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Lord. If then the Patriarchs did chearfully live in the Land of Golden, subject to the power and command of Egypt, because that power was in the hand of Jofeph their exalted brother ; shall not we with all rea. diness of mind submit our felves to the Divine Dominion now given to him who gave himself for us? Shall all the Angels worship him, and all the Archangels bow down before him, and shall not we be proud to join with them?
Thirdly, The belief of Christ's Dominion is necessary for the regulation of all power, authority and dominion on earth, both in respect of those which rule, and in relation to those that obey. From hence the most absolute Monarchs learn, that the people which they rule are not their own, but
the Subjects of a greater Prince, by him committed to their charge. Upon Col. 4. 5. this S. Paul doth ground his admonition to Masters, Give unto your fervants
that which is just and equal, knowing that ye also have a Master in bea
ven. God gave a power to the Ifraelites to make hired Servants of their Lov. 25. 42. brethren, but not Slaves; and gives this reason of the interdiction, For they
are my fervants which I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they fall not be sold as Bondmen. What tenderness then should be uled towards those who are the Servants of that Lord who redeemed them from a greater bondage, who bought them with a higher price? From hence thole which are subject learn to obey the powers which are of human ordination, because in them they obey the Lord of all. Subjects bear the same proportion, and
stand in the same relation to their Governors, with Servants to their Masters: Col. 3. 22, and S. Paul hath given them this charge, Obey in all things your masters ac23, 24. cording to the flejh; And what foever ye do, do it heartily, as to the Lord,
and not unto men; Knowing that of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance : for ye serve the Lord Chrift. Neither do we learn from hence only whom, but also how, to obey. For while we look upon one Lord in Heaven, while we consider him as the Lord of Lords, we regulate our obedience to them by our service due to him, and so are always ready to obey, but in the Lord.
Lastly, This Title of our Saviour is of necessary belief for our comfort and encouragement. For being Lord of all, he is able to dispose of all things for the benefit of those which serve him. He who commanded the unconstant winds, and stilled the ragicg seas, he who multiplied the loaves and fishes, and created wine with the word of his mouth, hath all creatures now under exact obedience, and therefore none can want whom he undertakech to provide for. For the fame Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. "Many are the enemies of those persons who dedicate themselves unto his service; but our enemies are his, and part of his dominion is therefore given him, and to
n him until all his enemies be made his footitool. Great is the power of the lusts of our flesh, which war in our members; but his grace is sufficient for us, and the power of that Spirit by which he ruleth in us. Heavy are the afflictions which we are called to undergo for his fake: but if we fuffer with him, we shall reign together with him: and blessed be that Dominion which makes us all Kings, that he may be for ever Lord of Lords, and King of Kings.
· After this explication, every Christian may perceive what he is to believe in this part of the Article, and express himself how he would be understood when he maketh this profession of his Faith, I believe in Christ our Lord. For thereby we may and ought to intend thus much; I do assent unto this as a certain and infallible truth, taught me by God himself, that Hesus Christ, the only Son of God, is the true Jehovah, who hath that Being which is originally and eternally of it self, and on which all other Beings do essentially depend: that, by the right of emanation of all things from him, he hath an ab
Rom. 1O. I 2
folure. fupreme and universal Dominion over all things as God: That as thé Son of man he is invested with all power in Heaven and Earth: partly OEconomical, for the compleating our Redemption, and the destruction of our enemies, to continue to the end of all things, and then to be resigned to the Father ; partly consequent unto the union, or due unto the obedience of his Passion, and Yo eternal, as belonging to that Kingdom which shall have no end. And though he be thus Lord of all things by right of the first creation and conitant prefervation of them, yet is he more peculiarly the Lord of us who by Faith are consecrated to his service: for through the work of our Redemption he becomes our Lord both by the right of Conquest and of Purchase; and making us the Sons of God, and providing heavenly Mansions for us, he acquires a farther right of Promotion, which, considering the Covenant we all make to serve him, is at last compleated in the right of a voluntary obligation. And thus I believe in Christ our Lord.
made no such distinction, but without any particular express mention of the Conception; had it only in this manner, *who was born by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary; or of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary ; * Deum Tuunderstanding by the word born, not only the Nativity, but also the Con- dæi fic præception and Generation. This is very necessary to be obferved, becaufe dicant folum,
ut negent fiotherwise the addition of a word will prove the diminution of the sense oflium ejus: nethe Article. For they which speak only of the operation of the Holy Ghost gent fimul in Christ's Conception, and of the manner of his Birth, leave out most part Cum corunum
effe qui natus of that which was anciently understood under that one term of being born of eit de Spiritu the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary.
