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* Pulcatius

fervile Punishinent, and inflicted upon their Slaves and Fugitives. It was Gallicanus re- a high Crime to put that Dishononr upon any Free-man; and the greatest dites kailius, - Indignity which the most undeserving † Roman could possibly fuffer in himself, in the case of or could be contrived to thew their Detestation to such Creatures as were beSome Centuri-, low Humane Nature. And because when a Man is beyond Possibility of brem aprospekad suffering Pain, he may still be subject to Ignominy in his fame; when by oroses, that in ther exquisite Torments some Men have tasted the Bitterness of Death, after fighting with that, they have in their * breathless Corps, by virtue of this Punishment, sufven, Rapi cos fered a kind of surviving Shame. And the exposing the Bodies of the Dead juflit, & in to the View of the People on the Cross, hath been thought a t fufficient Igcrucem tolli, nominy to those which died, and Terror to those which lived to see it. Yes, fupplicio af- where the bodies of the Dead have been out of the Reach of their surviving fici : quod Enemies, they have thought it highly opprobrious to their Ghosts, to take non exitabat. their Representations preserved in their 1. Pictures, and affix them to the And juvenal Crofs. Thus may we be made sensible of the the two grand Aggravations of

our Saviour's Sufferings, the Bitterness of Pain in the Torments of his Body, relation to this Custom, Pone and the Indignity of Shame in the Interpretation of his Enemies. crucem fervo. So Palæitrio in Plautus ; Nisi quidem illa nos volt, qui servi sumus, propter suum amorem omnes crucibus contubernales dari. And again : Noli minitari; scio crucem futuram mihi sepulchrum. Ibi majores mei fiti funt, pater, avus, proavus, abavus. So in Terences Pam. Quid meritus es? Da. Crucem. And Horace. Si quis eum servum patinam qui tollere jutsus, Semesos pifces tepidumque ligurierit jus, in cruce suffigat. So Capitolinus of Pertinax, in crucein fublatis talibus servis; and Herodian of Macrinus, dgnos ocor decrétas raphy Toader avecrodonit now. This punishment of the Cross-did fo properly belong to the slaves, that when Servants and Freemen were involved alike in the same Crime, they were very careful to make a diftinction in their death, according to their condition : Ut quisque liber aut fervus, fuæ fortunæ à quoque fumptum fupplicium est. Liv. l. 3. And then the Servants were always crucified. As Servius obferves among she Lacedæmonians; Servos patibulis fuffixerunt filios ftrangulavere, nepotes fugaverunt. Æneid. 3. Novercæ quidem perpetuum indicitur exilium ; fervus verò patibulo fuffigitur. Apul. Metam. I. 10. Thus in the combution at Rome, upon the death of Julius Cefar ; 'Αμυνό μθμοι ανηρέθησαν ένιοι, και συλληφθέντες έτεροι κρεμάθησαν όσοι Siege movies for av, oi sinoc Sipas x 75 xgnuvš xaleppipurus. Appian. de Bell. civil. l. 3. Ea nocte speculatores prehenfi servi tres, & unus ex legione vernacula ; servi sunt in crucem sublati, militi cervices abscissæ. Hirtius l. de Bell. Hifpan. So Africanus : Gravius in Romanos quàm in Latinos transfugas animadvertit: illos enim, tanquam patriæ fugitivos, crucibus affixit; hos, tanquam perfidos socios, securi percussit. Valer. Max. l. 2. This punishment of the Cross was proper unto Servants, that servile fupplicium in the Language of the Romans fignifies the same : and tho' in the Words of Vulcatius before cited, they go both together, as also in Capitolinus, Nam & in crucem milites tulit, & servilibus fuppliciis semper affecit ; yet either is sufficient to express Crucifixion : as in Tacitus, Malam potentiam servili supplicio expiavit , Hij. 4. And again, sumptum de eo fupplicium in servilem modum ; Hist

