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Rhetorick, Logick, and Metaphyficks,
C С Ornelius having (as hath been said) many ways been
disappointed in his attempts of improving the bodily Forces of his son, thought it now high time to apply to the Culture of his Internal faculties. He judged it proper, in the first place, to instruct him in Rhetorick. But herein we shall not need to give the Reader any account of his wonderful progress, since it is already known to the learned world by his Treatise on this subject : I mean the admirable Discourse 11:çà Bubbe, which he wrote at this time, but concealed from his Father, knowing his extremne partiality for the Ancients. It lay by him concealed, and perhaps forgot among the great multiplicity of other Writings, till, about the year 1727, he sent it us to be printed, with many additional examples drawn from the excellent live Poets of this present age. We proceed therefore to Logick and Metaphyficks.
The wise Cornelius was convinced, that these being Polemical Arts, could no more be learned alone, than Fencing or Cudgel-playing. He thought it therefore necessary to look out for some Youth of pregnant parts, to be a sort of humble Companion to his son in those ftudies. His good fortune directed him to one of the moft fingular endowments, whose name was Conradus Crambe, who, by the father's fide was related to the Crouches of Cambridge, and his Mother was Cousin to Mr. Swan, Gamester and Punfter of the City of Lon. don. So that from both parents he drew a natural dis. position to sport himself with Words, which as they are said to be the counters of wise Men, and ready-money of Fools, Crambe had great store of cash of the latter fort. Happy Martin in such a Parent, and such a Com
panion! What might not he atchieve in Arts and Sciences.
Here I must premise a general observation of great behefit to mankind. That there are many people who have the use only of one Operation of the Intellect, tho' like Short-fighted men, they can hardly discover it themfelves : they can form single apprehensions *, but have neither of the other two faculties, the judicium or discursuş. Now as it is wisely ordered, that people deprived of one sense have the others in more perfection, such people will form single Ideas with a great deal of vivacity; and happy were it indeed if they could confine themselves to such, without forming judicia, much less argumentations.
Conelius quickly discovered, that these two laft operations of the inteilect were very weak in Martin, and alınost totally extinguished in Crambe; however he used to say, that Rules of Logick are Spectacles to a purblind understanding, and therefore he resolved to proceed with his two Pupils.
Martin's understanding was so totally immersed in fensible objects, that he demanded examples from Material things of the abstracted Ideas of Logick’: as for Crambe, he contented himself with the Words, and when he eould but form some conceit upon them, was fully satisfied. Thus Crambe would tell his Instructor, that All men were not fingular ; that Individuality could hardly be predicated of any man, for it was commonly said, that a man is not the same he was; that madmen are beside themfelves, and drunken men come to themselves ; which fhows, that few men have that most valuable logical ent dowment, Individuality t. Cornelius told Martin that a
. When a learned Friend once urged to our Author the Authority of a iomous Dictionary - maker againlt the Latinity of the expression amor pub? tres, which he liąd used in an inscription, he replied, chat he would allowa Dizionary-maker to understand a single word, but not two words put to
Zut if it be possible for the same man to have distinct incommunicable
Shoulder of mutton was an individual, which Crambe denied, for he had seen it cut into commons; That's true (quoth the Tutor) but you never saw it cut into shoulders of mutton : If it could (quoth Crambe) it would be the most lovely individual of the University. When he was told, a substance was that which was subječt to accidents; then Soldiers (quoth Crambe) are the most substantial people in the world. Neither would he allow it to be a good definition of accident, that it could be present or abfent without the destruction of the subject; since there are a great many accidents that destroy the subject, as burning does a house, and death a man, But as to that, Cornelius informed him, that there was a natural death, and a logical death; that tho' a' man, after his natural death, was not capable of the least parish office, yet ho might still keep his Stall amongst the logical predicaments.
