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10th February, 1823.






ARISTOTLE'S ETHICS AND POLITICS; comprising his Practical Philosophy. Translated from the Greek. Illustrated by Introductions and Notes; the Critical History of his Life, and a New Analysis of his Speculative Works. To which is added a Supplement, containing an Account of the Interpreters and Corrupters of Aristotle's Philosophy, in Connection with the History of the Times in which they respectively flourished. The Third Edition. 2 Vols. 8vo. Price ll. ls. in Boards.

THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT GREECE, its Colonies and Conquests. Part II. Embracing the History of the Ancient World, from the Dominion of Alexander to that of Augustus; with a preliminary Survey of preceding Periods. New Edition. 4 Vols. 8vo. Price 21. 2s. in Boards.

THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT GREECE, its Colonies and Conquests. Part I. From the earliest Accounts to the Division of the Macedonian Empire in the East. Including the History of Literature, Philosophy, and the Fine Arts. Sixth Edition. 4 Vols. 8vo. Price 11. 16s, in Boards. INTRODUCTION




Motives to this Work.- Growing degeneracy of Literature.

- State of public Criticism. - Aristotle's Rhetoric.Its importance as a work of taste, criticism, and history. - Analysis thereof. - Its connection with his other writings.- General diffusion of these writings. - History of their reception in Asia and in Europe. - Fanciful appendages joined to them. -Corrupted by the Popish Scholastics. Mistaken and vilified by the

first Reformers. - Subsequent objections made to them. -- These objections answered.-The difficulties of the Greek text obviated.

Aristotle's consistency and accuracy vindicated. ABOVE thirty years ago, being in company with CH A P.

I. men of learning and knowledge of the world, decided enemies to what has been called the Occasion new or French philosophy, they regretted that of this works well calculated to counteract this specu. lative folly, which had then begun to mount into madness,' should not be brought before the pub. lic in a shape less repulsive than that in which

1 Insanientis sapientiæ.



CHAP. they had hitherto appeared. They alluded to

the ethics and politics of Aristotle, of which we had been speaking, and of which Locke, in his letter to King, says, “ to proceed orderly in politics, the foundation should be laid in inquiring into the nature and ground of civil society, and how it is formed into different models of government, and what are the several species of it. Aristotle is allowed to be a master of this science.” All present pronounced the encomium to be just, but all doubted the possibility of rendering the Greek works in question, popular, or even readable in English: I was inclined, however, to make the experiment, and for a reason that appeared to myself of considerable weight. At a time when so many random opinions were afloat, originating in transient but headstrong passions, there would be much propriety, at least, in interposing the sentiments of a great master of reason, widely remote both in time and place, from the concerns and the feelings of the present day. The remark made an impression; and I was encouraged to undertake an useful and arduous, rather than a very promising task.

I began with the “ Politics,” but delayed printing my translation of it, till I had finished that of the ethics; because, in Aristotle, the two subjects are inseparably connected, and treated simultaneously as integral parts of one and the same work. In this delay, I was sensible of sacrificing a certain portion of popularity; but

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