. 2. And therefore when any Servants were made free, they were put out of fear of ever suffering this punishment. An verò servos noftros horum suppliciorum omnium metu dominorum benignitas una vindicta liberavit vos à verberibus, ab unco, crucis denique terrore, neque res geftæ, neque acta ætas, neque noftri honores vindicabunt ? Cic. Orat. pro Rabir. Carnifex, & obductio capitis, & nomen ipsum Crucis abfit, non modo à corpore civium Romanorum, sed etiam à cogitatione, oculis, auribus. Harum enim omnium rerum non solum eventus atque perpessio, sed etiam conditio, exspectatio, mentio denique, indigna cive Romano atque homine libero eft

. Cic

. Orat. pro Rabir. Facinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, parricidium necare: quid dicam in crucem tollere, crudelissimum teterrimumque fupplicium? verbo satis digno tam nefaria res appellari nullo modo poteft. Idem 5. in Verrem. # As when the Capitol was betrayed by the silence of Dogs, but preserved by the noise of Geese; they preserved the Memory by a solemn honouring of one yearly, and disponouring of the other. Eadem de causa supplicia annua canes pendunt, inter ædem Junonis & Summani Vivi in furca fambucea arbore fixi. Plin. 1. 9. c. 4. Πομπούς μέχρι νύν επί μνήμη και τότε συμπλωμάτων και τύχη, κύων και ανασαυρωμής, χήν και μάλα επί σρωμνής πολυτελές και φορείς καθημμG-. Ρlutarch, de Fort. Rom. As Orætes the Perfian, when he had treacherously and cruelly murthered Polycrates the Tyrant of Samos, amoxlesvas de peso óx ákiws dravýcrou dissaúqwer. Herod. l. 3, So Antiochus first cut off the Head of Achæus, and then fastned his Body to a Cross. "Edote weātov ακρωτηριάσαι και ταλαίπωρο», η 3 ταύτα η κεφαλήν λάπτεμόντας αυτά, και καταρρίψαντας εις όνειον ασκόν, ανασαυρώσαι το σώμα.

This was the Design of Tarquinius Prifcus, when the Extremity of Labour which he had laid upon his Subjects made many lay violent hands upon themselves; Paflim confcita nece Quiritibus tædium fugientibus, novum & inexcogitatum antea pofteaque remedium invenit ille Rex, ut omnium ita defunctorum figeret crucibus corpora, spectanda civibus fimul, & feris volucribusque laceranda. Plin. l. 36. 15. who makes this handsome observation of it: Quamobrem pudor Romani nominis proprius, qui sæpe res perditas fervavit in præliis, tunc quoque subvenit: sed illo tempore impofuit, tum erubescens cum puderet vivos, tanquam puditurum esset extinctos. | Thus they used Celsus, one of the 30 Tyrants of Rome, as Trebellius Pollio teftifeth : Novo injuriæ genere imago in crucem fublata, persultante vulgo, quafi patibulo ipfe Celfus videretur affixus.

It is necessary we should thus profess Faith in Christ Crucified, as that Punishment which he chose to undergo, as that way which he was pleafed to die. First, Because by this kind of Death we may be assured that he hath taken upon himself , and consequently from us, the Malediction of the Law.

For we Deut. 27.26. were all under the Curfe

, because it is expressly written, Cursed is every one Gal. 3. 10. that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the

Law

Law to do them: and as it's certain none of us hath so continued; for the Scripture hath concluded all under Sin, which is nothing else but a Breach Gal. 3. 22. of the Law: therefore the Curse must be acknowledged to remain upon all. But now Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a Gal. 3. 13. curfe for us ; that is, he hath redeemed us from that general Curle, which kay upon all Men for the Breach of any part of

the Law, by taking upon him that particular Curse; laid only upon them which underwent a certain Punishment of the Law ; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a Deat. 21.13. tree. Not that Suspension was any of the Capital Punishments prescribed by the Law of Mofes ; not that by any, Tradition or Custom of the Jews

they were wont to punish Malefactors with that Death: 'but such as were punished with Death according to the Law or Custom of the Jews, were for the Enormity of their Fact oft-times after Death exposed to the Ignominy of a Gibbet ; and those who * being dead were so hanged on a Tree, were accursed * Deut.21.22. by the Law. Now though Christ was not to die by the Sentence of the If a man have Jews, who had lost the Supreme Power in Causes Capital, and fo not to be sin worthy of condemned to any Death according to the Law of Mofes; yet the Provi- death, and he

be put to dence of God did so dispose it, that he might fuffer that Death which did

death, and
contain in it that Ignominious Particularity to which the Legal Curse belong- thou hang
ed, which is, the hanging on a tree. For he which is crucified, as he is af- him on a
fixed to, so he hangeth on the Cross : And therefore true and formal Cruci- which words
fixion is often named by the general word † Suspension; and the Jews them- being put to
felves do commonly call our Blessed Saviour by that very # Name to which dechh being
the Cures is affixed by Moses; and generally have objected that he died a * cur- hanged: But,
fed Death.

