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Letters between Mr. Wilkes, and the Rev. Mr. Horne. been talking about me; that Mr. Clerk, and had advanced Mr. Wilkes Wilkes had proposed to him that I 2001. in consideration of his services should stand for the office of Bailift of in the election, I immediately inthe Borough in cale of a vacancy, as formed Mr. Bellas that the whole was I had as good a claim to public favour a fiction; that I never had directly as Mr. Beardmore. I instantly re or indirectly conversed with Mr. plied, that I had no intention of be. Wilkes about that or any other city ing a candidate for that, or any other office. Mr. Bellas then said, I was city office; and that I would affift Mr. talking with some friends yesterday, Beardmore in his election, Not a and we all agreed you might properly word passed then, or at any other time, stand for Bailiff of the Borough ; Mr. about the office of Town Clerk. Beardmore being dead, you are the

On the sth of February last, Mr. proper person. I thanked him and my Crossley, late one of the common friends for their good wishes, and decouncil of Bithopsgate ward, came to clared that I was determined not to my house between seven and eight in stand at present for that or any other the evening, and desired to speak with city office. me; but being informed that I was Mr. Crossley will atteft that I have not at home, but in the neighbour. told the truth as far as I have used his hood, he told Mr. Baunton (who was then my clerk) that the Bailiff of the Mr. Bellas, and I trust Mr. Rix, Borough was exceedingly ill, and likely will also attest that I have told the to die, and that many friends to the truth of what passed on the 23d of cause withed that I might succeed him; March. Mr. Beardmore being dead. Mr. I have thewn this account to Mr. Baunton came to me at a gentleman's Bellas, and Mr. Crossley, so far as it house in the neighbourhvod, and re concerns them. ported Mr. Crossley's message; when I call upon the gentlemen to whom I immediately desired Mr. Baunton Mr. Horne alludes, to declare all that to thank Mr. Crossley and the other they know of any declarations of mine, friends; that I was exceedingly ob- either at the London Tavern, or any liged to hiin and them for their kind other place relative to this subject; offers ; but that I should not be a can and whenever the truth of my asserdidate for that or any other city office at tion shall be doubted by any one, expresent. I saw Mr. Crossley a day or cept the minister of New Brentford, I iwo after, and repeated the declaration will not appeal to acqaintances of to him.

yesterday, but to gentlemen who have On the 23d of March last_Mr. known me upwards of twenty years Bellas, and Mr. Rix, of the Town lait past, and that are no ways interestClerk's office, dined with me at myed in the present dispute. house at Lime-street. After dinner, Mr. Horne, in his former letter, I asked Mr. Bellas why he stayed so speaks of private favours, and his in. long in the country from public busi- clination to serve me. On a fair (ta. ness ; when he answered he came at ting of accounts, be will be obliged to haft very reluctantly, and was very admit that the balance is in my favour. unhappy to find a division amongst our If I should hereafter stand a candifriends; that he understood that Mr. date for any honorary or lucrative city Wilkes would hurt the public caufe office, all the assistance I shall with by jebbing the city; for that Mr. Horne from Mr. Horne is, that he will take and Mr. Aldermen Townsend had been a part against me, as the best recom. down with him lately at his house at mendation to my fellow-citizens. Farnham, and told him that Mr. Heaton Wilkes was to be Chamberlain Lime-street, Saturday, of London; that I was to be Town June 1, 1771. John REYNOLDS.

The

The First Elements of the ENGLISH CONSTITUTION. By JAMES

MACPHERSON, Esq; Tinducean the writers of Roine to "HE want of information, which Sarmatic Gothones on the Vistula,

