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II The Magnifying, and
We cannot avoid giving to these the Greek or Roman Names; but in tenderness to our countrymen and fellowwriters, many of whom, however exquisite, are wholly ignorant of those languages, we have also explained them in our mother-tongue.
I. Of the first sort, nothing so much conduces to the Bathos, as the
Mow the Beard,
From whence results the same kind of pleasure to the mind as to the eye, when we behold Harlequin trimming himself with a hatchet, hewing down a tree with a razor, making his tea in a cauldron, and brewing his ale in a tea-pot, to the incredible satisfaction of the British spectator. Another source of the Bathos is,
The MetOnYMY, the inversion of Causes for Effects, of Inventors for In. ventions, &c.
«6 Lac'd in her * Cosins new appear'd the bride, “ A + Bubble-boy and Tompion at her side, « And with an air divine her || Colmar ply'd : “ Then oh! she cries, what slaves I round me fee? “ Here a bright Redcoat, there a smart s. Toupee.'
The SYNÉCDOCHE, which consists, in the use of a part for the whole. You
Stays. + Tweez r-case. # Watch.
| Fan. § A sort of Perriwig: All words for uce in this present Year 1727. Vol. III.
may call a young woman sometimes Pretty-face and Pigs-eyes, and sometimes Snotty-nese and Draggle-tail. Or of Accidents for Persons ; as a Lawyer is called Split-cause, a Taylor Prick-louse, &c. Or of things belonging to a man, for the man himself; as a Sword man, a Gown-man, a T-m-T-d-man; a White-staff, a Turn-key, &c.
The APOSTOPESIS. An excellent figure for the Ignorant, as, “ What shall “ I say?" when one has nothing to say: or, “I can “ no more,” when one really can no more. Expresfions which the gentle reader is so good as never to take in earnest.
The METAPHOR. The first rule is to draw it from the lowest things, which is a certain way to sink the highest ; aś when you speak of the Thunder of Heaven,' say,
* 66 The Lords above are angry and talk big." · If you would describe a rich man refunding his treasures, express it thus, + “ Tho' he (as faid) may Riches gorge, the Spoil
- Painful in maly Vomit shall recoil,
The fecond, that, whenever you start a Metaphor, you
must be sure to run it down, and pursue it as far as it can go. If you get the scent of a State-négociation, follow it in this manner :
" The stones and all the elements with thee
“ Shall ratify a strict confederacy; « Wild beasts their savage temper shall forget, " And for a firm alliance with thee treat;
s. The finny tyrant of the spacious seas
Or, if you represent the Creator denouncing war against the wicked, be sure not to omit one circumstance usual in proclaiming and levying war. * « Envoys and Agents, who by my command
66' Reside in Palestina's land,
mafter's name : “ Ye pioneers of heaven, prepare a road, " Make it plain, direct and broad; " For I in person will my people head;
" For the divine deliverer " Will on his march in majesty appear, 66 And needs the aid of no confed’rate power."
Under the article of the Confounding, we rank.
1. The MIXTURE OF FIGURES, which raises so many images, as to give you no image at all. But its principal beauty is when it gives an idea just opposite to what it seemed meant to describe : Thus an ingenious artist painting the Spring; talks of a snow of blossoms, and thereby raises an unexpected picture of Win
Of this fort is the following: + " The gaping clouds pour lakes of sulphur down,
“ Whose livid flashes fickning sun-beams drown.'
What a noble Confufion? clouds, lakes, brimstone, flames, sun-beams, gaping, pouring, fickning, drowning! all in two lines.
* Blackm. Ifa. c. xl.
+ Pr. Arthur, p. 37.
2. The JARGON. * “ Thy head shall rise, tho' buried in the dust,
“ And 'midst the clouds his glittering turrets thruft."
Quære, What are the glittering turrets of a man's head? + Upon the shore, as frequent as the sand,
“ To meet the Prince, the glad Dimetians stand."
Quere, Where these Dimetians stood and of what size they were ? Add also to the Jargon such as the following.
66 Destruction's empire shall no longer last,
66 And Desolation lie for ever waste.” Il “ Here Niobe, sad mother, makes her moan,
66 And seems converted to a stone in stone."
But, for Variegation, nothing is more useful than
3. The PARANOMASIA, or Pun, where a Word, like the tongue of a jack-daw, speaks twice
as much by being split : As this of Mr. Dennis sa
“ Bullets that wound, like Parthians, as they fly." or this excellent one of Mr. Welfted +,
“ Behold the Virgin lie, “ Naked, and only cover'd by the Sky." To which thou may'st add,
" To see her beauties no man needs to stoop, “ She has the whole Horizon for her hoop."
4. The ANTITHESIS, or SEE-SAW, wherehy Contraries and Oppositions are balanced in such a way, as to cause a reader to remain suspended between
* Job, p. 107.
+ Pr. Arthur, p. 137. ll T. Cook's Poems.
$ Poems, 1063, p. 13. + Welsted's Poems, Acon and Lavin.
# Job, p. 89.
them, to his exceeding delight and recreation. Such are these, on a lady who made herself appear out of size, by hiding a young princess under her cloaths. * “ While the kind nymph changing her faultless shape
“ Becomes unhandsome, handsomely to 'scape.”
On the Maids of Honour in mourning. t “ Sadly they charm, and dismally they please.”
I “ His eyes so bright 66 Let in the object, and let out the light.” 0 “ The Gods look pale to see us look so red."
ş " The Fairies and their Queen - In mantles blue came tripping o'er the green. + " All nature felt a reverential shock,
66 The sea stood ftill to see the mountains rock.'
C H A P. XI.
The Figures continued : Of the magnifying and Di
Genuine Writer of the Profund will take care never
to magnify any object without clouding it at the same time: His Thought will appear in a true mift, and very unlike what is in nature. It must always be remembered that Darkness is an essential quality of the Profund;; or, if there chance to be a glimmering, it must be as Milton expresses it,
“ No light, but rather darkness visible.” The chief Figure of this sort is,
+ Steel on Queen Mary. Quarles.
§ Phil. Paft, * Blackm. Job, p. 176.
J Lee, Alex,