Maria Virgine. Novatianus. Qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine. R'effinus in Symbolum, S. Aug. Ench. ad Laurent. 6. 34, 37, C 38. Natus de Spiritu S. & Maria Virgine, as also the Council of Francford in Sacrofyllabo. S. Aug. de Fide @ Symb. Natus est per Spiritum S. ex Virgine Maria, Nonne de spiritu S. & Virgine Maria Dei filius unicus natus eft ? S. Aug. de Predest. Sanct. c. 15. Et paulo poft, Quja natus est de Spiritu S. ex Maria Virgine. S. Leo Lipist. 10. 6. 2. Maximus Taurin. Chrysol. Etherius Uxam. Author Symbol. ad Catechum. Qui natus est de Spiritu S. ex Maria Virgine. So also Venantinus Fortunatus. From whence Fulgentius de Fide ad Petrum Diaconum : Natum de Spiritu S. ex Maria Virgine. in Symbolo acceptum, & corde ad juftitiam credit, & ore ad falutem S. Ecclefia confitetur. Item prædicandum eft quomodo Filius Dei incarnatus est de Spiritu S. ex Maria semper Virgine. Capitul. Caroli 82. and Alcuinus l. 3. de Trinitat. c. 1. Dicitur in Symbolo Catholicæ fidei, quod Chriftus de Spiritu S. & cx Maria Virgine sit natus. In the ancient Ms. transcribed by the learned Arehbilnop of Armagh, Tò sforno éva o'n Troupelos αγία και Μαρίας Τσαρθένα. So Paulus Sainofatenus in his fifth Propofition ; 'Ιησες + Φινηθείς εκ σιδόματος αγία και Μαendes på mot déve. These, omitted in the Nicene Creed, were put in by the Council of Conftantinople, upon the occasion of the Apollinarian Heresie, as was observed by Diogenes Bishop of Cyzicum in the Council of Chalcedon; oi g5 alios teτέρες οι μ ταύτα, το εσαρκώθη, ο επον οι αΓιοι ν Νικαία σαλέρες, έσαφήνισαν εκπόντες, ουκ ανώμαλος αγία και Μαρίας παρDéve. In the several expositions among the Sermons de Tempore, falsly attributed to S. Aug. Qui conceptus eft de Spiritu S. natus ex Virgine Maria. So Eusebius Gallicanus, Homil. de Symbolo. And from thence it hath fo continued, as we now read it, which was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary.
1. 3437, 07638. Natus eft per sancit. c. 15. her pus Uxam. Authore
That therefore nothing may be omitted which is pertinent to express the full intent and comprehend the utmost signification of this Article, we shall consider three Persons mentioned, so far as they are concerned in it. The first is He who was conceived and born ; the second, He by whose energy or operation he was conceived; the third, She who did conceive and bear himn.
For the first, the Relative in the front of this carries us clearly back unto the former Article, and tells us that he which was thus conceived and born
was Jesus Christ, the only Son of God. And being we have already demonstrated that this only Son is therefore called fo, because he was begotten by the Father from all Eternity, and so of the same substance with him; it followeth that this Article at the first beginning, or by virtue of its con
nexion, can import no less than this most certain, but miraculous truth, * Huic quem that * He which was begotten by the Father before all worlds, was now dudum de Pa- in the fulness of time conceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin tre natum ineffabiliter di- Mary. ,,Again, being by the Conception and Birth is to be understood dicisi, nunc à whatsoever was done toward the production of the humane nature of our Spiritu S.templum fabrica
- Saviour ; therefore the same Relative considered with the words which foltum intra fe- low it ak no less than the Incarnation of that person. And thus even creta uteri in the entry of the Article we meet with the Incarnation of the Son of God, Virginalis intellige. Ruf" that great mystery wrapt, up in that thort sentence of S. John, the word
was made flesh. .