were distinguished by their obedience remove the northern limits of ancient to Kings. Germany to the Pole, was a source of It is however certain, that the Mo. error to the learned of modern times. narchs of the Scandinavian Sarmiatæ The latter have extended the general lost their influence in the progreslive character of the Celtic Nations between migrations of their Subjects towards the Rhine and the Elbe, to the inha- the South. The Goths and Vandals, bitants of Scandinavia and the shores the undoubted Ancestors of the moof the Baltic. In vain have the wild dern English, were remarkable for Nations of the North advanced into their attachment to civil Liberty. Tho' the Southern Europe with positive the Crown was hereditary in certain proofs of their own Sarmatic origin: families though their Princes vaunted Men of letters have chosen to inake their descent from Odin, the first of the n Celtæ; and Celtæ, in spite of all the Gods, their power, and even the evidence to the contrary, they must possession of their dignity, depended remain. To differ from the learned, upon the general assembly of the Peoin this point, is neither precipitate ple, whole resolutions they were al. nor presumptuous. The Ancients ways obliged to carry into execution. give no countenance to their opinion; In expedition and war the King was and the unmixed pofterity of those respected; but deftitute of the power Nations, who overwhelmed the Em- of inflicting any punishment upon the pire of the West, argue against them disobedient, his authoriiy was nugawith all the force of language, man. tory. With war the reverence of his ners, and government. To the origin person was at an end. Indignity was of the latter we mall at present con added to his want of consequence and fine our inquiries.

power; the meanest of his Subjects The Scandinavians in the days of lat with him at table, joined in his Tacitus, were subject to absolute Mo- conversation, uled him with contempt, narchy. They were a commercial Peo- and disgraced him with scurrility. ple. 'Established property had attached The Kings of the Goths, a nation them to fixed abodes.

Wealth was descended from the same stock with the honoured among them, and they ac- Saxons, enjoyed no honour, and met quiesced under the unlimited despotism with no respect. The rabble being by of one. Secured by their fituation the strength of established custom, ad from foreign enemies, their domestic mitted to the entertainments of the fpirit declined. They suffered them- Prince, the unhappy man, instead of selves to be difarmed by their Princes; being treated with the reverence due to and thus the tyranny of Asia, in the his rank, was often obliged to purabsence of iis luxury, prevailed under chase with presents a decency of bethe Pole. The Sitones of Norway haviour from his barbarous guests. were even more abject than their Bre. This specious of rude liberty dege. thren to the East of the mountains of nerated sometimes into licence in the Sevo. They not only degenerated extreme. Barbarians who used such from Liberty, but even from Slavery freedoms with their Prince, must naItself: They submitted to the Govern- turally have a contempt for his char. ment of Women, and added disgrace acter and authority. They sometimos to servitude. This attachment to here- perfecuted him to death itself, for no dirary fuccellion continued among the other cause but that they were deterColonies which Scandinavia established mined to submit to the commands of to the South of the Baltic. The none. He was expelled from his throne Rugij, the Lemovij, all the Vandals upon every frivolous and unjuft prefroin the Ise of Rugen to the German tence.----Should they happen to be Ocein, as well as their Brethren the unsuccessful in war; should the in. VOL. VI.

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Vulgar Errors in Natural Hiftory, correated. clemency of the season fail, the un- fines imposed upon petty offenders. happy Monarch was degraded from his The Prince and his affeffors formed the dignity, and became the victim of dif- lesser assembly; and differences beappointment and injustice. He was tween individuals were heard and de.. answerable for the fate of battles in termined before them. which he was not obeyed; and, though Traitors against the State, and de. deltitute of authority among men, be serters to an enemy, were tried among the was punished for not having the power old Germans before the general assemof a God over the weather.

bly of the People, and, upon convicThe Northern Germans had two ar tion, hanged. .Cowards and men of femblies for the management of their infamous lives were drowned under foreign and domestic affairs. The hurdles, in stagnant and muddy poois. greater assembly consisting of the body The Laws of the ancient Saxons on of the People for matters of Itate : The the Continent were particularly severe Jeffer composed of the Prince and his against incontinence and adultery, affessors, for the administration of juf Should a Virgin in her Father's houle, tice. Every man of perfect age, and or a married Woman in that of her without any distinction of degree, had Husband, be guilty of incontinence, a voice at this general convention. The the was either itrangled by her relations multitude came completely armed, and in private, and her body burnt, or the all had a right to deliver their senti was delivered over to a species of pubments with the utmost freedom. Al- lic punishment the most ignominious liances were made, wars resolved up and cruel. Cut short of her clothing on, treaties of peace concluded, in by the waist, the was whipped from the great assembly; whose power ex- village to yillage by ancient Matrons, tended also to capital punishments for who at the faine time, pricked her offences against the itate.

