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they were acquainted with some rude pro ing more than 2000 pounds, from which I cesses of metallurgy.
have seen somo rude utensils and ornaAccording to all antiquity, sacred and ments fabricated by our present race of profane, gold, silver, and copper, were the Indians. Near Somerville, in New Jerfirst metals used by man. These facts sey, a lump of native copper, of about 100 are exactly what our present knowledge pounds weight, was ploughed up a few of mineralogy would lead us to expect years since, and I have some specimens for we even now find these metals so pure obtained from that rich locality, weighing in nature, that there is no necessity of re- nearly two pounds. From these and other sorting to melting and refining furnaces instances which could be specified, it in order to render them malleable. We might be expected that copper would often know nothing with certainty of the me occur in our ancient mounds. Two or thods resorted to by the ancient metallur- three examples, however, will be suffigists, but we have always supposed that cient. the metals used in the first ages of tho Dr. Drake, in his picture of Cincinnati, world were derived from the native sub- while noticing the articles dug from the stance, accidentally discovered near the ancient works in the Miami country, enu. surface of the ground, and not by extrac- merates among them “a handful of coption from the ores.
per beads, a small oval piece of sheet cop. There are several instances mentioned per with two perforations, a large oblong in which small ornaments of gold have piece of the same metal, with longitudinal been found in our ancient tombs. The grouves and ridges. Several copper artifollowing fact will be sufficient for our cles, each consisting of two sels of circu. purpose. Dr. Hildreth, in the Archæolo- lar concavo-convex plates.” Dr. Hildrelh, gia Americana, informs us that in a mound of Marietta, has given us an account of in Ross county, near Chillicothe, a piece some curious ornaments of copper, taken of gold was discovered lying in the palm from the ancient works near that place. of a skeleton's hand.
The skeleton with which the copper was The quantity of native gold now obtain- found, had entirely mouldered away, exed from several districts of the United cept a portion of the forehead and skull, States, renders it highly probable that which were in contact with the copper: this metal was not uncommon among the “These bones were deeply tinged with aborigines.. Plates of native gold, beaten green, and appear to have been preserved out into thin foil, are frequently attached by the salts of copper.” In the Philadel to the mummies in the tombs of the an. phia Museum, I have examined a rod of cient inhabitants of Mexico. These plates copper, dug out of a mound on the St are a native alloy of gold and silver, the John's river, by Mr. Peale and others; it silver being in such excess as to obscure is about twelve inches in length, is pointed the lustre of the gold altogether. On ana at the ends, and seems much harder tban lyzing one of these plates, now in the Phi- pure copper. When copper supplied the ladelphia Museum, I found it about fifteen place of iron, the Egyptians had a process carets fine-no copper could be detected of rendering it exceedingly hard. It is in the alloy. This is the kind of gold, I also well known that the Peruvians and suppose, known to the ancient North Mexicans tempered their axes and instra. Americans.
ments of war, which were all of this metal, The next metal to be noticed is silver. so as to make them a good substitute for Near the mouth of the Muskingum, there iron; and from the appearance of the copare a number of old fortifications. Among per rod found by Mr. Peale, I have no the many curious articles found on dig: doubt that our aborigines were acquainted ging in that place, there were several with the same art. That they possessed pieces of silver. This silver had been considerable skill in moulding and working hammered out into thin plates, one of copper is evident, not only from their which was six inches long and two inches beads, rings, arrow-heads, and pipes, some broad. It weighed one ounce. I might of which are said to have been soldered, notice soveral other instances in which but ornaments of this metal have been silver has been discovered in our tumuli. found overlaid or plated with silver. These In all these cases the metal was no doubt operations certainly imply very considerain its native state. Large masses of sil. ble advancement in the art of metallurgy. ver are now met with in Mexico, and See Atwater's Antiquities, &c. p. 158. smaller portions frequently occur in some Besides gold, silver and copper, our Aboof the northern states.
rigines were also acquainted, in some Our third substance is copper. It is degree, with iron and lead. Every one known to almost every one, that no metal knows that the art of working iron is more was more common in ancient times than difficult, and of a later date, than that of copper. It often occurs in loose, insulated the other metals just mentioned. It was,
Not far from Lake Superior however, of very remote antiquiiy, though there is a large mass of this kind, weigh. it was confined to particular places. Even
as late as the Trojan war, so high a value of gold, silver, copper, iron, and lead; and was set upon it, that a ball of iron was one possessed vastly more knowledge on these of the prizes offered by Achilles at the subjects than the barbarous tribes who infuneral ceremonies in honour of Patroclus. habited the same regions two or three cenNative iron is not very uncommon, and is turies since. usually more malleable and tenacious than
Broom Corn.-Broom Corn is cultivated the forged metai. The iron mentioned by
in the Hadley Meadows, and about that most ancient writers, and that found in our
town extensively this year. Last season ancient graves was no doubt the native but little it was raised, in consequence mineral. In the cabinet of the New York
of the reduction of prices occasioned by Lyceum, I lately examined a large mass
an excess of it being planted the precedof native iron from Red River, in Louis
ing year. The stock of brush now on jana. Its weight exceeds 3000 pounds, it hand is light and the market not glutted, can be easily cut, and is very inalleable.
