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is said to have extended to Naples. lies. It is owing, no doubt, to this That the water ejected from the wise regulation, that murders and mountain comes from the sea is assassinations are infrequent here. rendered probable, not only by the Something of the old disposition nearness of the two, but also by of the people, however, remains, marine shells being found in it; as a circumstance which has reand by the disappearance of the cently come to my knowledge leads water from the shore, at times, me to believe. A few evenings during an eruption.

since one of my friends was comThe quantity of solid materials ing to see me. At the corner of thrown out from Vesuvius, and the street in which we live, he'met covering the neighbouring regions, a man whom he knew, though very is so immense, that it is computed slightly. Not suspecting any ill they would form a mass four times will, he saluted the fellow, or was as great as the mountain itself. about to do so, when his courtesy

The edge of the crater is very was met by some term of reproach, sharp, and a man might put one and the thrust of a dagger. The foot on the outer declivity, and at assassin failed in his purpose, but the same time, the other on the the poniard cut the clothes of a inner one.

The sides, with the young man with whom my friend exception of a few feet near the was walking. Not having even a top, are almost perpendicular. stick to defend himself with, he No one has yet descended into the took to fight, and was pursued by present crater, but we were told his enemy for a considerable disthat some one in Naples was pre- tance. At length they came near paring a ladder for the purpose. a sentinel, and the pursuit was We could perceive a slight smell given up. My friend imagines of sulphur, and in several places that his occasional visits to a that mineral was visible.

young lady in this neighbourhood Notwithstanding the steepness have excited the wretch's jealousy. of the cone, we were able to de The 29th, 30th and 31st, were scend with perfect safety, and as occupied in an excursion to Pæsrapidly as we chose. If our mo tum. Our road led past Pompeii, tion, at any time, seemed too great, and afforded a sight of its amphiwe could instantly retard it by theatre. We then went over a pressing our heels into the sand. rich beautiful country, highly culOne of the party came down in tivated, and surrounded by lofty three minutes and a half, includ- mountains. The sides of these ing about half a minute lost in were here covered with vines or stopping to converse with some olives supported by terraces, there people who were going up. bare and rugged, and in a few

Mr. D. was so little fatigued spots clothed with forest trees, that he chose to walk through the just now putting forth their leaves, whole descent; but the rest of us while on the crags and cliffs many willingly re-mounted our donkeys. a ruined castle or convent was viThey were admirable beasts for sible. We traversed several small such an expedition, and seemed towns, one of which, Cava, had so well acquainted with the path, arcades at the sides of the streets, that I am persuaded we might where passengers could walk in have trusted them to take their shelter from the sun or rain.

We reached our all the villages which we have home, in Naples, at an early hour. seen, near Naples, the houses are

The bearing of deadly weapons compactly built; and the streets is, by the laws of this kingdom, full of people, many of whom apan offence punishable with the gal- pear to be without employment.

In

Own

course.

Salerno is situate thirty miles these monuments, which is supfrom Naples, at the head of a fine posed, or rather imagined, to have bay, to which it gives its name. been a temple of Neptune. It has Its cathedral is enriched with co- six pillars in front, and fourteen lumns and Mosaicks brought from at the side, counting those of the Pæstum, but is by no means grand corners in both cases. These pilor elegant, as a whole. It had lars are twenty feet six inches in been our intention to pass the night circumference, at the base, and on our return, at Salerno; but on twenty-seven feet high. They are examining several inns there, we fluted, and stand without pedesfound them so filthy, that we con- tals, on the highest of three steps. cluded it would be better to sleep They are each composed of six at Eboli, both in going and re or seven blocks of reddish brown turning. The road to this place, limestone, which is full of tubes which is fifteen miles from Salerno, and pores; and is, no doubt, a peaffords much to gratify the eye. trifaction. These pillars are frusOur lodgings were in an inn which tra of cones, and a line from the had once been a convent. It was top to the base, along the surface, very cleanly in comparison with would be straight, and not curved, the houses which we examined in as in most modern ones. This is Salerno; but in our country it is not the case in the other two would be considered a wretched buildings, and it may hence be intavern. A plain, in many parts ferred that they are less ancient. uncultivated, extends from this to The colour of the stone, also, in Pæstum. So bare and desolate them, is different from that which was this waste, that one might is found in the temple of Neptune. have thought it had been aban- The brown, in the latter, inclines doned to sterility and the malaria, to red, in the other, to grey. It but for a few herds of buffaloes, is true, that this temple of Nepwhite cattle, and goats; and some tune, as it is cailed, is better prestraggling peasants, partly clothed served than the others, but its in sheepskins. The miserable mass is larger. One of them is wigwams of these people exactly of singular construction. It has resemble hay-stacks, and but for a nine pillars in front, and several hole in the southern side, with in the middle part, evidently benow and then a little smoke issu- longing to a row which extended ing from it, one would have sup- through the centre from front to posed they were intended for the This building puzzles the food of animals, rather than for antiquarians. One supposes that the shelter of human beings. it may have been a double temple;