body with knives till the expired under The general assembly of the People their hands. Virtue, in this case de. elected annually one hundred out of generated into unpardonable barbarity. their own number to attend the person -They animadverted upon petty ofof the Prince, and to serve as his af fenders with flighter punishments: A feflors when he fat in judgment. These fine in cattle, proportioned to the de. gave weight to his decisions, and en gree of the offence, was levied by the forced his decrees. They sat at his authority of the King and his afferfors table, accompanied him in his pro- upon the delinquent; even homicide grefs : They were his guard in peace, itself was expiated by a certain mula his protection in war. To suppört the payable to the Prince and the relations expence of entertaining these constant of the person blain. Such were the attendants of his presence he received rude eleinents which time has improved from the People a voluntary and free into the present Constitution of Eng. gift of cattle and corn, and he also lish Government. derived a kind of revenue from the

Vulgar Errors in NATURAL HISTORY, corrected.

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I. THAT the Scorpion does not-De la Lande's Travels, Napels, Atby fire, and that its iting is not even prince of San Severo. venomous.---Keyller's Travels, Mau III. That the lizard is not friendly pertui, Hughes's Barbadoes, Hamil. to man in particular, much less does ton's Letter in the Philofophical Tranf- it awaken him on the approach of a actions.

Terpent.-Hughes's Barbadoes, Brook's II. That the taranula is not poison. Natural History. ous, and that music has no parti. IV. That the remora has no such cular effect on perions bitten by it, power as to retard the tailing of a thip more than on thule sung by a wasp.

by

Ar extraordinary Cure of the Gout.

251 by ficking itself

to its bottom.-De ones off at the time of molting: la Lande, alii paffim.

Hughes, & alii passim. V. That the stroke of the cramp X. The Jack-all, commonly called fish is not occasioned by a muscle.--Ban- the lion's provider, has no connection croft's Guiana concerning the torpori- at all with the lion. He is a sort of fic Eel.

fox, and is hunted in the East, as the VI. That the salamander does not fox is with us.-Shaw, Sandys. live in fire, nor is it capable of bear XI. The fable of the fox and grapes ing more heat than other animals.-Sir is taught us from our childhood, withT. Brown suspected it, Keyfler has out our ever reflecting, that the foxes clearly proved it.

we are acquainted with do not eat VII. That the bite of the spider is grapes. This fable came from the not venomous. Reaumur..That it is East; the fox of Palestine is a great found in Ireland too plentifully: That destroyer of grapes.--V. Hasselquist, it has no antipathy to the toad. Bar- Shaw. rington's Letter, Philosophical Trans XII. The eye of birds is not more actions, &c. Swammerdam.

agile than that of other animals, tho' VIII. It is an error to suppose that their sight is more quick. On the a fly only has a microscopic eye. contrary, their eye is quite immoves Dragon-fies, &c. bees, wasps, Aeih- able, as is that of most animals and flies, &c. will turn off and avoid an infects of the quickest fight.-British object in the way on the swiftest wings Zoology, &c. which thews a very quick and com XIII. The tyger, instead of being manding fight. It is probable, that the swiftest of beasts, is a remarkably the fight of all animals is, in quickness fluggish and flow animal.-Owen's dicand extent, proportioned to their tionary in verbo. Experiment at speed.

Windsor-lodge. IX. The porcupine does not shoot XIV. Sir Thomas Brown, who wrote out his quills for annoying his enemy; against Vulgar Errors, maintains that he only theds them annually, as other apes and elephants may be taught to feathered animals do. He has a mul- . speak. cular skin, and can Make the loose

An extraordinary Cure of the GOUT. By Dr. Clerke, from the Edinburgh

NEW ESSAYS.