scarcely supplied, and the crop this year At a red heat, fragments of it might rea
will yield well and good prices be sustain. dily be beaten into knives and spear heads.
ed. "Mr. Shipman, of Hadley, is one of The occurrence of iron in our mounds,
the most extensive, if not the largest manufactured into various utensils, can.
broom manufacturer in New England. not be doubted. Dr. Hildreth states“lbat
His factory is spacious, and not less than a piece of iron ore, which has the appear. 50,000 corn brooms, we suspect, are annuance of being partially melted, or vitrified, ally made and sold by him. Making was found in the ancient works on the
brooms is a striking illustration of the vaMuskingum, and that this ore was about the specifick gravity of pure iron." It bour. The handles are made by one set
lue of a suitable systematic division of lamust therefore have been native iron.
of men; the brush prepared by another; Mr. Atwater, in the Archäologia Ameri.
tied on by a third; the trimming performcana, mentions several instances in which
ed by a fourth, and painting or staining fragments of iron blades have been found
The handle and putting on the finishing almost wholly converted into oxide. Those
touch, administered by a fifth. In this ferruginous balls sometimes discovered in
a broom, which is all the compothe mounds, have been strangely supposed by many to have been cannon balls of man, would cost ?rom seventy-five cents
nent parts successively were made by one iron; but they are merely globular masses to a dollar, is now afforded, in consequence of pyrites, or the deuto-sulphuret. They
of the proper subdivision of labour, at less often occur in the alluvial earth, in the
than one-sixth part of that sum. Western states. I have seen these balls more than a foot in diameter, and so per
Singular.-In Mr. Flint's Indian Wars fectly spherical as lo appear very much
of the West, he relates the following sinlike the work of art.
gular circumstances:-"On the side of a The last metal to be noticed is lead. mountain in Tennessee, are the marks of The lead ores of Missouri are so exceed
the footsteps of men and horses in the ingly rich and abundant, that the vast limestone, in great numbers, and as though commercial demands for this metal, might
they were the tracks of an army. Some there be supplied for some thousands of of the tracks show as if the army had slipyears. Though native lead is of very rare
ped in miry clay. All have the appear. occurrence, and is perhaps only found in
ance of being an actual impression in soft volcanick regions, there is no ore more
clay, which afterwards hardened to stone, readily reduced; indeed, this operation is retaining a perfect impression. Characnow constantly performed by the Indians,
ters of great freshness of colouring, are to obtain halls for their rifles, and for the
marked upon many of the high bluffs, purpose of ornamenting their tomahawks that impend the western rivers. Inscripand pipes. The occurrence of lead, how
tions of this sort are found in Missouri, on ever, in the ruins of our tumuli, is not
the Illinois, and in various other places. very common. Dr. Drake, in describing
A rernarkable tract of a human foot was the articles taken from a mound in the
found in a solid block of limestone, on the city of Cincinnati, mentions “a mass of bank of the Mississippi, at St. Louis. The lead ore," and further remarks that
most ancient traditions of the West do not “ jumps of lead ore, or galena, have been
touch the origin of these mounds or chabeen found in other tumuli.” A similar
racters." statement is made by Col. Sargent, in the
Medical Force of Paris.-It appears American Philosophical Transactions, vol. from a late return, inade by the Prefecture iv. p. 205.
of the Seine, that there are at present From the above particulars it follows, 1652 medical practitioners practising in that although we cannot boast much of Paris. Of these, 879 are Doctors of Me. the skill of our aborigines, in the refine- dicine of the new school ; 36 Doctors of ments of metallurgy, still they were un. Surgery of the same; 209 Officers de doubtedly familiar with soine of the uscs Sante; 256 Midwives ; 9 Physicians of the
old school; 18 Physicians of other facul- capital of $40,714,984, and manufacturing ties than those of Paris ; 14 Officers de yearly 77,714,316 pounds of cotton, or Sante, with certificates instead of diplo- 214,882 bales. The number of spindles mas; 12 Midwives of the same class; 19 1,246,903; looms 33,506; yards of cloth Foreign Physicians, authorized to prac made 230,461,900; hands, females 38,927; tise; and 300 Practitioners who have no males 18,479 ; total 57,406; pounds of qualification. The last item is certainly starch used 1,641,253; barrels of four for curious-nearly a fifth part of the corps sizing 17,245; cords of wood burnt 46,519; medicale of Paris unqualified !-and this tons of coal 24,420; charcoal 9,205 bushwhen we consider that the profession in els ;-gallons of oil used 300,338; band France is so immediately under the care weavers 4,760; total dependents 119,626; and cognizance of government !