Indeed the Pronoun hath relation not only unto this but to the following Articles, which have their necessary connexion with and foundation in this Third; for he who was conceived and born, and so made man, did in that human naturelufter, die, and rile again. Now when we say this was the Word, and that Word was God, being whosoever is God cannot cease to be fo; it must necessarily follow, that he was made man by joining the human nature with the Divine. But then we must take heed left we conceive, because the Divine Nature belongeth to the Father, to which the human is conjoined, that therefore the Father should be incarnate, or conceived and born. For as certainly as the Son was crucified, and the Son alone ; fo certainly the fame Son was incarnate, and that Son alone. Although the human nature was conjoined with the Divinity, which is the nature common to the Father and the Son ; * always thought to be a fufficient confutation of that fond opinion, in that * It appeareth the Incarnation is not subjoined to the first, but to the second Article ; we plainly that do not fay; I believe in God the Father Almighty, which was conceived, But weitered prac in bis only Son, our Lord, which was conceived by the Holy Ghoft. xeas, by re
yet was that union made only in the Person of the Son. Which Do+ The Heresie ctrine is to be observed against the Heresie of the t Patripassians, which of the Patri- was both v
was both very ancient and far diffused, making the Father to be Inpallians seems W only to have carnate, and becoming man to be crucified. But this very Creed was relation to the suffering of our Saviour, because the word fignifies no more than the Passion of the Father. But it is founded in an error concerning the Incarnation, it being out of question that he which was made man did suffer. Epiphanius observes, Noetus was the first which taught this Heresie, who lived 130 years before him, more or less, and when he was questioned for it he denied it: ele to undevom eg wig eneoak tau llw F mixeray. But certainly this Herefie was ancienter than Noetus; for the Patripassiani are named by s. Cyprian, Epift. 73. and Tertullian his Master chargeth it upon Praxeas : Duo negotia Diaboli Praxeas Romæ procuravit, Prophetiain expulit, & Hærefim intulit; Paracletum fugavit, & Patrem, crucifixit. Adv. Prax. c. I. And expressing the absurdity of that opinion; Itaque post tempus Pater natus & Pater passus, ipfe Deus Dominus Omnipotens Jesus Christus prædicatur. c: 2And De Prasc. adv. Hæret. Poft hos omnes etiam Praxeas quidem Hæresim introduxit, quam Victorinus corroborare curavit. Hic Deum Patrem Omnipotentein Jesum Chriftum esse dicit, hunc crucifixum passumque contendit; inortuun præterea seipsuin sibi federe ad dextram suam, cum profana & sacrilega temeritate proponit. c. 53. After Praxeas Noetus taught the same. 'Ető hunce aéleso s wellé eg was Foydévou, says Epiphanius: and being questioned for it, he answered, ti gb xanev Tetonas; i've Jeon.coğálo, pvc étisaua, και εκ άλλον πλω αυτά χωνηθέντα σεπονθότα, λιποθανόνα. He thought the Father and the Son to be the fame Perfon, and therefore if the Son, the Father to be incarnate. Υιοπάτορα η Χρισον εδίδαξε, τ αυτιών είναι πατέρας και μον και άξιον ανεύμα. Epiph. Anaceph. After the Noetiani followed the Sabelliani. So Philastrius: Sabellius Discipulus ejus, qui fimilitudinein sui Doctoris itidem secutus est; unde & Sabelliani poftea sunt appellati, qui & Patripassiani, & Praxeani à Praxea, & Hermogeniani ab Hermogene, qui fuerunt in Africa, qui & ista sentientes abjecti sunt ab Ecclefia Catholica. So S. Aug. Sabelliani dicti sunt quidem Hæretici, qui vocantur & Patripassiani, qui dicunt ipsum Patrem passum effe. Traft. 