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country;* and when they are so, peasantry, even in republican states, they endure every hardship and be once aroused against existing privation, sooner than surrender forms and institutions, and they their freedom. For their altars, will appear in incensed hordes, as well as their firesides, they have pausing at nothing but the atoften contended, even to despera- - tainment of their purpose.* It is tion.

not so easy as some suppose, to Nothing takes stronger holdquell popular tumult, and stand at on the minds of men, than their the confluence of those inundareligious rights. Oceans of blood' tions, which sometimes course fuhave been shed, to secure the pri-. riously over the face of society. vilege of worshipping God ac- But we turn from scenes of insurcording to the dictates of con- rection to repeat, that the peascience. When this privilege is santry of every country are capable once guaranteed, in the compacts of moral cultivation and religious of society, it is not often surren- restraints; and that, when well dered without a struggle. Histo- taught, no class of men are more ry illustrates this truth; it show susceptible of romantick national that this population have at times, attachments. Such, in fact, are started up from their rural haunts, the attachments of the Caledonian and repelled, with promptitude peasantry; and when Burns rises and decision, the impious invader. io the dignity of the true Scottish They have, when overcome in for- peasant, and depicts his religious mer battles, still hung on their up- habits, we feel thatland declivities, or retreated to caves and dens; and moistened "From scenes like these old Scotia's granwith their blood the fastnesses of

deur springs." their mountains. They who dwell among the lux

The “Sabbath," of Grahame, uries of sequestered lise, are not and the “Cotter's Saturday Night, well fitted for the hardships of the of Burns, are pictures purely Scotfield. When entrusted with the tish. . Their authors did not wanconfidence of their country, and der out of their native land, to find having their reputation to sustain, materials for their construction. they have indeed encountered pe

It would give us inexpressible rils to admiration. But although pleasure, to see the peasantry of with them is the mind to direct, the American union displaying with them is not the arm to exe

the traits of a solid religious charcute. This, as we have said, be- acter; for a wider difference canlongs to the peasantry; and hence not be imagined than between a the importance that this class of vicious and a moral peasantry. society should be enlightened by Nor in the eye of the true philanknowledge and influenced by relie' thropist, is any sight more pleagion; for nothing is plainer than sant, than a rustick population, if the peasantry may be essentially conforming itself with enlightserviceable to communities, they ed views to the laws of the great may also be dangerous in the ex- Creator. Let our poets, therefore, tremes. All power does in fact re- from time to time, look out upon side in the people; and it is with the character of our rural poputhem when they choose, to strip lation; and their exertions may kings of their diadems, and noblemen of their stars and coronets.

* See Robert Hall's Sermons on the Let the vindictive passions of the French Revolution. A pleasing descrip:

tion of the religious habits of the Scottish * See the good yeoman, in Fuller's islanders, may be seen in a late poem, callHoly Stato.

ed Arran.

achieve much in elevating them;* hour. The picturesque scenery of and it is surely worthy the attention that island has received hues from of legislators, to devise schemes his pious deeds, sweeter than the for the promotion of their moral blushing pencil of the artist can and intellectual character. Raise give. The peasantry of Aston the tone of morals and intelligence Sandford, too, will long cherish among them, and we shall also the memory of Scott; and that of practically elevate the standard of Hodnet will not soon forget him, polished circles: and it will put who left its green alleys to carry scepticism at defiance, when our the light of Christianity tomen of wealth shall be seen gird

"India's coral strand.” ing themselves round, with a tenantry obedient to their Maker's Our national independence may commandments.

be lost. History reads in our But if much may be done by hearing its solemn monitions. It legislators for the benefit of this tells us of states once free, whose population, still more may be done freedom is irrecoverably gone. It by the gospel ministry. Our Sa- tells us of kingdoms whose moviour did not disdain the kindest narchs, stately even in distress, offices towards the humble orders and whose queens beautiful even in of society. The gate of opulence captivity, have served but to grace did not allure his footsteps. He the triumphal retinue of their conwas pleased to assume for himself querors. Had Persia preserved the appearance of a Gaļilean pea- her ancient simplicity, she would sant; and he associated exclusive never have yielded to the power of ly, for the first thirty years of his Greece. . Greece was herself once abode on earth, with the peasantry' free. But her soft skies have for of Judea. His faithful servants in ages been suspended over a land of every age, have copied his example. slaves, bondsmen of dejected mien