I confefs, in
Ost Eng.

Translat. it bath another fenje

, (and he be to be put to death), as if he were. to die by hanging And so the Vulgar Latine, Et adjudicatus morti appenfus fuerit patibulo, as if he were adjudged to be hanged, and so his Sentence were fufpenfion. And the Syriack yer more expressly, & appendatur ligno atque interficiatur. But there is no such Sentence contained in the Original as the Vulgar, nor Futurition of Death as our English Translation mentioneth. The Hebrew is n 217 in Ho. phal. that is, interfectus, occisus, mori factus fuerit; or, as the LXX. clearly transate it, ej dobávn, and the Chaldee sopan & occisus fuerit. † As we before noted on the Words of Seneca, Thus the Greeks do often use xgireçēv, for crucitigere. For Curtius, Speaking of the taking of Tyre by Alexander, Says, Duo millia crucibus affixa per ingens littoris fpatium pependerunt. And Diodorus Siculus relating the famε. Τις νέες πάντας όντας εκ ελάτες και διχιλίων κρέμασει So the same Curtius teftifies that Musicanus was in crucem sublatus : of whom Arianus speaks thus; rõmov meeneous 'Aničesde o redoces u zý arg vs. Thus in the language.of the Scriptures, eis xsquaatérm xexéęłw is one of the cru cified Thieves, Luke 23:39. And the Jews are said to have fain our Saviour, astuár wes én egúns, Acts 5.30. and 10. 39. The Latins likewise often use the word suspendere for crucifigere. As Ausonius, in the Idyllium, whose Title is Cupido cruci affixus, describes him thus,

Hajus in excelso suspensum ftipite Amorem.
And when we read in Polybius, that they did ávæsaugãocu Gənce of Achæus ; Ovid describes his Punishment thus

More vel intereas capti suspensus Achæi,

Qui miser auriferâ teste pependit aquả. The Words of Mofes are, Deut.21.23. 150 Onb557, maledi&io Dei fufpensus: and this Word on which is of itself fimply suspensus, as 2 Sam. 18.10. I saw Absolom - 2 non hanged on an Oak, is ordinarily attributed by the Jews to our Saviour, to signifie that he was crucificà. Hence they term Christians bnn many cultores suspenfi; and they call the Crucifix 1150 771 figuram fufpenfi. * So Trypho the Jew objected to Juftin Martyr: stoj oni τερο λεγό δρG- Χρισός άτιμG- και άδοξο- γέγονεν, ως και τη εχάτη κατάρα τη ώ του νόμω το Θεϊ ειπεσεν εσωρώθη γάρ. Dial, cum Tryph.

Secondly, It was necessary to express our Faith in Christ crucified, thát we might be assured that he hath abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the Law of commandments; which if he had not done, the strength and power of the whole Law had still remained: For all the People had said Amen to the Curse upon every one that kept not the whole Law; and entred into a curse and into an oath, to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the fervant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the Lord their God, and his judgments and his statutes. Which was in the nature of a Bill, Bond, or Obligation, perpetually standing in force against them, ready to bring a forfeiture or Penalty upon them, in case of non-performance of the Condition. But the strongest obligations may be cancelled ; and one ancient Custom of cañcelling Bonds was, by striking a Nail through the 4

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Col. 2. 14.

Writing : and thus God by our crucified Saviour, blotted out the hand-wria ting of Ordinances that was againf us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his Crofs.

