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in a day, but they built for eter- port in its walls, and nourishment nity!

in the dust and dampness of their The Coliseum, which is also crevices. called the Florian Amphitheatre, The best time for visiting these from the family who built it, was remains, if one wishes not to learn begun by Vespasian, and so nearly but to feel, is the dead of night, finished by Titus as to be dedicated when “the owl hoots from out the in his time; but was completed by Cesars' palace,” when the stars Domitian. At the dedication, five twinkle through the broken archthousand wild beasts and several es, and “the moonlight sleeps” thousand gladiators were killed. upon the mouldering walls. Then, Nibby states its circumference to as the traveller looks from the be 2,416 palins, or 1,780 feet, and highest point which he can reach, its height 232 palms, or 170 feet. the piles around him unite with It has several walls, one within the neighbouring hills, and the enanother; those nearest the centre enclosure beneath becomes a deep being the lowest, so that the seats valley in the midst of mountains. rose towards the exterior. These The broken wall here admits the seats, it is computed, could re- faint light of the skies, there it is ceive 87,000 spectators; and the overspread with silver, and around terrace above, more than 20,000. the dark shadows fall in fantastic The exterior wall is composed of forms. “ Hush!” he exclaims, solid blocks of stone, which were they move: hark! do you not originally fastened together by hear them? It is not the waving iron cramps, but the iron has been of the ivy, it is not the cry of the dug out by avaricious plunderers. night-bird; but the spirits of the In the arches of the interior, as in martyrs, and the wailing ghosts of most Roman buildings, brick was their murderers, glide through the used. A part of the wall, which arcades.” was in danger of falling, is now supported by a vast buttress, erect

For the Christian Advocate. ed by Pius VII. In the centre of the arena a large cross has been planted; and around are 14 little chapels, with different representa The present is an age of vigortions of our Saviour's passion. ous benevolent enterprise. More On Fridays Cardinal Fesch per- perhaps has been accomplished forms a solemn religious service externally for the church of God, here. There are sentinels at the in the past and present generaentrances of this venerable ruin; tions, than during any preceding and under the double guard of re- age, which has not been influenced ligion and power, it may be con- by the excitements that arise sidered safe at present from fur- from reformation or persecution. ther abuse.

Various institutions have been Near the top of the exterior formed for the purpose of giving wall are brackets, where it is sup- shape and direction to the zealous posed were placed the beams, to efforts which Christian feeling has which were fastened the cords and prompted the church to put forth. pullies of the velarium, or canvass It has been discovered that one that protected the spectators from religious denomination, without the the sun and rain. Like other old counsel and aid of others, can do buildings, in the mild climate of comparatively but little, in some of Italy, the Coliseum is beautifully the most important plans and opeadorned with a variety of shrubs rations for the moral melioration and flowering plants, that find sup- of the world. A vast extent of field,



barren as yet, it has been seen, may and we trust not a few, of our debe cultivated and rendered fruitful nomination, are beginning to see by united Christian effort, without that the exclusive inculcation of detriment to any of the parties con- general truths, and the studious cerned in the enterprise. Hence concealment of denominational pehave arisen those great associa- culiarities, are not only unfavourtions which are composed of se- able, but absolutely destructive, to veral different evangelical deno- the spread of those tenets which minations. The Bible Society is distinguish the Calvinistic system the most prominent example of of gospel truth from every other. the benefit to be derived from the In the speeches which are usually union we contemplate.

But a

delivered at the anniversaries of question, of some difficulty in the the general societies, it is often solution, has arisen, as to what is, made a matter of boasting, that and what is not, common ground. the distinguishing doctrines of no Does the selection and issuing of one denomination are inculcated, tracts, and the publication of Sun- but on the contrary, are kept in day school books, stand on the the dark. Now if this be to resame footing with the distribution commend the enterprise to the acof the Bible without note or com- tive co-operation of all other denoment? Most of the denominations minations, as in many cases it that have united for the issuing of doubtless is, it may, in this view, tracts and the establishment of Sun- be a legitimate appeal. But if the day schools, have practically an- design be to discourage and render swered this question in the negative. unpopular the teaching of peculiar They have established denomina- views, and to brand the doing it tional Tract Societies and Sunday with the odium of bigotry, (and School Unions of their own. They such certainly is often the effect have thus declared, that in their on the popular mind,) then is it opinion this ground is not common, deleterious in the last degree to but peculiar. And in this, they the cause of truth. It tends to have, in our judgment, shown their confound, in the public mind, truth wisdom, and a proper attachment with error, and order with consuto the respective churches to which sion: and it verges closely and they belong. We think it may be dangerously on the wild, Utopian laid down as an axiom, that when- scheme of amalgamating all sects, ever any one denomination is re- upon the platform of a few leading quired to sacrifice any of its es- articles of Christian belief. sential peculiarities, for the sake Who doubts but that such is of furthering the operations of the tendency of many of the any scheme of benevolence, that speeches and essays of the present scheme is trespassing on ground day? The great mass of mankind which does not belong to it. Any are unable, from want of time and society which demands such a sa- opportunity for judicious refleccrifice has, we think, erred, either tion, to discover and bear in mind in the adoption of false principles, the legitimate sphere of our great or in the abuse and perversion of national institutions; and they are correct ones.

