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AND VINDICATING THAT PHILOSOPHY, BY PROOFS THAT ALL DEPARTURES

FROM IT HAVE BEEN DEVIATIONS INTO ERROR.

BY JOHN GILLIES, LL.D.

F.R.S. & S.A. Lond. F.R.S. EDINB.

soc. INSTIT, PARIS, ET ACAD. REGIÆ GOTTING. CORRESP.; AND

HISTORIOGRAPHER TO HIS MAJESTY FOR SCOTLAND.

Magna animi contentio adhibenda est in explicando Aristotele.

Cicero Fragment. Philosoph.

LONDON :

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL, IN THE STRAND;

AND W. BLACKWOON, EDINBURGH,

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Deliberative and Judicial Eloquence ; on what their respect-

ive success depends. The three requisites to Persuasion,

independently of Argument. - Transition to the Doctrine

of the Passions. — Anger ; Its Definition Causes

Its natural Subjects and Objects. — Love and Hatred.

Fear.- Shame.- Pity.- Indignation. - Envy.- Emu-

lation. — Passions and Characters, as modified by Age -

Birth Riches Power; and their contraries. - The

Sources of Argument respectively appropriate to the

three kinds of Oratory. — The Topics common to all the

three kinds :- 1. The Topic derived from the nature

of contraries ; — 2. From that of conjugate terms;

3. From relatives ; — 4. A fortiori ; — 5. Parity of reason ;

- 6. From consistency in will and conduct ;— 7. Ad

hominem; 8. From definition ; 9. From diversity of

signification. 10. From division. - - 11. From accumu-

lation of instances ; - 12. From precedent; 13. From

resolution of the genus into its several species ;

14. From consequences ; — 15. From the consequents of

contraries. 16. From variance in the opinions of men,

expressed and secret; — 17. From analogy ; — 18. From

identifying things with their consequences; 19. From

inconsistency with previous resolutions ; — 20. From sub-

stituting a probable motive for the real cause ; — 21. From

the general causes impelling all human action ; -

22. From improbability itself; — 23. From incongruity;

24. From explaining false appearances ; — 25. From

the improbability of the cause to that of the effect ;

26. From the contrast of designs ; — 27. From incon-

sistency with former actions ; — 28. From names. - Ar-

guments less convincing than Replies; and why. — The

most impressive are those that are natural, but not obvious.

The eight kinds of sophisms. Solutions and Ob-

jections; their nature and number.

Page 252

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