Thirdly, Hereby we are to testifie the Power of the Death of Christ work* 'Evórcze go ing in us after the * manner of Crucifixion. For we are to be a planted in Byears ago on the likeness of his death; and that we may be fo, we must acknowledge, xovýto wise, and cause it to appear, that our old man was crucified with him, that the äravie maken, body of fin might be destroyed; we must confess, that b they that are Christ's Marities TS σαυρό τ8 Κυ have crucified the flesh, with the affections and lufts; and they which have eix inoši Kev- not, are not his. We must not glory, Jave in the Cross of our Lord Jesus so potente Tonite Chrift: hor can we properly glory in that, except by it the World be cruEpifi.ad Smyr

. cified unto us, and we unto the World. S. Augustine Speaking of the Church; Mundatur ut non habeat maculam, extenditur ut non habeat rugam : Ubi eam extendit fullo niti in ligno? Videmus quotidie å fullonibus tunicas quodammodo crucifigi. Crucifiguntur ut rugam non habeant. Psalm 132. 'Arz@eøpeffpoi eis recente Aligi ant pakuvñs Incó Xerrö, ist sowegs, gomią xsai planos tu wróupec 7o Teas diyice. Ign. Erill, ad Eph. a Rom. 6. 5,6.

Gal, 5. 24.

cGal. 6. 14.

Fourthly, By the Acerbity of this Passion we are taught to meditate on that bitter Cup which our Saviour drank: and while we think on those Nails which pierced his Hands and Feet, and never left that torturing Activity 'till by their dolorous Impressions they forced a most painful Death, to acknow

ledge the Bitterness of his Sufferings for us, and to assure our felves that by * Mori voluit the * worst of Deaths he had overcome all kinds of Death ; and with Papro nobis, pa- tience and Chearfulness to endure whatsoever he shall think fit to lay upon crucifigi dig-' us, who with all Readiness and Desire suffered far more for us. natus est; usque ad mortein Crucis obediens factus, elegit extremum & pessimum genus mortis, qui omnem fuerat ablaturus mortem ; de morte pessima occidit omnem mortem. S. Aug. Tract. 36. in Joan.

obediens, uf

Tract. 51.

Fifthly, By the ignominy of this Punishment, and universal Infamy of that Death, we are taught how far our Saviour descended for us, that while we

were Slaves and in Bondage unto Sin, he might redeem us by a fervile Death: Phil. 2. 7,8. for He made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a fer

vant ; ' and fo He humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even *Humilitatis the death of the Crofs: teaching us the glorious Doctrine of * Humility and enim magi. Patience in the most vile and abject Condition which can befal us in this ftus

, qui hu- World, and encouraging us to imitate him, a Who for the joy that was set bemilicavit fe fore him, endured the cross, despising the shame ; and withal deterring us

from that fearful Sin of falling from him, lest we should b crucifie unto our que ad inor- selves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open same, and fo betem, mortem come worse than the Jews themselves, who crucified the Lord of Life with5. Aug. in Jo. out the Walls of Jerusalem, and for that unparalleld Sin were delivered in

to the hands of the Romans, into whose hands they delivered him, and ar · Heb: 12, 2. the same Walls in such Multitudes were crucified, f till there wanted room + Jof. de Ben. for Crosses, and Crosses for their Bodies. Fud.l.6.6.28. Η οστήλας δ' οι στρατιωδι αργω και μία Φ- τες αλονίας άλλον άλλο χήματα προς χλοίω, και Αξε ο πλήθΦ- χώρο το έντλείπει. Tois saagise mej soggi tois Chuazi.

Lastly, By the publick Vigibility of this Death, we are assured that our Saviour was truly dead, and that all his Enemies were fully satisfied. He was crucified in the sight of all the Jews, who were made publick Witnesses that he gave up the Ghost. There were many Traditions among the Heathen, of Perlons supposed for some time to be dead, to descend into Hell, and afterwards to live again; but the Death of these Persons was never publickly seen or certainly known. It is easie for a Man that liveth ro fay that he hath been dead; and, if he be of great Authority it is not difficult to persuade fome cre

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dulous Persons to believe it. But that which would make his present Life
truly miraculous, must be the Reality and Certainty of his former Deathi

