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pily accompanied the late revivals we wish they would very rarely, if of religion, so far as such diminu- ever, exercise this right, by extion has actually taken place, is to punging a record of yeas and nays be attributed to the ascendency - Why should they be erased? which common sense, reason, and Ought any man to be ashamed that sober piety, always gain, by time the world should know how he and observation, over whatever op- voted, on any question whatever? poses them; and not to the influ. Are not the yeas and nays recordence, in any degree worth esti- ed for the very purpose of showing mating, of the pastoral letter- how every member gave his vote? This doing of the General Assem- Yes; and it may sometimes be of bly, like many others of late, has high importance to the individuals been very little regarded. Are we concerned, to be able to appeal to then asked, why was it carried by an unquestionable record, to show a unanimous vote? We will state in what manner they did give their facts, and let our readers draw votes, on a particular and interesttheir own conclusions. The ques. ing occasion-If what we have tion whether such a letter should, now said will not enable our reador should not be written, was de- ers to determine why the pastoral cided by the call of the roll, and letter was voted for unanimously, the recording of the yeas and nays and so little regarded afterwards, --The question was carried, and we eannot solve the problem. the letter was written. It was then The

peace

of the church is unpalpable, that the majority that had questionably a precious blessing, voted for issuing a letter, would for the preservation of which, peralso vote for the adoption of the sonal sacrifices, to almost any exone that was read; and if opposed, tent, ought to be made. But the the yeas and nays would doubtless truth of God and the order of his be called for, and recorded, on house must not be sacrificed, even this, as on the previous question for the preservation of peace. What would be the consequence? Professor M. fully agrees with us -The whole church, and the pub- in this; but he seems to think that lick at large, would see the name all important differences in the of every man who had sought, by Presbyterian church may be rehis vote, to preclude the Presbyte- conciled, without a division. If rian church from being counselled this can be effected, none will reand warned by its supreme judica. joice in such an event, if we live to ture, on the important topicks, and witness it, more than ourselves. in the affectionate manner, which But we solemnly protest against that letter exhibits. Do we not the late fashionable method of sethere find the cause of the unani- tling differences by compromise; mous vote? A motion was also that is, by letting those who teach immediately made and carried, to false doctrine, and violate their orerase the yeas and nays already re- dination engagements, and disrecorded, on the question whether a gard the order of the Presbyteletter should be issued; and this rian church at pleasure, take their was followed by another successful course, with only saying what motion, to erase the yeas and nays amounts to this—“it were well, on the question for dividing the dear brethren, if you would be a presbytery of Philadelphia by an little more careful of what you say act of the Assembly, and on the and do,” and then declaring that principle of elective affinity-That they are no longer to be disturbed the General Assembly has a right by those to whom they have been to correct its own minutes, no one opposed. We have had more than can question; but for ourselves, enough of such reconciliations as

this already. And when we consi. apostle Paul had a constant conder how numerous and important flict with false teachers and false are the existing differences, even if brethren-In regard to the latter we take into view only those which he says, “to whom we gave place relate to the topicks on which by subjection, no not for an hour;": Professor M. has dwelt in his let- and why not?-The answer is "that ters—how strong are the attach- the truth of the gospel might conments of the parties who differ to tinue with you. Of false teachthe things about which they differ; ers he hesitates not to declare, “I how prostrate the discipline of the would they were even cut off that church has become, especially in trouble you.” The apostle John regard to discipline for unsound- enjoins, “ If there come any unto ness in the faith; and how deeply you and bring not this doctrine and generally our church is embu (the doctrine of Christ) receive ed with the spirit of Congrega- him not into your house, neither tionalism-we confess that we al- bid him God speed”-Why so most despair of seing real concord sternly repulsive? -For a very sufrestored, while our church is com- ficient reason—“he that biddeth posed of such heterogeneous ma- him God speed, is partaker of his terials.

