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of the non-fossiliferous stratified rocks : without any secondary causes, is, we think, that they were deposited from fluid ; that a proposition that cannot be controverted; they were produced by the action of fire; but we are noable to say that the non-fos. and that they were created, in situ, as we siliferous stratified rocks are parts of that now find them.
world. Of this, however, we may be quite " The first formations,' says D'Aubis certain, that if they are parts of the prison, defending the fluid hypothesis, were mitive 'carth, they have suffered great produced by a general cause.
changes from the action of both aqueous represent them to ourselves as precipita- and igneous causes. tions from an universal dissolution, that “ We have endeavoured to prove, that is to say, from a dissolution that covered all the fossiliferous stratified rocks were the whole terrestrial globe. While this formed by causes that are still productive dissolution deposited one substance, or in the formation of strata. It has also one rock, in one place, it is very possible been stated that during the deposition of that it produced no precipitate of the these rocks, circumstances were more fasame species in another; either because vourable to extensive and rapid results the constituent principles of the rock were than at present, chiefly on account of the not in sufficient quantities in that part of greater surface temperature. the dissolution, or because the causes of “The non-fossiliferous unstratified rocke the precipitation did not there exercise appear to have been produced by certain their action, or lastly, because other causes chemical laws, which have had a contemobstructed them. In tbis place, they de poraneous operation over the entire surposited granite; a little furiher mica slate, face of the earth, and that at a time prebecause the elements of mica were, per.
vious to the existence of animal and vegehaps, in a greater quantity in that part of table life."-pp. 78–81. the dissolution wbich covered the latter
Difficulties attend every step of place.'
" Other writers have maintained the this progress; and far are we from igneous origin of all the nonfossiliferous being satisfied with the arguments rocks; but it is not probable that any geo which refer even the fossiliferous logist of the present day would defend stratified rocks to causes at presuch an opinion. But professor Mitscher.
sent in action; though upon the lich has considerably extended our know. ledge of the effect which fire has bad in whole it seems the most probable the formation of some of the non-fossilife solution. But with regard even to rous stratified · socks, as well as those these, and still more with regard which are unstratified. This celebrated
to the “ chemical laws" which chemist, when making some inquiries at Fahlun, concerning the extraction of cop- produced the (alleged) older forper, found that the scoriæ often contained mations, there may have been elesome well defined crystals, and that the ments, affinities, and actions, of whole mass of the clay had a crystalline which we now know nothing; texture; and in almost every foundery that he afterwards visited, he observed which, so to speak, have burnt crystalline combinations, which resembled themselves out, leaving us only minerals. By pursuing the inquiry into the result, with as little possibility which his mind was thus led, he succeedof our tracing back the process as ed in forming by fire, a great variety of there would be if a man who had mineral substances, among which mica and other constituents of rocks are men
never seen or heard of fire or wax tioned. From these discoveries he was or cotton, were presented with the led to the conclusion that many of the non-Fossiliferous stratified rocks were pro burning of a taper, and required
gases and ashes produced by the duced by fusion, which, he says, affords an easy explanation of the increase of tempe- out of them to reconstruct in imaratúre, as we proceed into the interior of gination a perfect wax candle. the earth, as well as of hot springs, and There may have been millions of other phenomena. “Mr. Penin, and his school, suppose
intercourses of elective affinities, these rocks to have been called into exist.