36. in Joh. This I confefs is denied by Epiphanius, who acknowledged Sabellius to have followed Noetus in many things, but not in the Incarnation or Pation of the Father. Σαβελλιανοί οι τα όμοια ανοήτως (1. ανοήτοις, id eft, Νοηγιανοίς, vel ανοήτου, id eft, Nontā, as S. Aug. Novato) dobd kor785 aggi rõTo móver · résooo goMen TETOVO év ces s cléex. This S. Augustine wonders very much at in Epiphanius : Sabelliani, inquit, fimilia Noeto dogmatizantes, præter hoc quod dicunt Patrem non effe paffum ; quoinodo de Sabellianis intelligi poteft, cum fic innotuerint dicere Patrem paffum, ut Patripafiani quam Sabelliani fæpius nuncupentur ? Aug. Hær. 41. Indeed the Latin Fathers generally call the Sabellians Patripallians; and not only so, but Theodoret doth so describe them as professing one Person, is a rõ Edms as wallées vouodelaco, co TĂ mousā, wis you cay@gwrñon. l. 2. c. 9. After the Sabelliani succeeded in the same Heresie the Priscillianiftæ, as appeareth by Pope Leo, who Mews they taught but one Person of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost: Quod blafphemiæ genus de Sabellii opinione sumpserunt, cujus Discipuli etiam Patripassiani meritò nuncupantur; quia fi ipse est Filius qui & Pater, crux Filii Patris eft passio, & quicquid in forma servi Filius Patri obediendo, sustinuit, totum in se Pater ipse suscepit. Ep. 93. 6. 1. Thus the Patripassian Heresie, beginning from Praxeas and Hermogenes, was continued by Noetus, Sabellius and Priscillianus, and mingled with all their several Herefies, the sum and substance of which is thus well set down by Victorinus; Patripafiani Deum folùm esse dicunt quem nos pratem dicimus; ipsum folùm exsistentem & effectorem omnium, & venisse non folùm in inundum, fed & in carnem, & alia omnia quæ nos Filium feciffe dicimus.
ducing him to these words of the Creed. For when he had first declared, Nos unicum quidem Deum credimus (which was the objection of Praxeas) sub hac tamen dispensatione, quam oixovouia dicimus, ut unici Dei fit & Filius fermo ipfius, qui ex ipfo processerit, per quem omnia facta sunt, & fine quo factum est nihil. Then he subjoineth, Hunc missum à Patre in Virginem, & ex ea natum hominem, & Deum, filium hominis, & filium Dei, & cognominatum Jesum Chriftum. Hunc passum, hunc mortuum, & fepultum, fecundùm Scripturas, & resuscitatum à Patre, & in cælos resumptum fédere ad dextram Patris, venturum judicare vivos & mortuos. And that we may be assured that he used these words out of the Creed, it followeth, Hanc Regulam ab initio Evangelii decucurrisse, QC. This is yet farther evident out of Epia phanius, who tells us the Eastern Doctors confuted Noetus in the same manner, by reducing him to the words of the Creede "Eyce Osón dozásowe, rj utol (just as Tertullian; Nos unicum quidem Deum credimus) daai as oldalo doxahws dogóley και ένα Χρισον έχομεν, αλλ' ως οίδαν ένα Χρισον υον Θεό, πάθονία ως έπαθεν, διθανόνα καθως απέθανεν, ανασάνλα, ανελθονία ας ή έρανόν όντα & δεξια τα σαρος, ερχόμενον κρίνει ζωνίας και νεκρές. And when the Argument of Tertullian again/t. Praxeas, and the Greeks against Noetus drawn from the Creed did not sufficiently convince the Patripallians, the Church of Aquileia, tu exclude them wholly, added these two words to the first Article, Invisibilem, and Impallibilemn. Invisibilem, to hew be was not incarnate; Impassibilem, to shew he was not crucified. So Ruffinus in the conclusion of his exposition upon the fe words, Credo in Deum Patrem Omnipotentein, addeth, Hiš additur Invisibilem & Impallibilem: and then gives the reason, Sciendum quòd duo ifti Serinones in Ecclefiæ Romanæ Symbolo non habentur. Conftat autem apud nos additos Hærefeos causâ Sabellii, illius profectò quæ à noftris Patripassiana appellatur, id eft, quæ Patrem ipfum vel ex Virgine natum dicit, & visibilem factum, vel passum affirmat in carne. Ut ergo excluderetur talis impietas de Patre, videntur hæc addidifle majores, & invisibilem Patrem atque im paffibilem dixiffe. Constat enim Filium, non Patrem, in carne & ex carne natum, & ex nativitate carnis Filium visibilem & passibilem factum.