The atmosphere was obscured but others think it was merely a by clouds and rain, but the ruins place of meeting for the citizens. which had brought us so far were İts front is on a line with that of visible at a considerable distance. the temple of Neptune, but it does We entered by one of the ancient not extend so far back. There are gates. The wall is built of im- nine columns in front, and eighteen mense blocks of hewn stone, and at the side, counting those at the several of its towers, and one arch corners twice; they are fluted like over a gate-way, are still lest stand- those of the temple of Neptune, but ing. Some slight remains of a are smaller, being but fourteen feet theatre, and more of an amphi- six inches in circumference. The theatre, are also visible, but the third building is imagined to have great objects of attention are the been erected in honour of Ceres. temples.

It is smaller than either of the We first visited the grandest of others, and its columns taper less Ch. Adv.-VOL. XI.

2 X

rear.

towards the top than those of the scenery of this region, that one second, which is thought to be may well excuse the extravagance the least ancient of the three. The of the people of Naples, when they origin of all, however, is so re- say it is “un' pezzo di Cielo camote, that it is said they were vi- duto in Terra," a piece of Heasited as venerable antiquities by ven fallen to the Earth. Augustus!

We travelled in a vettura—the The temple of Neptune is thought most common mode in Italy—too to be the oldest edifice in Europe. slow for the impatient, and too Few works of man's making, rival slow for an uninteresting country, it in grandeur, and very few of but pleasant enough for those who them have lasted so long. The wish to make a leisurely survey of people who raised it, their con so celebrated and beautiful a one querors, and the other nations as this. Our fellow travellers were which here in long succession an English and a Scotch gentlewere first victors and then van- man, in the body of the carriage, quished, have been mingled with and two young Neapolitans in the their kindred clay, but its firm co- front, or cabriolet. lumns still stand erect, braving the We went over a very rich plain assaults of the elements. Gene- to Capua, which is near the ruins rations after generations of the of the ancient city of the same human race-mere bubbles on the name. We had purposed to visit stream of time-have passed by them, but were prevented by bad and been forgotten, while this rude weather, which confined us, durwork of infant art remains un- ing our short stay, too much to moved, though the earth has trem- allow of our examining, particubled under its base, and the thun- larly, even the modern town. The der-bolt descended on its head. begging part of the population, Most of the elegant structures of however, sent a committee to wellater times, have been broken into come us on our arrival, and among atoms, but these massive pillars them a fellow who, for a while, endure like their native rock. The pretended to be deaf and dumb, habitations about them, and the but recovered his speech before cities of their vicinage, have moul we departed. We lodged at St. dered away, and left them secure Agatha, where we found decent and immoveable amid surround- accommodations, at the inn ading ruins. They decay, indeed, joining the post, at the entrance of but they decay by slow and gra- the town. dual progress, like the everlasting After riding some distance the mountains;—they are crumbling, next morning, we came within but they crumble like the globe! sight of the beautiful promontory,

town, and bay of Gaeta. This city

Rome, April 9th. is thought to have been founded On the 5th, with a heavy heart, by Æneas, in honour of his nurse I left Naples. The six weeks that Caieta, and a passage in the sewe spent there had passed most venth Æneid seems to countenance pleasantly. The delightful cli- the opinion. In this neighbourmate had improved my health, hood, as on the shores of Baiae, and the innumerable beautiful and the luxurious Romans sought for interesting objects in the city and rural enjoyments. Cicero had a vicinity had gratified my curiosity villa not far from this bay. Here and given most agreeable occupa- he was murdered, and a magnifition. There is something so cheer- cent monument, which we saw ing and entrancing in the balmy near our road, is believed to have air, bright sky, and magnificent been erected to his memory, by

his freed-men, at the spot where Gensano, celebrated for its wine, he was killed.

and La Riccia, mentioned by HoOur second night was spent at race in the journey to Brundusium, Terracina, within the Papal terri- under the name of Aricia. Near tory, at the foot of the hill on the entrance of Albano stands a which the ancient Anxur was built. large ancient monument, which is One of the late saxis candentibus, called the tomb of the Curiatii, at the entrance of the modern but it is said without foundation. town, is so high and steep, and at Some suppose it was erected in the same time so divided from the honour of Pompey. rest of the mountain as to appear While our mules rested at Allike an immense tower. Before bano, we visited its lake, a fine we reached the town we had oc sheet of water, entirely surroundcasion to observe the sickly hue of ed by high banks, like those of the people who live in the vicinity. Avernus. Our road to it was