William Richardson, footman to a firely gone before that time; and that Atrong man, and now aged fifty-five, streight from the pickle, without was seized with the Gout about twenty walhing them, and to roast them. He years ago. For the first eight or nine accordingly followed the prescription, years, he had a fit of it once every and the firit time he was seized with year in the Spring, which used to last the Gout, that he might make sure of above a mouth. After that, he was success, he eat three whole herrings at told by some body, that he might free bed-time, after the method prescribed, himself of the Gout, if he would, at and next morning was so well, as to be its first appearance, eat one or more able to go abroad about his business; Lalted herrings at bed time, by way of nor did he fand in need a second fupper, and taste no other food or night of the pure at that time. Every drink that night;, that one herring year fince, he has followed the same would cure a flight fit; but that, if method, eating three herrings at bedthe fit was very severe, it would re time, when the fit attacked him; and, quire two or three; that this hould when he did it at the beginning of the be continued for three night fuccef- fit, he was always well next day; but lively, if the Gout thould not be en. if he allowed the fit to go on for some

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A new Description of Canton aud the Chinese. days, it obliged him to have recourse and of his memory; but, by the use to the herrings for three nights run of some medicines, and a feton in his ning; however he was always sure of neck, he was perfelily recovered bebeing well in three days at most. fore the time of the Gout's returning The nights on which he took the re upon him next Spring. This present medy, he wrapt his feet in flannel, and year, his health has been very good, they sweated. As the distress for want though he had no fit of the Gout last of drink was excessive in the night, he Spring, as usual, which is the first used to chew some hay or straw, with tiine he has missed it these twenty a view to lessen the violence of his years. I never knew above one or thirit. Ever since he began this me two other people who tricd this me-, thod of cure, he has had very good thod of cure; but, as they had not health through the rest of the year, fortitude enough to withstand the vioexcept the first year. For, having lence of the thirst, and were obliged been inuch hurt by a fall from a tree to quench it with drink in the night, that year, viz. in summer 1750, he it did not answer. loft much of his strength, of his right,

A new Description of CANTON and the CHINESE. By Peter OSBECK,

a Disciple of the celebrated LINNÆUS. OTH the old and the new city Englishman, during my ftay. It is

. in latter is not fortified: The old town, or nine pounders; at leaft it is cerwhich has been built many centuries, tain, that at eight o'clock at night their has high walls and several gates : Each report is heard. I had no opportunity gate has a fentinel, in order that no

of measuring the circuit of the city, European may get in, except under but it seemed about fix miles three particular circumitances, with the leave quarters English, of people of note; in this case you The suburbs of Canton (in which are carried into the city in a covered tley Europeans live during the time chair, and thus you do not get a fight they trade there) are much greater than of any thing worth notice in the place, the fortified city. Three fourths of this fortified town The streets are long, seldom 1trait, a. (which, as we are told, is inhabited bout a fathom wide, paved with oblong on one side by the Tartars, on the sand-Itones without any gutters. The other by Chinese) is surrounded by stones are full of holes, that the water the suburbs. On the outside of that may run off; for at least part of the part of the city which is open to the town is built on piles.--No carriage country, is a fine walk between the is to be met with in the city; and wall and the ditch. The plantations whatever is brought from one place to begin close to the ditchies; they are anothier, such as hogs, ducks, frogs, inoftly on low grounds, contain all fails, roots, greens, &c. is all care sorts of greens, roots and rice as far ried on men's shoulders in two baskets, as you can see. The dry hills serve for hanging on the extremities of a pole. burying-places, and pastures for cat Living fith were carried about in tle. The city wall consists of hewn buckets : The Chinese keep them in fand stones, is covered with all sorts of the following manner :-The fith are little trees and plants, viz. ficus Indica, are put into large water vesels in the urrica niuca, &c. and on the top of streets, but each veilel stands under a them are sentry boxes; however, the spout which comes out of the wall, watch is so ill observed, that Itrangers out of which the water runs conti. passing by are often welcomed with nually, but slowly, upon the fish : And such a volley of ttones that their lives for this reason they were always to be we endangered; as happened to an got quite as freih as if they lind been

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