evil deeds." Nearly the whole of We feel constrained to say, that the short epistle of Jude consists we think professor M. is in an ex- of a warning and of fearful denuntreme, in the indulgence of his ciations against false teachers; and fears of the evils that may ensue he tells the churches," it was needfrom a disturbance of the peace of ful for me to write unto you, and the church. He seems to be hor- to exhort you, that ye should earrified at the very thought of it. nestly contend for the faith once Let us not forget that the Bible is delivered to the saints.” At the full of examples, of the testimony time of the Protestant reformawhich the decided friends of God's tion, there was a great cry against truth and ordinances have borne in disturbing the peace of the church. their favour, in the face of prevail. But had this been regarded by Luing degeneracy; and this, although ther, Zuingle, Calvin, Cranmer, and the peace of the church might be Knox, what would have become of disturbed, and frequently was, in the real church of Christ? It might fact, greatly disturbed, by what still have been slumbering in the they said and did. The history of corruptions of the Man of sin. What the ancient prophets, of our bless. if the heroic Scotch Presbyterians, ed Saviour himself, and of his holy and the devoted English Puritans, apostles, is in great part the his- had succumbed to those who wishtory of their conflicts with the cor- ed and admonished them not 10 ruptors of the church of God, and disturb the peace of the church? the disturbance of the false peace There might have been no Presbyin which it had settled down. terian and Congregational churchThe prophet Jeremiah, after la- es at this day in the United States. menting in the most pathetick It is manifest then, that there strains the state of the church in are occasions on which it is indishis day, mentions among the worst pensably incumbent on the friends evidences of its corruption, that of pure evangelical truth and gosthose, from whom decision in fa- pel order, and most of all incumvour of reformation might have bent on the ministers of Christ, been expected, were not valiant who are “set for the defence of for the truth upon the earth;” our the gospel,” to disturb the peace Saviour declared that he “came of the church-so far as it will be not to send peace but a sword;" the disturbed by standing up, and

standing firmly for the truth of General Assembly of 1832. But God and his sacred institutions. we have been constrained to break The only question is, whether such our silence. If we are naturally an occasion exists at present in the prone to controversy, it was long Presbyterian church. If we did before the propensity showed itnot most solemnly believe that it self. We were about forty years does, no consideration on earth in the ministry, before we ever (God helping us by his grace) wrote a sentence of polemicks, or should induce us to take the course were engaged in serious religious we have been pursuing for three controversy of any kind. We have years past. Often have we been always hated it, and we still hate tempted and strongly inclined to it. But in opposition to our reshrink away from it. Often have luctance, it is our purpose, in rewe sought counsel of God. Often liance on divine aid, to maintain, have we asked ourselves-what if as far as our feeble powers will we should be called to our last ac- permit, our part of the struggle count-not an improbable event at in which the best friends of the our age-in the midst of what we Presbyterian church are now enare doing and writing? The result gaged, for the preservation of her has been, that while we have been purity and her eventual restorasensible of great imperfection in tion to solid peace-uill we either all we have done, we have believed see a favourable issue of the conthat our course itself has been, and fict, or death, or some other disis, the right course; and we have pensation of the providence of not dared to abandon it. But for God, shall manifestly decide that this, we should long since have we have fulfilled our part of a sabeen silent. We were, in fact, al- credly incumbent duty. most silent, for a year after the

(To be continued.)

Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, etc.

We think we cannot so well oc The Arctic Expedition. The following cupy, for the present month, the

letter addressed by the gallant navigator

to the admiralty, will put our readers in pages devoted to Literary and Phi

possession of all the adventures and discolosophical Intelligence, as by the

veries of this memorable expedition. insertion at large of the following interesting paper. It is a docu

Admiralty, Oct. 22. ment which ought to be preserved, Sir-I am commanded by the Lords not only as a memorial of wonder Commissioners of the Adiniralty to transful and successful enterprise, but

mit you the copy of a letter addressed to

their Secretary by Captain Ross, containas one to which it may be desira- ing an outline of the proceedings of that ble and useful to be able hereafter gallant officer and his brave companions, to refer, for the facts and discove. and their providential deliverance from a ries which it records—Seldom is of navigation, and I am to express their

situation of peril unequalled in the annals it seen that “all the glory” is so

lordships' wishes that a document so ho. distinctly acknowledged to be due nourable to the parties, and to the naval to God as it is in this paper, when service of the country, may, through the

committee for managing the affair at success and preservation have been the result of a hazardous and im Lloyd's

, be made public.

I am, sir, portant updertaking, in which men

Your very humble servant, of the world alone were engaged

J. BARROW. The conclusion of the article is admirable.

Mr. Bennet, Lloyd's. Ch. Adv.-Vol. XI.