led almost insensibly to adopt the While then we would with both opinion, that the differences behands uphold the general institu- tween the various sects are of tritions for issuing tracts and sup- fling importance. Hence already porting Sunday schools, we would, the word “sectarian” has almost as Presbyterians, most earnestly become synonymous with a bigotplead for the privilege of doing as ted.”

ted.” Now the point to which it others have already done. Some, is wished to direct the mind of

the Presbyterian public is, that no ed with these general societies, has, denomination suffers as much from we repeat, such an institution. Are the influence of this erroneous opi- we then on an equality in point nion as our own; and that because, of advantage in this respect? * No. as we contend, of its purely evan- While we negligently remain on gelical character.

this disadvantageous ground, we Truth is one, error is multiform. may well ask-are we not wanting Arminianism would not suffer so in fidelity to our church, and crimaterially from a union with Pe- minally remiss in the discharge of lagianism, as Calvinism would from those solemn duties which our eca union with Arminianism. Many clesiastical connexion and ordinaof the various forms of error have tion vows impose upon us? an “elective affinity” for one ano It has been said that these general ther: but truth stands alone, like institutions are controlled by Presthe God of truth, abhorring all al- byterian influence, and supported loy, and repelling the approach of principally by Presbyterian patronall error.

age, and what more would you have? Now, if any of our general in- To this let me reply, that on the stitutions be abused, by encroach- principles of union, it is not stricting upon ground on which they ly proper that any one denominacannot legitimately act, and if the tion should have such an ascenmanner in which they are some- dency, in point of controlling influtimes managed and advocated, has ence, over the rest. And if it be the effect of inculcating a disre- true that these institutions are in gard for peculiar tenets and dis- fact Presbyterian, though not so tinguishing doctrines, and of weak- in name, we have still to remarkening the attachment of Chris- and this is the burden of our comtians to their own denomination, plaint-it is not Presbyterianism thus paving the way for error, carried to its full length. It is misrule, and confusion, it is time Presbyterianism without a single that the Presbyterian church, fol- distinctive feature to discriminate lowing the wise example set by it from any other evangelical deher sister denominations, had look- nornination in our country. We ed to her own safety, and erected are not to be understood as oba barrier for her own defence- jecting to any doctrine which has not by crushing, or at all opposing ever appeared in any of the publithe institutions alluded to-Far cations of the national societies. from it, but by establishing a Tract Our denomination suffers not so and Sunday School Society of her much from what they teach, as own; to guard, teach, and incul- from what they do not teach. There cate her own distinctive and im- is a studied silence on important portant doctrines and discipline; points of doctrine, which every while she contributes liberally, as sound Presbyterian considers as she has hitherto done, to uphold belonging to the gospel; a silence the associations in which the great which calls loudly for a separate Catholick principles of morality and distinct organization. This and religion are widely dissemi- silence is observed in virtue of the nated, and powerfully impressed on compact, and we do not ask them the popular mind.

to break the one by violating the The Presbyterian church has other. But we plead for the priat present no organized institu- vilege and opportunity of being tions, apart from her regular mi- heard on these points, through the nistry, for the inculcation of her medium of a denominational instidistinguishing doctrines; almost tution. Let this be distinctly unevery other denomination connect- derstood. Ch. Adv.-VOL. XI.

3 E

We further remark, that our separate organization? And is it church suffers not only from this not bigotry in other denominations, covenanted silence, but also from who have not only desired, but actuthe fact that other denominations, ally done, the supposed objectionathrough their separate societies, ble thing? Let those who are innoare zealously inculcating, and that cent cast the first stone. But why too in a controversial way, views have the other denominations taken and doctrines which are the oppo- this step? Plainly because they have site of our own. If our church is seen, what I am anxious the Presbyto be confined to the national insti- terian church should see, that these tutions, then the case stands thus: national institutions, (as they are each of the other denoniinations improperly called,) cannot be made has the right of veto upon any to supersede denoininational sociesentiment which the national so- ties, without injury, if not destrucciety may propose to teach, while tion, to those peculiar doctrines at the same time they are at per- which distinguish one sect from fect liberty to teach even ultra pe- another. If these distinguishing culiarities through their own so- points be of no importance, (and ciety: thus flooding the church whether they be or not, is a sepawith books and tracts controvert rate question from the one before ing the doctrines and order of our us, and is here assumed to be afchurch, and at the same time so firmatively settled) then let the vacontrolling the national societies, as rious sects agree to bury these unto hinder us effectually from coun- important differences, and become teracting their influence through a one in name, in influence, and in similar medium.