. The feigned Histories of Pythagoras and Zamolxis, of Theseus and Hercules, of Orpheus and Protefilaus, made no certain mention of their Deaths, and therefore were ridiculous in the Assertion of their Resurrection from Death. * Christ, as he appeared to certain Witnesses after his Resurrection, cellently obfo he died before his Enemies visibly on the Cross, and gave up the Ghost served and conspicuously in the Sight of the World.

expressed by

Origen, who Answer to the objection made by the Jews in Celsus, of those fabulous returns from the Dead: dige afgshow pefes To διώα) το τ 'Ιησάν, ισορόδρον, οκ νεκρών έγηγέρθαι, τέτοις ο Δαβάλλει. “ΕκατG- εδη λε/ομίων και της τόπος ηρώων βεληθείς αν έδινήθη εωτον υπεκκλέψαι η ύψως η ανθρώπων, και πάλιν κρίνας επανελθείν προς ές καλαλέλοιπεν Ιησε και τωραGino iri wrós? av lyd abw, oj xac@auztév7@ours of Camac 4d to drug outür, wws oor J ag* Núclor wháreas aileso αυτον τοίς ισορριμους ήρωσιν ες άδε καλαβεβηκέναι, κακείθεν ανεληλυθέναι ; φάμων δ' ότι μήποτε προς λιλογίαν, το εσαυρω τ 'Ιησέν και τοιέτον λέ[ο 7' άν, μάλιςα Alg τα αει τ ηρώων ισορηθέντα ή ες άδε καλαβεβηκέναι βιαζωμδύων, ότι η καθ' πίθεσιν ο Ιησές έτεθνήκει ασήμω θανάτω, εκ ώσε δήλG- έναν πιθανών όλω το δήμο ή Ιεδαίων, τα σ' τετ' αληθώς ώ ανασας κ νεκρών, χώρων είχεν αν το μασονοηθών ωθι ή ηρώων και του τότε λεχθώαι μη πο' ον προς άλλους ανθίοις το ταυρωθώαι * Ιησέν και τέτο διώα ζυμβάλλει το, αυτον επισήμως επί τα σαωρέ λαιγεθνηκέναι, ένα μηδες έχη λέξεις ότι εκων εξέση και όψεως ή ανθρώπων, και έδοξεν λιγεθνηκέναι, εκ λίθνηκε 3, ότ' εβελήθη πάλιν επιφανείς έτιρα 7ούσα ό τ οκ νεκρών ανάσασιν. Adv. Celfum, I. 2.

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And now we have made this Discovery of the true manner and nature of the Cross on which our Saviour fuffered, every one may understand what it is he professeth when he declareth bis Faith, and faith, I believe in Christ crucified. For thereby he is understood and obliged to speak thus much : I am really persuaded, and fully satisfied, that the Only-begotten and Eternal Son of God, Christ Jesus, that he might cancel the Hand-writing which was against us, and take off the Curse which was due unto us, did take upon him the Form of a Servant, and in that Form did willingly and chearfully submit himself unto the false Accufation of the Jews, and unjust Sentence of Pilate, by which he was condemned, according to the Roman Custom, to the Cross ; and upon that did fuffer servile Punishment of the greatest Acerbity; enduring the Pain; and of the greatest Ignominy, despising the Shame. And thus I believe in Christ crucified.

Dead.

Hough Crucifixion of it felf involveth not in it certain Death, and he

which is fastned to a Cross is so leisurely to die, as that he being taken from the fame may live; though when the insulting Jews in a malicious Derision called to our Saviour to save himself, and come down from the Cross; he might have come down from thence, and in faving himself have never saved us ; yet it is certain that he felt the Extremity of that Punishment, and fulfilled the utmost Intention of Crucifixion : fo. that, as we acknowledge him crucified, we believe him dead.

For the Illustration of which part of the Article, it will be inecessary, First, to shew that the Messias was to die; that no Sufferings, howsoever shameful and painful, were fufficiently satisfactory to the Determination and Predictions divine, without a full Diffolution and proper Death: Secondly, to prove that our Jesus, whom we believe to be the true Messias, did not only fuffer Torments intolerable and inexpressible in this Life, but upon and by the same did finish this Life by a true and proper Death : Thirdly, to declare in what the Nature and Condition of the Death of a Person fo totally singular did properly and peculiarly consist. And more than this cannot be necessary to Theiv we believe that Christ was dead.