First then, we believe that he which was made flesh was the Word, that he which took upon him the nature of man was not the Father nor the Holy Ghost, nor any other person but the only begotten Son. And when we say that Person was conceived and born, we declare he was made really and truly man, of the fame human nature which is in all other men who by the way of generation are conceived and born. For the a Mediator between a 1 Tim. 2. 5. God and Man is the Man Christ Jefus : That fince b by man came death, by.bi Cor.15.21. man also should come the resurrection of the dead, As sure then as the first Adam and we who are redeemed are men, fo certainly is the fecond Adam and our Mediator man. He is therefore frequently called the Son of man, and in that nature he was always promised. First o to Eve, as her feed, and Gen. 3. 15. consequently ber Son. Then to Abraham, d In thy feed shall all the nations d Gen, 22. 18. of the earth be blessed; and that e feed is Christ, and fo the Son of Abra- e Gal. 3. 16. bam. Next to David, as his fon to fit upon his throne ; and so he is made f Rom. 1. 3.. of the feed of David according to the flesh, 8 the fon of David, the son of 6 Matt. 1. i. Abraham, and confequently of the fame nature with David and with Abra ham. And as he was their Son, fo are we his Brethren, as defcending from the fame Father Adam; h and therefore it behoved him to be made like unto h Heb.2.17,16. bis brethren. For he laid not hold on the Angels, but on the feed of Abrabam. And so became not an Angel, but a Man.
y As then man consisteth of two different parts, Body and Soul, fo doth Christ: Marcion, us
i Heb. 2. 14. He assumed a Body, at his Conception, of the blessed Virgin. i Forafmuch as carnem Chrithe children are part akers of the flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took iti negaret,
negavit etiam part of the same. The verity of his body stands upon the truth of his * na- nativitatem, tivity ; and the actions and Passions of his life Thew the nature of his flesh. aut, ut natiHe was first born with a body which was prepared for him, of the fame ap- vitatem ne
garet, nepearance with thofe of other Infants; he grew up by degrees, and was so far gavit & carfrom being sustained without accustomed nutrition of our bodies, that he was nem : fcilicet,
ne invicem observed even by his enemies to come eating and drinking, and when he did fibi teftimonot fo, he suffered hunger and thirst. Those plowers never doubted of the nium reddetrue nature of his flesh, who plowed upon his back and made long furrows. Tent de rent The Thorns which pricked his facred Temples, the Nails which penetrated nativitas & through his Hands and Feet, the Spear which pierced his facred Side, give caro ; quia fufficient testimony of the natural tenderness and frailty of his flesh. And left fine carnenec
in nec nativitas his fasting forty days together, lest his walking on the waters and traversing caro fine cathe Seas, left his sudden standing in the midst of his Disciples when the doors ivitate. Ter
tul. de Carne were Chrifti, 6.1.
were shut, should raise an opinion that his body was not true and proper Luke 24. 39. flelh; he confirmed first his own Disciples, Feel and see, that a spirit hath
not flesh and bones, as you fee' me to have. As therefore we believe the coming of Christ, so muft we confess him to have come in the verity of our
human nature, even in true and proper flesh. With this determinate expref1 John 4.2, 3. fion was it always necessary to acknowledge him: For every spirit that
confesseth Jesus Christ come in the flesh is of God; and every spirit that confeseth not Jesus Christ come in the flesh is not of God. This spirit ap
peared early in opposition to the Apostolical Doctrine ; and Christ, who is . * Simon Ma- both God and Man, was as soon denied to be Man as God. * Simon Magus,
gus fort made the Arch-heretick, first began, and many after followed him.... himself to be Chrift; and what he feigned of himself, that was attributed by others unto Christ. Dixerat fe in monte Sina Legem Mofi in Patris persona dediffe Judæis, teinpore Tiberii in Filii persona putativè apparuiffe. S. Aug. So S. Cyril represents him, óx de Capri, caña doxúce, as Xerson "Ino gv Qarv év 72. Catech. 6. From this dárnois of his invention arose the Heresie of the 10yenil. For Saturnilus or Saturninus followed his Disciple Menander with his putativè tantùm hominem, as Irenæus ; and in phantasmate tantùm veniffe, as Tertullian speaks. After him Valentinus and his followers, Epiphanes, Ilidorus, and Secur.dus ; then the Marcosians, Heracleonitæ and Ophitæ, Cerdon, Marcion, Lucanus, and generally the Manichees. Those zuere the Aoxmlad or doariasai, all conspiring in this, that Christ was not really what he appeared, nor did truly suffer what he seemed to endure. This early Herefie appeareth by the opposition which s. Ignatius made unto it in his Epistles.
