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Duke of Venice.
BRABANTIO, a Senator.
Two other Senators.
GRATIANO, Brother to Brabantio.
LODOVICO, Kinsman to Brabantio.
OTHELLO, the Moor.
CASSIO, his Lieutenant.
IAGO, his Ancient.
RODERIGO, a Venetian Gentleman.
MONTANO, Governor of Cyprus.
Clown, Servant to Othello.

DESDEMONA, Daughter to Brabantio, and Wife to Othello.
EMILIA, Wife to Iago.
BIANCA, a Courtesan, Mistress to Cassio.

Officers, Gentlemen, Messengers, Musicians, Sailors,

Attendants, &c.

SCENE, for the first Act, in Venice; during the rest of the

Play, at a Sea-Port in Cyprus.

1 An incomplete list of " The names of the Actors" is inserted at the end of the tragedy in the folio, 1623. In the corr. fo. 1632 some descriptive particulars are added in MS.; the only one of importance being, that Bianca is there called not merely “a courtesan,” but “a courtesan of Venice," which may be said to settle the dispute between Tyrwhitt, Henley, Steevens, Malone, &c., whether Bianca had, or had not, followed Cassio from Italy to Cyprus.




Venice. A Street.

Enter RODERIGO and Iago.

Rod. Tush! never tell me', I take it much unkindly,
That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse,
As if the strings were thine, shouldst know of this.
Iago. 'Sblood! but


will not hear me: If ever I did dream of such a matter, abhor me.

Rod. Thou told'st me thou didst hold him in thy hate.

Iago. Despise me, if I do not. Three great ones of the city, In personal suit to make me his lieutenant, Oft capp'd to him’; and, by the faith of man, I know my price; I am worth no worse a place : But he, as loving his own pride and purposes, Evades them, with a bombast circumstance, Horribly stuff'd with epithets of war; And, in conclusion", Nonsuits my mediators; “For certes,” says he, “I have already chose my officer.” And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician, One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,

| Tush! never tell me,] The folio, 1623, omits the interjection, " Tush,” as well as “ 'Sblood” three lines lower down.

? OFT capp'd to him ;) So the 4tos : the folio, “ Off capp'd to him.”

3 And, in conclusion,] These words, which no doubt were Shakespeare's, are omitted in the folio, 1623. We regulate the lines as in the 4to, 1622: the 4to, 1630, is like the folio in this respect.

A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;
That never set a squadron in the field,
Nor the division of a battle knows
More than a spinster; unless the bookish theoric,
Wherein the togued consuls can propose
As masterly as he: mere prattle, without practice,
Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had th' election ;
And I,--of whom his eyes had seen the proof,
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds,
Christian and heathen,-must be be-lee'd and calm'd
By debtor and creditor, this counter-caster:
He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,
And I, (God bless the mark !) his Moorship's anciento

Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his hangman.

Iago. But there's no remedy: 'tis the curse of service,
Preferment goes by letter, and affection”,
Not by the old gradation, where each second
Stood heir t'the first. Now, sir, be judge yourself,
Whether I in any just term am affin'd®
To love to Moor.

I would not follow him, then.
Iago. Oh, sir! content you;
I follow him to serve my turn upon him:
We cannot all be masters, nor all masters


* A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;] It appears by a subsequent part of the play (A. iv. sc. I) that the belief was that Cassio was about to be married to Bianca. This line has occasioned a good deal of controversy, and various conjectures have been hazarded : Tyrwhitt would read life for “wife;" but the text is most likely right.

unless the bookish THEORIC, Wherein the toGUED consuls] “Theoric” is the same as theory, and the word was not uncommonly so used. The folio misprints "toged" of the 4to, 1622, tongued, as in “ Coriolanus,” Vol. iv. p. 647, it had misprinted “togue,' tongue. “Togued,” of course, refers to the toga, or robe, which the consuls, or councillors, of Venice officially wore.

6 And I, (God bless the mark !) his MOORSHIP's ancient.] The Master of the Revels having perhaps objected to the exclamation, “God bless the mark !” the line was left imperfect in the folio, where it stands, “And I (bless the mark) has Moorship’s ancient.” The 4to, 1630, interpolated “Sir," to complete the measure : the 4to, 1622, has “(God bless the mark !)" but misprints “Moorship's,” Worship’s.