annual value of cotton manufactures Manufacturing.– It appears from an in- $26,000,000; aggregate of wages paid genious statement, that there are in the $10,294,445. United States 795 Cotton Mills, moving a
THE AMERICAN BOARD OF Com- Hon. John Cotton Smith, L. L. D., MISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN Missions President; Hon. Stephen Van Rensmet, agreeably to adjournment of selaer, L. L. D., Vice President ; the preceding year, in Philadel. Rev. Benjamin B. Wisner, D.D. phia, Sept. 18th ult., at 10 o'clock and Rev. Messrs. Rufus Ander A.M., and was opened with prayer son, and David Green, Correspondby Rev. C. C. Cuyler, D.D. The ing Secretaries; Rev. Calvin Chasittings of the Board, in conformi- pin, D.D., Recording Secretary, and ty with arrangements made for Henry Hill, Esq., Treasurer-Pru the purpose and previously adver- dential Committee, Hon. Wm. Reed, tised, were held in the Seventh Rev. Leonard Woods, D.D., SaPresbyterian Church.
muel Hubbard, L.L.D., Rev. WarTwenty-nine corporate mem ren Fay, D.D., Rev. B. B. Wisbers, and twenty-five honorary ner, D.D., Hon. Samuel T. Armmembers, were present during this strong, and Charles Stoddard, annual meeting. On the first even- John Tappan, and Wm. J. Hubing after the convention of the bard, Esq's., Auditors. On the Board, a sermon was preached to evening of the same day, a large a large and attentive audience, in missionary meeting was held in the First Reformed Dutch Church the church in which the Board in Crown Street, by the Rev. Wm. transacted their business. At M'Murray, D.D., from 2 Cor. x. 4. this meeting, after prayer by the
A long and deeply interesting Rev. C. C. Cuyler, D. D., and readannual report from the Prudential ing a part of the annual report Committee, was read, on the first by Rev. Dr. Wisner, several reand second days of the meeting, solutions were moved, discussed, by the three Corresponding Sec and adopted— The objects of the retaries, the Rev. Dr. B. B. Wis- resolutions were explained and adner, and Rev. Messrs. Rufus An- vocated in five addresses, deliverderson, and David Green-each ed by Rev. John Gosman, D.D., Secretary reading a part-proba- William Maxwell, Esq., Rev. Gar: bly the part that had been written diner Spring, D.D., Ashbel Green, by himself-the report, as usual, D.D., and Benjamin H. Rice, D.D. was ordered to be printed.
The meeting was closed with proOn the second day of the meet- nouncing the apostolical benedicing, the annual election of officers tion by the Rev. President Day, took place—All the officers of the D.D.L.L, D. preceding year were re-elected; viz. The third and last day of the
sittings of the Board was wholly bytery of Newton. Another misspent in devising, proposing, and sionary with whom we have also discussing a variety of measures had an interview, is on his way to and resolutions, to promote the in. New York, and, with a brother terests and influence of the Board, missionary, expects to accompany and to advance the great and sa- Mr. Pinney to Africa in the course cred cause of Foreign Missions; of the coming month-This latter and the meeting was finally closed missionary is to be sustained by with prayer and pronouncing the the presbytery of Miami. The apostolic benediction, by the Rev. Rev. Mr. Swift, the CorrespondEzra Stiles Ely, D.D.