First then, we must consider what S. Paul delivered to the Corinthians 1 Cor. 15.30 first of all, and what also he received, how that Christ died for our sins

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according

to

according to the Scriptures; that the Messias was the Lamb flain before the foundations of the world, and that his Death was severally represented and foretold. For though the sacrificing Ifaac hath been acknowledged an exa press and lively Type of the promised Messias ; though, after he was bound and laid upon the Wood, he was preserved from the

Fire, and rescued from the religious Cruelty of his Father's Knife; though Abraham be faid to have Heb. 11. 17. Offered up his only-begotten Son, when Ifaac died not ; though by all this it

might seem foretold that the true and great promised Seed, the Chrift, should be made a Sacrifice for Sin, should be fastned to the Cross, and offer'd

up Heb. 9. 22.

the Father, but not suffer Death: yet being without effusion of blood there is no remission, without Death no Sacrifice for Sin; being the saving of Ifaac alive doth not deny the Death of the Antitype, but rather suppose and assert

it as presignifying his Resurrection from the Dead, from whence Abraham reHeb. 11. 19. ceived him in a Figure ; we may safely affirm the ancient and legal Types

did represent a Christ which was to die.' It was an effential part of the Par

chal Law, that the Lamb should be flain : and in the Sacrifices for Sin, which Heb. 13. 11, presignified a Saviour to sanctifie the people with his own blood, the bodies

of the beasts were burnt without the camp, and their blood brought into the sunctuary.

Nor did the Types only require, but the Prophecies also foretel, his isaiah 53. 7. Death. For he was broùght, faith Isaiah, as a Lamb to the slaughter : 8, 10.

he was cut off out of the land of the living, saith the fame Prophet; and

made his soul an offering for fin. Which are so plain and evident Predi* That this ctions, that the * Jews ihew not the least Appearance of Probability in their place of Isaiah

Évasions. must be understood of the Messias, I have already proved against the Jews out of the Text, and their own Traditions. Their Objection particularly to shese words is, that the land of the living is the land of Canaan. so Solomon Jarchi, no PIN caminho From the land of the living, that is, the land of Israel. And D. Kimchi endeavours to prove that Exposition out of

, land of the living must be the land of Canaan, because David professeth he will walk before the Lord in the land of the living: whereas there is no more in that Phrafe than that he will serve God while he liveth. As Psal. 27. 13. I bad fainted unless I had believed to see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living; and Ifa. 38. 11. I said, I shall not see the Lord, even the Lord in the land of the living; which is sufficiently interpreted by the words which follow : I shall behold man no more with the Inhabitants of the World. The land of the living then was not particularly the land of Canaan: nor can they persuade us that it could not refer to Christ, because he was never removed out of that land: but to be cut off out of land of the living is, certainly, to be taken away from them which live upon the earth, that is, to die.

12.

Being then the obstinate Jews themselves acknowledge one Messias was to die, and that a violent death ; being we have already proved there is but one Meffias foretold by the Prophets and thewed by those places which they will not acknowledge that he was to be Nain; it followeth by their unwilling Confessions and our plain Approbations, that the promised Mefias was ordained to die: which is our first Affertion.

Secondly, We affirm, correspondently to these Types and Promises, That i Cor. 5. 7. Christ our Pasover is flain; that he whom we believe to be the true and on

ly Messias did really and truly die. Which Affirmation we may with Confidence maintain, as being secure of any, even the least Denial. Jefus of Nazareth

upon his Crucifixion was so surely, so certainly dead, that they which wished, they which thirsted for his Blood, they which obtained, which effected, which extorted his Death, even they believed it, even they were satisfied with it: the Chief Priests, the Scribes and the Pharisees, the Publicans and þinners, all were satisfied; the Sadduces most of all, who hugged their old Opinion, and loved their Error the better, because they thought him fure for ever rising up. But if they had denied or doubted of it, the very Stones would cry out and confirm it

. Why did the Sun put on Mourning? Why were the Graves opened, but for a Funeral? Why did the Earth quake? Why were the Rocks rent? Why did the frame of Nature shake, but because

the

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