4 B

On board the Isabella, of Hull, verification of this intelligence either way,

Bafsin's Bay, Sept. 1833. on which our future operations so mateSir,-Knowing how deeply my Lords rially depended, devolved on Commander Commissioners of the Admiralty are in. Ross, who volunteered this service early terested in the advancement of nautical in April, and accompanied by one of the knowledge, and particularly in the im- mates, and guided by two of the natives, provement of Geography, I have to ac

proceeded to the spot, and found that the quaint you, for the informatiou of their north land was connected to the south by Lordships, that the expedition, the main two ridges of highland, 15 miles in object of which is to solve, if possible, the breadth; but, taking into account a chain question of a north-west passage from the of fresh water lakes, which occupied the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, particularly valleys between the dry land which actuby Prince Regent's Inlet, and which sail- ally separates the two oceans is only five ed fiom England in May, 1829, notwith- miles. This extraordinary isthmus was standing the loss of the foremast and other subsequently visited by myself, when Comuntoward circumstances, which obliged mander Ross proceeded minutely to surthe vessel to refit in Greenland, reached vey the sea coast to the southward of the the beach on which his Majesty's late ship isthmus, leading to the westward, which Fury's stores were landed, on the 13th of he succeeded in tracing to the 99th degree, August.

or to 150 miles of Cape Turnagain of We found the boats, provisions, &c. in Franklin, to which point the land, after excellent condition, but no vestige of the leading him into the 70th degree of north wreck. After completing in fuel and other latitude, trended directly; during the same necessaries, we sailed on the 14th, and on journey he also surveyed 30 miles of the the following morning rounded Cape Gar. adjacent coast, or that to the north of the ry, where our new discoveries commenced, isthmus, which, by also taking a westerly and, keeping the western shore close on direction, forming the termination of the board, ran down the coast in a S. W. and western sea into a gulf. The rest of this W. course, in from 10 to 20 fathoms, until season was employed in tracing the seawe had passed the latitude of 72 north, in coast south of the isthmus leading to the longitude 94 west; here we found a con eastward, which was done so as to leave siderable inlet leading to the westward, no doubt that it joined, as the natives had the examination of which occupied two previously informed us, to Ockullee, and days; at this place we were first seriously ihe land forming Repulse Bay. It was obstructed by ice, which was now seen to also determined that there was no passage extend from the south cape of the inlet, to the westward for 30 miles to the northin a solid mass, round by S. and E. to E. ward of our position. N. E.; owing to this circumstance, the This summer, like that of 1818, was shallowness of the water, the rapidity of beautifully fine, but extremely unfavourathe tides, the tempestuous weather, the ble for navigation; and our object being irregularity of the coast, and the nume now to try a more northern latitude, we rous inlets and rocks for which it is re waited with anxiety for the disruption of markable, our progress was no less dan the ice, but in vain; and our utmost engerous than tedious, yet we succeeded in deavours did not succeed in retracing our penetrating below the latitude of 70 norih, steps more than four miles, and it was not in longitude 12 west, where the land, af. until the middle of November that we sucter having carried us as far east as 90, took ceeded in cutting the vessel into a place of a decided westerly direction, while land security, which we named " Sheriff's at the distance of from 40 miles to the Harbour.” ( may here mention that we southward was seen extending east and named the newly discovered continent to west. At this extreme point our progress the southward, “ Boothia,” as also the was arrested on the 1st of October, by an isthmus, the peninsula to the north, and impenetrable barrier of ice. We, how. the eastern sea, after my worthy friend, ever, found an excellent wintering port, Felix Booth, Esq. the truly patriotic citiwhich we named Felix Harbour.

zen, of London, who, in the most disin. Early in January, 1830, we had the terested manner, enabled me lo equip the good fortune to establish a friendly inter- expedition in a superior style. course with a most interesting consocia The last winter was in temperature tion of natives, who, being insulated by nearly equal to the means of what had nature, had never before communicated been experienced on the four preceding with strangers; from them we gradually voyages, but the winter of 1830 and 1831 obtained the important information that set in with a degree of violence hitherto we had already seen the continent of Ame- beyond record-ihe thermometer sunk to rica ; that about 40 miles to the S. W. 92 degrees below the freezing point, and there were two great seas, one to the west, the average of the year was 10 degrees which was divided from that to the cast below the preceding; but notwithstanding by a narrow strip or neck of land. The the severity of the summer, we travelled

across the country to the west sea by a consistency of ice, and thus we actually chain of lakes, 30 miles north of the became the inhabitants of an iceberg dur. isthmus, when Commander Ross succeed. ing one of the most severe winters bitherto ed in surveying 50 miles more of the coast recorded; our sufferings, aggravated by leading to ihe north-west, and by tracing want of bedding, clothing, and animal the shore to the north ward of our position, food, need not be dwelt upon. Mr. C. it was also fully proved that there could be Thomas, the carpenter, was the only man no passage below the 71st degree.

