Christ was dead.
First 'then, we must consider what S. Paul delivered to the Corinthians 1 Cor. 15. 30 first of all, and what also he received, how that Christ died for our sins
according to the Scriptures; that the Messias was the Lamb hain before the foundations of the world, and that his Death was severally represented and foretold. For though the facrificing Ifaac hath been acknowledged an ex press and lively Type of the promised Mefias; though, after he was bound and laid upon the Wood, he was preserved from the Fire, and rescued from
the religious Cruelty of his Father's Knife; though Abraham be faid to have Heb. 11:17. Offered up his only-begotten Son, when I faac died not ; though by all this it
might seem foretold that the true and great promised Seed, the Christ, should
be made a Sacrifice for Sin, should be fastned to the Cross, and offer'd up to Heb. 9. 22. the Father, but not suffer Death: yet being without effusion of blood there is
no remission, without Death no Sacrifice for Sin; being the saving of Ifaac alive doth not deny the Death of the Antitype, but rather suppose and assert
it as presignifying his Resurrection from the Dead, from whence Abraham reHeb. 11. 19. ceived him in a Figure ; we may safely affirm the ancient and legal Types
did represent a Christ which was to die." It was an effential part of the Par
chal Law, that the Lamb should be flain : and in the Sacrifices for Sin, which Heb. 13. 11, presignified a Saviour to fanctifie the people with his own blood, the bodies 12. of the beasts were burnt without the camp, and their blood brought into the
Nor did the Types only require, but the Prophecies also foretel, his Isaiah 53. 7. Death. For he was brought, faith Isaiah, as a Lamb to the slaughter : 8, 10.
he was cut off out of the land of the living, faith the fame Prophet; and
made his soul an offering for fin. Which are so plain and evident Predi. * That this ctions, that the * Žews Thew not the least Appearance of Probability in their must be understood of the Messias, I have already proved against the Jews out of the Text, and their own Traditions. Their Objection particularly to these words is, that the land of the living is the land of Canaan. so Solomon Jarchi, Nu phare avami pano From the land of the living, that is, the land of Israel. And D. Kimchi endeavours to prove that Exposition out of David, wyna' 17 395 Tang m it ihn nanpw 'phan WNS SMYND Os as if the land of the living must be the land of Canaan, because David profeffeth he will walk before the Lord in the land of the living: whereas there is no more in that Phrase than that he will serve God while he liveth. As Psal. 27. 13. I had fainted unless I had believed to see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living; and Ifa. 38. 11. I said, I shall not see the Lord, even the Lord in the land of the living; which is sufficiently interpreted by the words which follow : I shall behold man no more with the Inhabitants of the World. The land of the living. then was not particularly the land of Canaan: nor can they perfuade us that it could not refer to Christ, because he was never removed out of that land , but to be cut off out of land of the living is, certainly, to be taken away from them which live upon the earth, that is, to die.
place of Isaiah Évasions.
Being then the obstinate Jews themselves acknowledge one Messias was to die, and that a violent death ; being we have already proved there is but one Meffias foretold by the Prophets and thewed by those places which they will not acknowledge that he was to be sain : it followeth by their unwilling Confessions and our plain Approbations, that the promised Mefias was ordained to die: which is our first Assertion.
Secondly, We affirm, correspondently to these Types and Promises, That 1 Cor. 5. 7. Christ our Passover is flain; that he whom we believe to be the true and on
ly Messias did really and truly die. Which Affirmation we may with Confidence maintain, as being secure of any even the least Denial. Jesus of Nazareth upon his Crucifixion was so surely, so certainly dead, that they which wished, they which thirsted for his Blood, they which obtained, which effected, which extorted his Death, even they believed it, even they were fatisfied with it: the Chief Priests, the Scribes, and the Pharisees, the Publicans and Şinners, all were satisfied; the Sadduces most of all, who hugged their old Opinion, and loved their Error the better, because they thought him sure for ever rising up. But if they had denied or doubted of it, the very Stones would cry out and confirm it. Why did the Sun put on Mourning? Why were the Graves opened, but for a Funeral? Why did the Earth quake? Why were the Rocks rent? Why did the frame of Nature shake, but because