7 Preferment goes by LETTER, and affection,] “Letter" is erased in the corr. fo. 1632, and favour substituted in the margin ; but inasmuch as "letter" affords a distinct sense, we continue the old text.

- am affin'd] The 4to, 1622, has assign'd. For “affin'd,” (the reading of the folio, and of the 4to, 1630) see “Troilus and Cressida," A. i. sc. 3, Vol. iv. p. 494, where it means joined by affinity. See also this play, A. ii. sc. 3.


Cannot be truly follow’d. You shall mark
Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave,
That, doting on his own obsequious bondage,
Wears out his time, much like his master's ass,
For nought but provender; and when he's old, cashier'd :
Whip me such honest knaves. Others there are,
Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty',
Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves,
And, throwing but shows of service on their lords,
Do well thrive by them; and when they have lin'd their coats,
Do themselves homage: these fellows have some soul;
And such a one do I profess myself.
For, sir,
It is as sure as you are Roderigo,
Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago:
In following him, I follow but myself;
Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,
But seeming so, for my peculiar end :
For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart
In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
For daws to peck at'. I am not what I am.

Rod. What a full fortune' does the thick-lips owe,
If he can carry't thus !

Call up her father;
Rouse him: make after him, poison his delight,
Proclaim him in the streets : incense her kinsmen;
And though he in a fertile climate dwell,
Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy,

o Who, TRIMM'd in forms and visages of duty,] We do not here alter the lection of the old copies, but we may remark that in the corr. fo. 1632 the line is amended as follows:

“ Who learn'd in forms and usages of duty." In “Troilus and Cressida,” A. iv. sc. 4, Vol. iv. p. 558, visage is misprinted for "usage." If alteration were necessary, we might be disposed to read,

“Who train'd in forms and usages of duty;" but on the whole we consider change inexpedient, since the meaning of the poet is transparent, and he may have intended " visages,” here, as the antithesis to "hearts," in the next line.

· For Daws to peck at.] So the folio : the 4to, doves : the 4to, 1630, like the folio, has "daws."

2 What a Full fortune] The folio misprints “full,fall; but both the 4tos. read “full," and in “Cymbeline,” A. v. sc. 4, we have the expression "full fortune," and in " Antony and Cleopatra," A. iv. sc. 13, “ full fortun'd.”

Yet throw such changes of vexation on't,
As it may lose some colour.

Rod. Here is her father's house : I'll call aloud.

Iago. Do; with like timorous accent", and dire yell,
As when, by night and negligence, the fire
Is spied in populous cities.

Rod. What ho! Brabantio ! signior Brabantio, ho !
Iago. Awake! what, ho! Brabantio ! thieves ! thieves !

thieves !
Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags !
Thieves ! thieves !

Enter BRABANTIO, above at a window.
Bra. What is the reason of this terrible summons ?
What is the matter there?

Rod. Signior, is all your family within ?
Iago. Are your doors lock’d'?

Why? wherefore ask you this? Iago. 'Zounds, sir! you are robb’d; for shame, put on your

gown ;
Your heart is burst, you have lost half your

soul :
Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise !
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you.
Arise, I say.

Bra. What! have you lost your wits?
Rod. Most reverend signior, do you know my voice?
Bra. Not I: what are you?
Rod. My name is Roderigo.

The worse welcome :
I have charg'd thee not to haunt about my doors.



3 Yet throw such CHANGES) The folio has chances, the 4tos, 1622 and 1630

changes,” which in all probability is the true reading; and in the corr. fo. 1632 chances is altered to “changes."

- with like TIMOROUS accent,] Here we have little doubt that clamorous (the word in the corr. fo. 1632) was the language of Shakespeare; but he may, nevertheless, have used "timorous,” in reference to the terror produced by the outbreak of fire : “clamorous accent, and dire yell” seem to agree much better together, than " timorous accent, and dire yell.”

• Are your doors lock’d?] The 4to, 1630, is like the folio here: the 4to, 1622, reads, “ Are all doore lockts ?" and not, as Steevens incorrectly states, “ Are all doors lock'd?"

6 The WORSE welcome:] In the folio only, “The worser welcome.”

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