who perished at this beach, but three This autumn we succeeded in getting others, besides one who had lost his foot, the vessel only 14 miles to the northward, were reduced to the last stage of debility, as we had not doubled the Eastern Cape, and only 13 of our number were able to all hope of saving the ship was at an end, carry provisions in seven journies of 62 and put quite beyond possibility by ano miles each to Batty Bay. ther very severe winter; and having only We left Fury Beach on the 8th of July, provisions to last us to the 1st of June, carrying with us three sick men, who 1833, dispositions were accordingly made were unable to walk, and in six days we to leave the ship in the present port, which reached the boats, where the sick daily re(after her) was named Victory Harbour. covered. Although the spring was mild, Provisions and fuel being carried forward it was nut until the 15th of August that in the spring, we left the ship on the 28th we had any cheering prospect. A gale of May, 1832, for Fury Beach, being the from the westward having suddenly openonly chance left of saving our lives; owing ed a lane of water along shore; in two to the very rugged nature of the ice, we days we reached our former position, and were obliged to keep either upon or close from the mountain we had the satisfaction to the land, making the circuit of every of seeing clear water across Prince Rebay, thus increasing our distance of 200 gent's Inlet, which we crossed on the 17th, miles by nearly one half; and it was not and took shelter from a storm 12 miles to until the 1st of July that we reached the the eastward of Cape York. The next beach, completely exhausted by hunger day, when the gale abated, we crossed and fatigue.

Admiralty Inlet, and were detained six A hut was speedily constructed, and the days on the coast by a strong N. E. wind. boats, three of which had been washed off On the 25th we crossed Navy Board Inlet, the beach, but providentially driven on and on the following morning, to our inexshore again, were repaired during this pressible joy, we descried a ship in the offmonth, and the unusual heavy appearance ing, becalmed, which proved to be the Isaof the ice afforded us no cheering prospect bella of Hull, the same ship which I comuntil the 1st of August, when in three manded in 1818. At noon we reached her, boats we reached the ill-fated spot where when her enterprising commander, who the Fury was first driven on shore, and it had in vain searched for us in Prince Rewas not until the 1st of September we gent's Inlet, after giving us three cheers, reached Leopold South Island, now esta received us with every demonstration of blished to be the N. E. point of America, kindness and hospitality woich buinanity in latitude 73, 56, and longitude 90 west. could dictate. I ought to mention also From the summit of the lofty mountain on that Mr. Humphreys, by landing me at the promontory we could see Prince Re- Possession Bay, and subsequently on the gent's Inlet, Barrow's Strait, and Lancas west coast of Baffin's Bay, afforded me an ter Sound, which presented one impene. excellent opportunity of concluding my trable mass of ice, just as I had seen it in survey, and of verifying my former chart 1818. Here we remained in a state of of that coast. anxiety and suspense which may be easier I now have the pleasing duty of calling imagined than described. All our attempts the attention of their lordships to the meto push through were vain; at length be rit of Commander Ross, who was second ing forced by want of provisions and the in the direction of this expedition. The approach of a very severe winter, to re labours of this officer, who had the deturn to Fury Beach, where alone there re partments of astronomy, natural history mained wherewith to sustain life; there and surveying, will speak for themselves we arrived on the 7th of October, after a in language beyond the ability of my pen ; most fatiguing and laborious march, hav. but they will be duly appreciated by their ing been obliged to leave our boats at lordships, and the learned bodies of which Batty Bay. Our habitation, which con. be is a member, and who are already well sisted of a frame of spars, 32 feet by 16 acquainted with his acquirements. feet, covered with canvas, was, during My steady and faithful friend, Mr. Wilthe month of November, enclosed, and liam Thom, of the royal navy, who was the roof covered with snow, from 4 to 7 formerly with me in the Isabella, besides feet thick, wbich being saturated with his duty as third in command, took charge water when the temperature was 15 de- of the meteorological journal, the distrigrees below zero, immediately took the bution and economy of provisions, and to

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