which have done their work, and ence by the Almighty fiat, by an imme.. are exhausted; elements may have diate simultaneous operation. He denies combined and recombined till there the interference of all secondary causes, and considers them as parts of the earth, finity again to separate them. We
are no materials left of greater afas it came from the hand of its Creator. « That this world was created by the
see the result; but what were the Almighty fiat, at once, in a moment, and original materials, is perhaps as
little to be traced back as the wax but what were the elementary printaper; nay even less so, as we have ciples, what laws he impressed supposed all the results of its con upon them, and through what sumption collected together; but combinations they may have passwho can say what belonged to each ed, we know not; and, physically atom in its original construction, speaking, we never can know. If or where some of the elements two gases, two fluids, or two subhave flown which escaped in the stances of any kind which had a play of affinities, and have entered greater chemical affinity for each into a thousand new combinations. Other than for any thing else in Pour some lemon juice upon care existence, should combine and bonated alkali, and give a man form a new substance wholly unignorant of chemistry the result. like its component parts, and no ing compound: what can he dis- portion of either of these elements cover of the elements? Assist him now existed in an uncombined by art; crystallize the neutral salt, form, it would be impossible ever and imagine a mountain formed of to gain an idea of them from the it. Nay, go further, and analyse result. Chemical geology can your mountain into an acid and an therefore go but a certain way alkali; but where is the carbonick back; all beyond is darkness. Dr. acid! and even if all were collect- Davy, when he discovered the meed, would the inspection of these tallick base of soda, which cannot products suggest the idea of a exist in its uncombined state exlemon and a lemon tree, and all posed to water or atmospherick the process of its growth and ma- air, thought he had discovered a turation. If then our glass of soda principle by which he could acwater, would not by analysis bring count for some most important back a lemon grove, as little, nay geological phenomena. He lived less, can we expect from the phe himself to renounce his ingenious nomena of the world's materials hypothesis; but the abstract posto get back to their formation, sibility of such a solution by the when perhaps their very elements combination of elements which now exist only in new forms, which might forever have remained unoffer no more clue to their origin known, (and in the last resort of than the smoke of a cannon does affinities must have done so,) may to the tree out of which the char- suffice to show the difficulty, and coal of the gunpowder was formed. often impossibility, of tracing back We think we have done something the phenomena of geology to its when we analyze granite into its causes. Some of those causes three constituent minerals; and in- doubtless still exist: we know, for fer that they were melted together example, the process of the forby heat; but after all, how know mation of alluvium, we understand we that the mass of its compounds how gravel is rounded, how orgawas not the result of chemically nick remains became fossilized, combined gases, or that it did not how torrents act and rocks are originate in causes of which we disintegrated; and from such facts can have no conception, because a fair analogy will lead us to many the combination has taken place, large geulogical deductions; but and the constituents in their pri- when we get further back, we soon mitive form are no longer in become perplexed, and are probabeing?
bly in search of what we can never We merely throw out these sug- ascertain. God made it so, must gestions as showing the real dif- be our answer; but to point out, ficulty of the question. One fact so long after, what he made origiis clear, that God made all things; nally in combination, if he made
any thing so, and what he made whether they lead, with Mr. Penn, elementally, and left to the affini- to the conclusion, that certain ties which he had given to it, is rocks were created just where and utterly impracticable. Whether how they now stand, without the he created a certain stratum in interference of secondary causes; situ, or caused it to grow out of or whether, with the students of materials which he had already other schools, they be thought to created and endowed with certain have originated in causes now in properties, is a speculation, the existence, or that once were in exabsolute decision of which is in istence, we see not that either of certain cases, beyond the range of these hypotheses leads of necessity human intelligence. Yet there are to any theological inference hostile analogies and probabilities which to truth or Scripture. may reasonably be weighed, and
(To be continued.)
Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.
MAP OF PALESTINE.-Mr. A. Fin Galliot, a pupil of the Paris institution, ley has just published a map of is an excellent performer on the violin, Palestine, which we hesitate not
and a very good printer. to recommend to Sabbath-school paper mill at Plauen, by which two men
Griepels is the inventor of a press in a teachers, and to all who desire to can do in one minute and a half, as much obtain an accurate geographical as six or eight can do in five. knowledge of the Holy Land, both Joseph Kleinhans, of Tyrol, blind in his in its ancient and modern state. wood, the parts of which were in due pro
fourth year, carved statues and figures in We have examined it with some portion, and which expressed affection, care; and as a single map of Pa- delight, and other mental affections. lestine, we give it a decided pre- foundly instructed in reading, writing,
Jacob Braun, born in 1785, was proference to any other we have seen.
arithmetic, geography, history,
and music. The Blind.—Hulderich Schoenberger, He could perform many handicraft works, born at Weida, in 1601, became blind in
such as making laces and baskets, and his third year.-He became a master of execute very fine works in turning and arts and a teacher of languages at Hol- joining wood. He was the first pupil with stein. He understood French, Latin, Greek,
whom the Director Klein at Vienna made Hebrew, Syrian and Arabic. His know
the first experiment, in instructing the ledge of mathematics, and natural and mo
blind, the success of which was the occaral philosophy was extensive. He played sion of founding the institution for the
blind at Vienna. on the organ and other instruments. He held disputations about colours and the Mrs. Hannah More.--Mrs. Hannah rainbow at Konigsberg. He played at. More, was born in 1745. She was the nine-pins; and shot right at a mark, whose daughter of a clergyman whose residence place was pointed out to him by knock was at Hanham, near Bristol. Her love ing:
of knowledge early displayed itself, and Rolli, born at Rome, in 1685, blind in induced her, after exhausting the slender his fifth year, acquired a great knowledge domestic library, to have recourse to borin medicine and mathematics, was a poet, rowing, from village friends. She reand wrote a tragedy, Porsenna, which is moved in the year 1766, with her four sisin print.