In our recollections of Fenelon, and downcast eye. Had Rome his contests with kings, and with preserved her integrity, as in the those whose crosiers were power- days of Cincinnatus and Fabius, fulas sceptres, are forgotten, whilst her fair heritage would never have we dwell with tears of delight on been devoured by Swarms

of his acts of condescension to the northern barbarians. Spain was peasantry of his diocese. This, possessed of martial fire, when said they, after his decease this she resolved on the expulsion of was the chair which he occupied. the Moors; and there was a time'. This was the elm under which he when the Swiss peasant climbed read; this was the lawn on which the steeps of the Helvetic repubhe greeteďus; this was the closet, lic, with the elastic step of the freein which he prayed; and this was the chamber in which we lost But notwithstanding these exhim." Similar acts of kindness amples, can ihere be any necessity to the peasantry of the Isle of that our liberties should ever be Wight, embalm the memory of lost? Remote from the vortex of Legh Richmond, at the present European politics, embracing with

in our own limits adequate re• We have a few; Percival, Bryant, Mellen, Tappan, Paulding, Hillhouse, Hill, sources of self-defence, aspiring to Brooks, Willis, Sigourney, Noal, Pinkney, no foreign conquests, with a conand at least one or two hundred versifiers. stitution prescribing rotation in Irving and Cooper seem averse to rhyme, office, and the elective privilege but their works are a good deal tinged guaranteed to all, we should hope prediction may one day be fulfilled, that that our independence would be ihe Muses will take refuge in America. insured as a sacred deposit, by the



Ruler of nations, so long as our stream, swells into torrents and is graceful rivers mingle with the broken into cataracts, it will ultisea, or as our peerless mountains mately sweep away all our cherun in blue lines, midway between rished and inestimable instituheaven and earth.

tions. To secure a result so desirable, To the Ruler of nations we must we must multiply the lights of look. The Arabs keep their inknowledge. Universal education dependence by a divine pledge. would prove a source of national Their territory extends from Alepstrength, and therefore its bless. po to the Arabian Sea, and from ings should be secured to all. A Egypt to the Persian Gulf. But university might indeed lift its he who decreed that the descendtowers at the seat of the general ants of Ishmael "should dwell in government, but in the course of the presence of all their brethren," time, that university might be- may be considered as saying to all come the chartered hall of literary nations, what he said to Israel of noblemen. It is the poor and for- old, “I am with you, while ye are lorn who ought to receive the with me." Let it be our characgreatest measure-we say not an- ter as a people, that we reverence exclusive measure of help, from the institutions and obey the rethe pecuniary resources of the vealed will of the God of the whole state. We should especially aid earth, and our happiness and peace them in acquiring knowledge. will flow like a river, and our The state ought to foster its poorer country will flourish while the sun orders, were it for no other reason and the moon endure-Its prospethan that genius of the highest rily will terminate only with the class has often risen from poverty. consummation of all things. Let our peasantry be well educated, and then should our liberties be threatened, some future Wallace, Bruce or Tell, would LETTER make a last stand in freedom's defence, with an enlightened soldiery in their rearward. The people,

The following letter, it appears, especially in such a nation as ours, ing Christian to another. We

was actually seni from one professare all powerful, either for the pro- wish to send it, through the metection or overthrow of govern- dium of our pages, to every reader ment; and next to religion, educa

whose conscience should say to tion has the best influence in subduing the cause of popular pas- extract it from the Evangelical

him, or her-it applies to me -We sions. Religion and education combined, or a thorough and ge

Magazine. neral religious education, would render our free institutions im My dear Sir, I have long perishable. Nothing could have thought that one of the most imso benign an influence in assuag- portant services which one proing the fury of party spirit, as the fessing Christian can perform to blended influence of religion and another, is faithfully to point out education. We admit that a mea to him whatever may appear in his sure of party spirit may be useful habits or conduct at all inconsistent in a republic, if properly regu- with the Christian character. This lated; but if in the lapse of every is a kind of fidelity which, I fear, few years in our national history, is not often to be met with; but if that party spirit which should re- it were more generally exercised, semble a gentle and fertilizing and received in a proper spirit, it





would tend much to remove many as a talent committed to his trust, of those inconsistencies which we ' and which he is called to employ, find among professors, and which according to the measure in which so often fortify worldly men in the it is bestowed, for the glory of the neglect of the gospel, and cause church. them to speak reproachfully,