Cornelius was forced to give Martin sensible images. Thus, calling up the Coachman, he asked him what he had seen in the Bear-garden ? the man answered, he saw twe men fight for a prize; one was a fair man, a Serjeant in the Guards; the other black, a Butcher; the Ser jeant had red Breeches, the Butcher blue; they fought upon a stage about four o'clock, and the Serjeant wounded the Butcher in the Leg, “ Mark (quoth Cornelius) “ how the fellow runs through the predicaments, Men,,
fubftantia; two, quantitas ; fair and black, qualitas; “Serjeant and Butcher, relatio ; wounded the other, 66. a£tio et paffio; fighting, situs ; stage, ubi; two o'clock, “ quando; blue and red Breeches, habitu," At the same time he warned Martin, that what he now learned as a
* consciousness at different times, it is without doubt the same man would,
at different times, make different perfons. Which we see is the sense of “ mankind in not punishing the madman for the fober man's actions, nor “ the fober man for what the madman did, thereby making them iwo per. “ fons ; which is somewhat explained by our way of speaking in English, " when they say such an one is not bimself, or is beside biwfelf" Lock's Ejag on Hum. Ur.derje. B. ii. c. 27,
Logician, he must forget as a natural Philosopher; that though he now taught them that accidents inhered in the subject, they would find in time there was no such thing; and that colour, taste, smell, heat and cold were not in the things, but only phantasms of our brains. He was forced to let them into this fecret, for Martin could not conceive how a habit of dancing inhered in a dancing master, when he did not dance; nay, he would demand the Characteristicks of Relations. Crambe used to help him out, by telling him, a Cuckold, a lofing gamefter, a man that had not dined, a young heir that was kept short by his father, might be all known by their countenance; that, in this laft case, the Paternity and Filiation leave very sensible impressions in the relatum and correlatum. The greatest difficulty was when they came to the Tenth predicament. Crambe affirmed that his habisus was more a substance than he was; for his cloaths could better subsist without him, than he without his cloaths.
Martin supposed an Universal Man to be like a Knight of a Shire or a Burgess of a Corporation, that represented a great many Individuals. His father asked him, if he could not frame the idea of an Universal Lord Mayor ? Martin told him, that, never having seen but one Lord Mayor, the Idea of that Lord Mayor always returned to his mind, that he had great difficulty to abstract a Lord Mayor from his Fur Gown, and Gold Chain; nay, that the horse he saw the Lord Mayor ride upon not a little disturbed his imagination. On the other hand, Crambe, to show himself of a more penetrating genius, swore that he could frame a Conception of a Lord Mayor not only without his Horse, Gown, and Gold Chain, but even without Stature, Feature, Colour, Hands, Feet, or any Body; which he supposed was the abstract of a Lord Mayor *. Cornelius told him, that he was a lying
* This is not a fair representation of what is said in the Ejay of Hum. Urdei fr. concerning general and wbforost ideas. But serious writers have done char Philofopher the same injustice.
Rascal; that an Universale was not the object of imagination, and that there was no such thing in reality, or a parte Rei. But I can prove (quoth Crambe) that there are Clusters a parte Rei, but Clyfters are universales ; ergo. Thus I prove my Minor. Quod aptum eft inesse multis, is an uniVersale by definition : but every clyfter before it is administered has that quality ; therefore every clyster is an universale.
He also found fault with the Advertisements, that they were not strict logical definitions : In an advertisement of a Dog stolen or strayed, he said it ought to begin thus, An irrational animal of the Genus Caninum, &c. Cornelius told them, that though those advertisements were not framed according to the exact rules of logical definitions, being only descriptions of things numero differentibus, yet they contained a faint image of the prædicabilia, and were highly subservient to the common purposes of life; often discovering things that were loft, both animate and inanimate. An Italian Greyhound, of a mouse colour, a white speck in the neck, lame of one leg, belongs to such a Lady. Greyhound, genus; mouse-coloured, etc. differentia; lame of one leg, accidens ; belongs to such a Lady, proprium.
Though I am afraid I have transgressed upon my Reader's patience already, I cannot help taking notice of one thing more extraordinary than any yet mentioned; which was Crambe's Treatise on Syllogisms. He supposed that a Philosopher's brain was like a great Forest, where Ideas ranged like animals of several kinds; that thofe Ideas copulated, and engendered Conclusions; that when those of different Species copulate, they bring forth monsters or absurdities; that the Major is the male, the Minor the female, which copulate by the Middle Term, and engender the Conclusion. Hence they are called the præmiffa, or Predecessors of the Conclusion; and it is properly faid by the Logicians, quod pariant scientiam opinionen, they beget science, opinion, &c. Universal Propositions are Persons of quality; and therefore in Logick Vol. III