ters, to Bristol, where they jointly conGriesinger, born at Worms, in 1638, ducted a boarding school for young ladies, learned eight languages, and disputed with with great and deserved celebrity applause at Jena.
In various works of charity, particularly Peter Hareng, of Normandy, blind in in the establishment of schools for the his ninth year, repaired all kind of watches. poor, these excellent sisters co-operated,
Therese V. Paradies, blind in her se bringing to the relief of ignorance and cond year, gave concerts with great ap: penury, the unwearied energy of congenial plause in Paris, London, and Berlin, and spirits. In this hallowed seclusion, the gave instructions on the piano.
three elder inmates paid the debt of na
ture, in the order of their birth, each hav. and is only a beginning of what will, ing attained her 75th year; and in the au. we trust, one day, be a profitable and tuinn of 1819, the youngest was taken at permanent business. All the specimens the age of 67, leaving the beloved survivor we have examined are of superior texture, to pursue a solitary pilgrimage.
and we believe dealers generally give a Mrs. More was raiher short, but other preference to the goods of this coinpany wise of an usual size, with a face that over those imported. The company's store never could have been bandsome, and is at 202 Washington Street, corner of never other than agreeable. She had a Avon Place, Boston. remarkably bright and intellectual eye; it was as clear, and seemed as fully awake
It is with pride and pleasure that we re. with mind and soul, as if it had but lately cord instances of American skill and inopened on a world full of novelty. The dustry—the more especially in the manu. whole of her face was strongly character facture of articles for which hitherto we ized by cheerfulness.
have been dependent upon foreigners.-In tracing the literary course of this dis. The day is not far distant, when the ma. tinguished personage, from her first pro
nufacture and culture of silk in this coun. doction, the “Search After Happiness,” try, will supersede the necessity of shipto her last, the “Spirit of Prayer," em. ping such immense quantities of specie to bracing a period of nearly half a century, foreign countries for the purchase of fait is in possible not to be impressed with brics for which we can return no other that spirit of benevolence which pervades equivalent. the whole.
Temperance in the Navy. The follow. Is it not desirable to call the soul from ing is an extract from a letter addressed the feverish agitation of worldly pursuits, to the Massachusetts Temperance Societo the contemplation of Divine Wisdom in ty, by Levi Woodbury, Secretary of the the beautiful economy of nature? Is it not Navy. 4 privilege to walk with God in the Gár, den of Creation, and hold converse with that the Pacific, as well as the Mediterra
“ It gives me great pleasure to state, his providence? If such elevated feelings nean squadron, has almost entirely aban: do not lead to the study of nature, it can.
doned the use of ardent spirits, and that not far be pursued without rewarding the the subsequent improvement in health student by exciting them.-[Smith's Bo- and conduct among the crews of the fortany.
mer squadron, has become the topic of reBotany is 'not to be learnt in a closet. mark by both the surgeons and other offi. You must go into the gardens, or the The schooner Experiment, now on field, and there become familiar with na our own coast, had most if not all of her ture herself, with that beauty, order, re men selected with a view to a further and gularity, and inexhaustible variety, which full experiment on this interesting subis found in the structure of vegetables; ject; and by perseverance in holding out and that wonderful fitness to its end which inducements for a voluntary abandonment we perceive in every work of creation.— of the use of daily poison, I trust the waste
[Waterhouse on Botany. of life, apd the frequency and severity of There are certain simple propositions punishments, will not only be lessened, in the Christian religion, which are suit
but a great moral revolution will in time, ed, in a peculiar manner, to the infant be permanently established among a class state of reason and moral sensibility. A
of men, who have hitherto been too often clergyman of long experience in the in considered irreclaimable." struction of youth informed me, that he Minerals.-Some very beautiful specie always found children acquired religious
mens of Bituminous Coal and Mangaknowledge more easily than knowledge upon other subjects, and that young girls Delaware and Raritan Canal, a short dis
nese, were dug from the feeder of the acquired this kind of knowledge more rea tance above Trenton. The manganese dily than boys. The female breast is the is remarkably pure, and appears to be in natural soil of Christianity; and while our large quantities. Coal, in small deposits, women are taught to believe its doctrines, has been discovered in various parts of and obey its precepts, the wit of Voltaire, the state, and the present is believed to and the style of Bolingbroke, will never be be of the same description. We sincerely able to destroy its influence upon our ci- hope the Legislature will not rise without lizens.—(Rush on Education.