ing Secretary of the Western SoWe have not been able to obtain ciety, is now in the city of New a correct copy of the resolutions York, making arrangements for proposed and adopted, in regard the ordination of the African misto a variety of topicks and mea. sionaries, and for their subsequent sures, and therefore have omited embarkation for Liberia. In a letthem altogether. They will doubt- ter from him just received, he says less soon appear in the Missionary -“The prospect of funds and of Herald, as well as in the Annual friends here would be good; but Report, when we shall have an op- there are a multitude of objects portunity, if it appear expedient, crowding in, in rapid succession, to lay them before our readers. and it will be difficult to obtain a
The whole business of this meet. hearing"--This is indeed the diffiing was transacted in the most culty-It must, however, be met, desirable manner. The Hon. Pre- and the friends of the benevolent sident fulfilled his functions with objects that solicit attention ought, the intelligence, promptitude, and we think, to make a selection of courtesy which distinguish him in those which, in their judgment, hi official character; and in all have the first claim on thein sevethe discussions which took place, rally—and let other demands be some of them earnest and ani- postponed to a future day, with mated, no acrimony or severity of such small contributions only as any kind appeared—all was kind may suffice to show the good will and fraternal. One of the Secre- of the donors, without detracting taries said to us, that he had never materially from the more liberal seen a meeting of the Board in all patronage which they give to enrespects so entirely satisfactory as terprises and efforts, that from the last—The next annual meeting their importance, their recent oriis to be held at Utica, N. Y., on the gin, their necessities, and their second Wednesday of October. immediate connexion with the
church to which the donors belong, claim a present preference.
For ourselves, we can say with WESTERN FOREIGN MISSIONARY SOtruth, that all the evangelical mis
sions of the present day share in We greatly rejoice to find that our cordial good wishes, and in this Presbyterian institution is our sincere prayers to God for urging forward its operations with their success; and we desire to spirit, and with increasing en see no other rivalry among them, couragement from presbyteries, than that which consists in striving churches, and individuals. We who shall do the most good. We have this day conversed with one view them all as great missionary of the missionaries, who is soon to families, whose prosperity affords go to our Western Indians, and to us lively pleasure, and to whom we be entirely supported by the pres. would give all neighbourly assist
But the Presbyterian fa- devoted. Let every other denomimily is our own family—that to nation act in the same manner, and which we belong, for which we we believe the most good will be must provide, and for the prospe- done—the best result will be prority of which, of course, our mo duced. ney and our efforts must chiefly be
View of Publick affairs.
It has several times occurred, during our editorial labours, that after we had industriously compiled our Chronicle of Publick Affairs for the month, an arrival from Europe has brought intelligence, which rendered a great part of our statement as much out of date as an old Almanack: and never has this been the fact more remarkably than at present. Our Chronicle was just sent to the printer, when we received the following only time enough to substitute it, without a new arrangement, in the place of what we had written.*
LATEST FROM EUROPE. New York, October 8.—The Packet Ship New York, Capt. Hoxie, arrived yesterday afternoon, having left Liverpool on the 4th ultimo, bringing us our regular files of papers up to that date from the place of sailing, and London to the 3d inclusive.
The King of Spain is not dead, as was reported; but his restoration to health is looked for by no one about his person. The cabinet of Madrid, at this juncture, presents a singular spectacle. The queen and her party anxiously watching the expiring monarch, lo secure his throne for her daughter, and introduce, on his death, a more liberal system of government. Her opponents, with the minister, M. de Zea, at their head, fixing their hopes on Don Carlos, the priesthood, and the friends of absolute power. Mr. Addington, the British Ambassador, who was known to belong to the Tory party, baving been recalled, has materially raised the hopes of the Queen's party, as it is believed the French Ambassador will, in consequence, be induced to adopt a more energetick language in favour of the Queen, and that the representatives of Eng. land and France will henceforward keep in check the diplomacy of Russia and Austria.
All the French troops have evacuated Greece; this measure was consequent upon the retreat of the Russian troops from Constantinople. The latter power, it would seem, has succeeded in acquiring an unbounded influence over the councils of the Grand Seignior.
From France there is nothing of importance. Marshal Soult has resumed the duties of Minister of War.
Prorogation of Parliament.-- The British Parliament was prorogued on the 29th of August, by the King in person, who delivered the following speech :
My Lords and Gentlemen,-In opening the present Parliament, I stated that never at any time had subjects of greater interest and magnitude called for your attention. The manner in which you have discharged the duties thus committed to you now demands my warmest regard, and enables me to close a session not more remarkable for its extended duration than for the patience and persevering industry which you have employed in many laborious inquiries, and in perfecting the various legislative measures which have been brought under your consideration. I continue to receive from my allies, and from all foreign sovereigns, assurances of their friendly disposition. I regret that I cannot yet announce to you the conclusion of a final and definite arrangement between Holland and Belgium; but the convention in conjunction with the King of the French, I concluded, in May last, with the King of the Netherlands, prevents a renewal of hostilities in the Low Countries; and thus affords a fresh security for the general continuance of peace. Events which have lately taken place in Portugal, have induced me to renew my diplomatick relations with that kingdom, and I have accredited a Minister to the court of her Most Faithful Majesty, Donna Maria.
As the permanent preservation of the news of the day is not important, we have inserted a part on the third page of the cover.