purpose-because if such be the But why should our church be fact, then sectarianism is bigotry. confined to the national societies, But what denomination will make more than other denominations? the advance in this scheme of Was there an express or implied amalgamation? The objections pledge given in the formation of are manifestly idle and visionary. these societies, that the several de- The Presbyterian Church, if she nominations united in them should be true to her sacred trust, will be confined to them? If so, that never yield those peculiarities pledge has been violated again and which distinguish her from every again by the other denominations, other denomination. And so long and we are entirely freed thereby as she neglects to inculcate and from its obligation. Should the defend them in the most effectual Presbyterian church therefore form way that is practicable, she is a separate organization, could it at chargeable with criminal unfaithall be construed into an opposi- fulness to her Lord and Head. tion to the national societies? Who Already the catechisms of our could complain? Surely not those church are banished from the S. who are before us in the trans- S. Union, and we say not unjustly, gression, and who have thereby according to the terms of the set us the example. Could our Union; but we speak of the fact, own church complain? Surely not and it will serve as a forcible ilthat part of it who value her dis- lustration of all that we have said. tinguishing doctrines, and are de- Before the denominational socie. sirous to disseminate them. The ties were in active operation, and opposition then must be confined perhaps for a time afterwards, the to those who are anxious to break catechisms of the several denodown her bulwarks, and annihilate minations were issued from the her peculiarities.

Union: this was fair and equitaIs it bigotry in us to desire a ble; but now the separate societies


can supply their schools with their In the view of these statements, own catechisms, and the Union it remains with those who love our must cease to publish those of church, and regard as inestimably any denomination. How unequal- precious her peculiar tenets, and ly does this operate? We have who feel bound by solemn vows to no separate society through which teach them to the people, to move we may issue our own formularies. in the formation of a distinct soOur schools are all in connexion ciety for the publication of tracts with the Union, and mainly de- and S. S. books, which shall strictpendent on it for their supply of ly accord in sentiment with the books; the catechism, therefore, standards of the Presbyterian must, to a great extent, be banish- Church. ed from the hands of our children,

CONSISTENCY. and they must be satisfied with general truths in which all the other sects may agree; while the schools of other denominations are carefully trained up in the knowledge The following is a long article of their respective peculiarities. for our scanty pages; but we misWho cannot foreteil the result of take, if our readers will wish it this on the rising generation in shorter, or wish it divided. We our church? We need no prophet take it from the Eclectic Review to assure us that they, being igno- for July. It furnishes a topick for rant of the doctrines of our church, speculation to the philosopher, and will drink in error like water, and of serious thought to the Chrisif they do not leave our denomina- tian. tion altogether, they will remain in it only to corrupt and distract it. Let it not be supposed that this CASPAR Hauser. An Account of

an Individual kept in a Dungeon, is mere conjecture. We could name a Presbyterian church, and an Or

separated from all Communication

with the World, from Early thodox church too, where, by a so

Childhood, to about the Age of lemn vote of the S. S. teachers, the

Seventeen. Drawn up from LeWestminster catechisms were banished from the school! We could

gal Documents. By Anselm Von

Feuerbach, President of one of the name others, where, through the

Bavarian Courts of Appeal, &c. influence of the pastors, these formularies are unknown in the

Translated from the German. schools. And is not the neglect

12mo. pp. xi. 191. Price 38. in

cloth. London, 1833. of instructing children from this “ form of sound words," notori Most of our readers will have ous in our church at the present been made acquainted by the pubday? And who doubts but that lick journals with the name of this this neglect, if not occasioned, is "youth without childhood," and yet cherished and perpetuated by with the outlines of his melancholy the influence of these general story. The present publication, unions, and their different agen- dedicated to Earl Stanhope, who cies? Not that this is done de- has taken poor Caspar under his signedly to injure the Presbyterian paternal protection, contains an Church-we make no such charge. authenticated relation of the cirBut that such, in the absence of a cumstances, so far as known, atdenominational organization, will, tending his mysterious secretion, from the nature of these national his coming into the world, and the institutions, be the invariable, if gradual development of his ranot necessary consequence.

tional faculties.

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