Now I hold that, with every You will at once, I dare say, ap- Christian, it ought to be a matter prehend that this is a preface to of serious and conscientious in. my exercising a little of that fide- quiry, Am I, as in the sight of lity which I so much approve. It God, employing the property he is; and be assured it is with no has given me, to the extent to feeling but that of the most sin- which I ought, in relieving the cere Christian regard that I ex- distresses of others, and in propress my regret at the observa- moting the interests of the Retions I have heard made, respect. deemer's kingdom? No one will ing the limited scale on which you deny that such a question every appear to contribute to advance Christian ought to put; and the the cause of the gospel, when com- plain rule of Scripture is, to give pared with your well-known ample as the Lord has prospered us. There fortune. Perhaps you say you must evidently be a proportion give privately. If you say so, I between what we give and what do not question it; and if it be' we possess; and while no express in some fair proportion to your measure of that proportion is means, it is well. But I appeal to mentioned, as the situation of inyourself, if, in this case, you do dividuals is very various, we not mistake the path of duty. should endeavour to discover, Many do not distinguish between from the whole spirit of the gosostentation and publicity when they pel, what duty, in our particular quote that text, “Do not give your circumstances, requires. I should alms to be seen of men." It is the tremble at the thought of being former, not the latter, our Lord found, on a death-bed, or at the here condemns. We are called to judgment-seat, to have retained watch over our motives, to see any part of that which I ought to that we do not give alms in order have given for the glory of God in to be seen of men. On the other the world. Were this kept in hand, publicity in acts of benevo- view by many who profess the relence is inculcated in the precept, ligion of Christ, there would be Let

your light so shine before no complaint of want of funds for men, that they, seeing your good promoting, far more extensively works, may glorify your Father than is at present done, the intewho is in heaven.” Now, how are rests of his kingdom. we to glorify God by others seeing But where one who professés our our good works, unless they really orthodox creed, and is even perdo see them? An opulent Chris- haps strenuous in the defence of tian is expressly called to set an it, is never seen to contribute, exexample of the way in which pro- cept on a very limited scale (liperty ought to be used for the glo- mited for him at least), for purry of God. Not that others are poses of Christian benevolence, not called to do so likewise. But there is far more injury done than a wealthy Christian stands on van. from the mere want of his pecutage ground. In the good provi- niary aid. It creates a prejudice dence of God, he has it much more in the minds of men against the in his power than others, by being very creed he holds. He is apt to able to do things on a larger scale, be accounted not very sincere in to show how he considers property his professed zeal for divine truth, Ch. Adv.-Vol. XI.


while that zeal does not more ef In conclusion, I would simply fectually reach his pocket. I have say I invite you to make reprisals. often heard, with regret, those You may find in me as great inwho made no particular profession consistencies, in some other things, declare they could not bear to hear- as I have endeavoured to point out such persons speak about religion, in you. If you do, I will cordi, while it was manifest it had so ally thank you to mention them. little influence on their conduct; as, Whatever unhallowed

unhallowed feelings they were plainly as much attached' might at the moment spring up to the world as those who made no (feelings to which we are all too such pretensions.

subject when any thing is presentIt is but the part of Christian ed io us in the form of reproof), I fidelity to say, that I have heard trust I shall ever consider it the these or similar remarks made in highest favour that you or any one reference to yourself. I have heard can do me, in the spirit of the them made by those who were gospel to guard me against evils connected with you in church- into which, from the deceitfulness fellowship, and in closer babits of of the heart, I am apt to be beintimacy than I am. I have told trayed. such persons what their duty was Wich the very best wishes for in such a case. But it is from you and yours, and earnestly prayhaving reason to fear that what ing that we may be directed, in they so readily expressed to others, our different spheres, in all things they had not the honesty to ex to walk so as to please God, press to yourself, that I have felt

I am, my dear Sir, it my duty to write you this letter.

Yours, &c. I have now performed, my dear sir, what from our long acquaintance I felt to be a duty, though far from a pleasant one. 'Believing that you and I are travelling to In the Evangelical Magazine for gether to the judgment-seat of October last, there is an excellent Christ, should it be found, when paper “ On the importance of inwe appear there, that you had creased prayer at the present been living in the neglect of an time.” We give the following important part of the will of the short extract, as exceedingly apJudge, and that, though I had plicable to the present state of reason to fear that this was the things in the Presbyterian and case, I had not pointed out to you Congregational churches of the the evil, I should certainly be found United States. not to have treated you with that fidelity with which it becomes one Speculation has ever been the professing Christian to act to- bane of piety. It leads to a strife wards another; there can at least of words, and excludes from our be no harm in bringing this sub- thoughts the truth of Christ. ject under your notice. If you When men plunge from the plain think I have judged severely, for- facts of revelation into the airy give me this wrong. If you knew fields of speculation-leave the the sincere Christian regard, and simplicity of the gospel for the the earnest desire that you may creations of their own fancy-Saappear at last accepted of God, by tan exults, and Zion mourns. Sawhich I am influenced in writing tan fears the cross of the Saviour, you, I am confident you could not not the speculations of the discibe offended at this communica- ples. The cross is to destroy his tion.

empire. Let us, then, arise and



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