On the 7th, about a mile from along a beautiful avenue of a mile Terracina, we entered on the fa- or two in length, conducting to mous Pontine marshes, which we Castel Gandolfo, a summer resicrossed on the Via Pia, or as some dence of the Popes. This avenue have called it, Via Impia, con- affords an extensive view of the structed by Pius VI., principally Campagna di Roma, across which, over the old Appian Way. A large in the distance, the “ Eternal City" canal runs by its side, which must is distinctly visible. carry off a great quantity of water, Near the town and the road to as the current within it is rapid. Rome, stands a grand old monuForsyth finds fault with the Pope ment, which is called the tomb of for extending the road through in Ascanius, the son of Æneas, who a right line, and mentions the is said to have founded Albagreat quantity of water which lay no, anciently called Alba Lunga. upon it, but we found it only When we had descended the hill, wet from the rain, and excellent on which this town stands, we enthroughout. It may have been an in- tered upon the Campagna. Most judicious work, but it is certainly a of it is now a mere waste; but it grand one. The effect of the Pope's is strewed with the remains of labours, however, in draining the buildings, and with tombs. Of marsh, was not so great as he ex these we had observed many on pected. He planted a colony of the preceding day. It would seem monks near the western extremity that the dwellings of the dead posof his road, but so many of them sess a perpetuity which has not died, that the place was abandoned. been granted to those of the livAn inn is now kept in the build- ing; as if inanimate matter had ing. We stopped there to break- been brought into accordance with fast, and while one of the servants the immortality of the one, and was setting our table, she was the perishableness of the other; seized with a fit of the ague. Af so that even brick and stone proter we had passed the marshes, we claim with mute but powerful elocame to a very pleasant country. quence, that the days of man upon In some places we observed great earth are but as a tale that is told, numbers of cork trees. They are and yet that the departed shall enevergreens, with leaves resem. dure forever. The tombs in the bling those of the evergreen oak, Papal territory afford a contrast, which is common near Naples. not only with the houses of the We found comfortable lodgings at ancients, which have perished Velletri.

while their sepulchres remain; but On the 8th we passed through also with the hovels, which now

barely shelter from the inclemency we are covered from the curse of of the weather the descendants of the law; but faith is the flight of the men to whose memory these the soul to this refuge. The magnificent monuments were rais- righteousness of Christ is the robe ed. Some of these huts are in the with which we are invested, and shape of tents, and some of hay- which covers our deformity; but stacks. They are composed of faith is the act of the soul by thatch, and have no windows, and which we put on this precious but one door. We met a few of robe. The righteousness of Christ them on our journey to Pæstum, is the shield by which we are cobut have seen more in the neigh- vered from the wrath of God; and bourhood of the Imperial City. faith is the hand, by which, as it

This region is volcanick. In were, we hold this shield. Jesus the Campagua we saw volcanick Christ is the sacred victim that ashes, and in one place, perceived has been substituted in our place, a strong smell of sulphur. As we and when we put forth the acts of approached the ciły, three or four a living faith, we lay our hands aqueducts, stretching over the upon this victim, and we discharge plain, came into view. We en- upon it all our sins, and we are tered by the gate of St. John, and regarded as having expiated them passed the church dedicated to by the victim's blood. that Apostle, which is now the se We ought not to think it strange cond in Rome, St. Paul's having that our justification is attributed been burnt. Soon after we came to faith, rather than to other to the Coliseum; but of this won- graces. It is by faith that it might derful pile I cannot now write. be by grace, says St. Paul, Rom. iv. The examination of our trunks, at 16. The Scripture in this way inthe custom-house, was slight; and tends to take away from man all by the kind assistance of our friend, ground of glorying in himself; for Signor PM, we were soon set- it could not more effectually humtled in furnished apartments. ble a man, than by saying that

le cannot be justified except by

faith, because faith does nothing Translated from Pictet's Christian Theo.

more than receive, and apply to illogy.

self that which it receives. This HOW WE ARE JUSTIFIED BY FAITH.

is the remark of a learned author See then the method in which of the church of Rome. In asfaith justifies us

signing a reason why the Scrip1. It unites us to Jesus Christ, ture attributes our justification to who is the cause of our justifica- faith alone, he says—“it is because tion and our righteousness. that in faith it appears most clear

2. Faith receives and accepts ly, that man is not justified by the gift which God proffers us of his own goodness, but by the mehis Son, and makes an application rit of Christ.” of his righteousness to us, and as. Faith then justifies us, not as a sures us of his favour. God pro- work (although, as it is an act of poses to us his Son, as the only our mind, it may be called a work, means of obtaining the remission and indeed is so called in the of our sins and a right to eternal Scripture) that is to say, it does life; faith receives this unspeaka- not justify us by its dignity, or by ble gist.

God presents to us let. its merit. All the merit comes ters of grace; faith is the hand from the blood of Jesus Christ, which takes them. The blood of which our faith embraces, and Jesus Christ is our refuge from thus faith justifies us as receiving the wrath of God, and by his blood the merit of the death of our Sa

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