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XIX.

an appeal to the passions, and for calling forth CHAP. to our aid pity, anger, indignation 138, 138, hatred, envy, and resentment: and the means of exciting all these passions, and of making them subservient to our views, were investigated in the topics previously exhibited on that subject.

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The fourth and last object of the conclusion The matremains still to be spoken of, that of assisting abridged the memory. This doubtless is to be done by differently frequent repetition; and authors have therefore menceadvised that an abridgement of the matter the conshould be given both at the beginning and at clusion. the end, without explaining the different principles on which these abridgements should be made. At the beginning, the matter ought to be so abridged as to show exactly the state of the question, and to serve as a perpetual admonition, to what point the hearers ought to direct their attention. At the end, a recapitulation ought to be given of proofs and arguments, with a view to recall and inculcate on the audience the matter most useful to our cause. This peroration may commence," I have now shown the truth of all those things which I proposed to establish :" here recapitulating the speaker's various promises, and his various performances, and accordingly as circumstances require, either comparing and contrasting them with those of the adversary, or simply enumerating them, the one after the other; or, in the way of irony, "such mighty things has he at

138 deywols. See Quintilian, l. vi. c. 2. Conf. I. viii. c.3.

III.

BOOK tempted and effected, while I have been contented with plain matters of fact:" or, "How much would he have boasted, if, instead of feeble conjectures, he could have advanced substantial proofs like mine!" or, in the way of simple interrogation, "What has he shown? What have I not demonstrated ?" In any of these figured modes of speech, the peroration may be couched; or, as before said, in the bare recapitulation of the adversary's arguments and our

own.

The end of the whole ought to be free from conjunctions, to make the hearers aware that our discourse is at its close. "I have spoken; you have heard; the whole matter is before you: I now wait your decision." 139

139 Almost the precise words in which Lysias concludes his pleadings against Eratosthenes. See my "Translation of Lysias," &c.

p. 280.

APPENDIX.

Aristotle's Rhetoric, a model for philosophical treatises on the Arts - Compared with other works on that subject. — Longinus on the sublime - His character and merits How explained by modern Philosophers.-Fine writing, according to Aristotle According to Longinus and his followers.Mr. Knight's Source of the Sublime considered.— Objections to the doctrine of dramatic delusion-Answered. - Objection to Aristotle's rule concerning the dramatic characters of Women Answered. The nature and end of Tragedy.Why Aristotle preferred Tragedy to Epic Poetry. Conclusion.

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CCORDING to Aristotle, philosophy consists in the in- Aristotle's Rhetoric, vestigation of causes, to which inquiry the present a model for philosotreatise is chiefly directed. The author's drift is, to obtain a principle, and to demonstrate its power. When this is done clearly and convincingly, in the simplest cases, and with regard to objects the most familiar, he often leaves its operation to be extended, by the reader's reflection, to examples more alluring, and to matters more complicated. The "Art of Rhetoric," is therefore a didactic work; and, in this view, is a model of the best manner, in which all practical arts, founded in nature, are to be either improved or explained. Men are naturally rhetoricians; but how is this natural aptitude to be converted into art? By observing when a speaker or writer has happened to attain his aim, and then tracing to the general principles of human nature the causes of

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