making provision for the geological sur. American Manufactured Hosiery-We voy recommended by both governors. have examined specimens of the Hosiery New Jersoy is undoubtedly possessed of manufactured by the Boston Lace, l1o- immense wealth in her mineral resources, siery and Glove Company. One of these which a scientific survey would develop specimens is of silk' raised in Dedham, and render available.
law-suits about land, since we have been
here. In a late one, the person who lost We extract the two following ar
the suit, and was censured by the judges, ticles from the London Missionary made an appeal to the supreme court at Chronicle for December last- The Tahiti; in consequence of which, two of first article exhibits, in a very
the supreme judges, Tali, the principal striking manner, the influence of chief of Atahuru, with one or two inferior
chief of Papara, and Utami, the principal genuine Christianity in meliorat-court-officers and other attendants, came ing the condition of savage life-It over to decide the business. They held speaks more than a volume of ar their court in a large public native buildguments, in confutation of the in- ing, near our present residence. About 10
A. M., a crier was sent about the town to fidel objection, that the condition give notice, and to assemble the people. of the heathen is not rendered bet. While the people were assembling, I went ter, but worse, by their conversion into the court to learn whether we might to Christianity_This article puts expect the judges to honour us with their the infidel to the worse on his saluting them, they immediately desired own ground-leaving out of view me to take a seat by them on the bench, the eternal destinies of man in a which I begged to decline; and, making future slate, which with the Chris. known my business, and having received tian is the consideration that ab- ly have remained to witness the examina
their answor, I withdrew. I should glad. sorbs every other. But here is an tion of the case, and the procecdings of example of the peaceable and the court, but knowing that the judges equitable adjustment of a contro.
would have me to sit near them, bad I re. versy, in what a few years since mained, and that I might be suspected of was a heathen island; and which, of one of the parties in preference to the
using my influence with them, in favour at that time, would probably not other, I thought it prudent to absent my. have been settled but by civil war self. The two judges were dressed nearand much bloodshed. Now it is ly alike, and had a very respectable, yea,
venerable and noble appearance, being settled, in a manner not exceed- robed in long scarlet dresses which reached by courts and judges in coun ed nearly to their feet, which, froin the tries where Christianity has long waist up, somewhat resembled military been established an example uniform, with other parts of dress suitable
thereto, and under which one of them which, in some respects, might,
wore a fine purau, the fringes of which we think, be followed with great appeared gracefully below the scarlet robe. advantage. Eimeo is one of the I had not been long returned to my study Society or Georgian islands, about when I had the satisfaction of learning 10 miles long and 5 broad, and that they had, like true Christian judges,
caused one of their pious attendants to about 12 miles distant from Ta.
open the court with prayer; and I was furhiti, or Otaheite, on which it ap- ther gratified to learn, afterwards, that pears to be dependent; and the they closed it in like manner, after having judges of Tahiti, it seems, are ap
come to a decision satisfactory to both pealed to in the last resort. The parties. At dinner I expressed to them
ihe satisfaction it gave me to learn that Rev. William Henry is the Eng. they had set our judges here so good an lish missionary on this island, and example, in opening and closing their by him the following account was
court with prayer; to which they replied, sent to the London Missionary God for guidance and direction in the
that they thought it proper to call upon Society.
affair before them, &c., and that they
at the close, that the business had been Visit of Judges of the Supreme Court at
brought to such a conclusion. We had Tahiti, to decide a Law suit respecting much interesting and Christian conversaLand.
tion on the occasion. The judges had We have witnessed much contention each of them a boat, and set off early the among some of the people, and several next morning to return to Tahiti. You