And certainly, if the Son of God would vouchsafe to take the frailty of
our fleth, he would not omit the nobler part, our Soul, without which he Luke 2. 52. could not be man. For Jesus increased in wisdom and stature ; one in re
fpect of his body, the other of his Soul. Wisdom belongeth not to the flesh, nor can the knowledge of God, which is infinite, increase : he then whose knowledge did improve together with his years must have a subject proper for it, which was no other than a human Soul. This was the seat of his finite Understanding and directed Will, distinct from the Will of his father, and
consequently of his Divine. Nature; as appeareth by that known submission, Luke 22. 42. Not my Will, but thine be done. This was the subject of those Affections and
Passions which fo manifestly appeared in him: Nor fpake he any other than Matt. 26. 38. a proper Language, when before his suffering he said, My Soul is exceed
ing fòrroceful, even unto death. This was it which on the Cross, before
the departure from the body, he recommended to the Father : teaching us Luke 23. 46. in whose hands the Souls of the departed are : For when Jesus had cried
with a loud voice, he said, Father into thy hands I commend my spirit ; and having said thus he gave up the Ghost. And as his death was nothing else but the feparation of the Soul from his Body; so the life of Christ as Man did consist in the conjunction and vital union of that Soul with the Body. So that he which was perfect God, was also perfect man, of a reasonable
soul and humane flesh subsisting. Which is to be observed and asserted against of this kind the † ancient Hereticks, who taught that Christ assumed human flesh, but Sells were that the Word or his Divinity was unto that Body in the place of an informmost remark- ing Soul.. able, the Arians and the Apollinariaps. Arius taught that Christ had nothing of man but the flesh, and with that the word was joined. "AKO Ö Cágra pórku wog's dringuplo Seotul oporo cz voi Tš radey e ngar avdgór8 787150 m yoxñ's, dálov cv og Casexs tétes yslovéves. Athan. de Adv. Christi. So Felicianus the Arian, in Vigilius de Unitate Trin. c. 17. Ita enim à inajoribus nostris semper eft traditum, quòd Christi corpus ad vicem animæ com inunis ipfius Filii Dei habitus animarit ; nec accessione animalis.fpiritús indigens fuerit, cui inhabitans fons vitæ potuit conferre quòd vixit. Eunomius followed him in this particular : "Αρα, 5 και Ευνόμιζ- Cώμα και αυτον έφασαν αληφέναι, θεότητα και ψυχής νηςyoxércu ņ xgeixer. Theod. b. 5. cont. Hær. c. II. Apollinaris distinguished between the soul and the Mind, the tunn and the vos, and acknowledged that the Word assumed the Body and the Soul or Luxol of man, but not the Mind or Spirit, or the Nõs, but the Word it self was in the place of that. Apollinaristas Apollinaris instituit, qui de anima Christi ab Ecclesia Catholica diffenferunt, dicentes, ficut Ariani, Deum Christum carnein fine aniina suscepiffe. In quæstione testimoniis Evangelicis victi, mentem, quâ rationalis est aniina hominis, non fuisse in aniina Chrifti, fed pro hac ipfum verbum in ea, fuiffe, dixerunt. This was then the clear difference bet zvixt the Arian and Apollinarian Herefie: Apollinaristæ quidein carnis & aniinæ naturam fine mente affuinpfiffe Deum credunt, Ariani verò carnis tantummodo. Facundus, 1.9. So that two things are to be observed in the Apollinarians, their Philosophy and their Divinity: their Philofophy, in making man consist of three diftinét parts, the Body, the soul and the mind; their Divinity, in making the human nature of Christ to confift but of two, the Body and the Soul, and the third to be supplied by the Word. Which is excellently expressed by Nemelius de Nat. Hom, in respect of his Philosophy: Tovis wo isi raj Mawrño, rabu dvou T