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Here is a waving sea of heads, which, by a fresh stream of heads, grows to be a gazing deluge 'of heads. You come at last to find, it means a great crowd. How pretty and how genteel is the following ?
* 3 Nature's confectioner,
" Whose suckets are moist alchemy :
“ Minting the garden into gold.” What is this but a Bee gathering honey?
+ « Little Syren of the stage,
“ Empty warbler, breathing lyre, :;:
« Tuneful mischief, vocal spell.” Who would think this was only a poor gentlewoman that sung finely..
We may define Amplification to be making the most of a Thought; it is the Spinning-wheel of the Bathos, which draws out and spreads it in the fincft thread.
There are Amplifiers who can extend half a dozen thin thoughts over a whole Folio; but for which, the tale of many a vast Romance, and the substance of many a fair volume, might be reduced into the size of a primmer.
In the book of Job are these words, “ Haft thou « commanded the morning, and caused the day-spring to “ know his place ?" How is this extended by the most celebrated Amplifier of our age ?
- Can'ft thou set forth th'ethereal mines on high,
† A. Phillips to Cuzzona.
| Job, p. 108.
'. The same author hath amplified a passage in the civth Pfalm; “ He looks on the earth, and it trembles. He " touches the hills and they smoke.”
“ The hills forget they are fix'd, and in their flight ", Caft off their weight, and ease themselves for flight: " The woods, with terror wing’d, outfly the wind, « And leave the heavy panting hills behind.”
You here see the hills not only trembling, but shaking off the woods from their backs, to run the faster :. After this you are presented with a foot-race of mountains and woods, where the woods distance the mountains, that like corpulent pursy fellows, come puffing and panting a vaft way behind them.
CH A P. IX.
Of Imitation, and the Manner of imitating.
THAT the true authors of the Profund are to imitate
diligently the examples in their own way, is not to be questioned, and that divers have by this means attained to a depth whereunto their own weight could never have carried them, is evident by sundry instances. Who fees not that De Foe was the poetical fon of Withers, Tate of Ogilby, E. Ward of John Taylor, and E-n of Blackmore? Therefore, when we sit down to write, let us bring some great author to our mind, and ask ourselves this question; How would Sir Richard have said this? Do I express myself as simply as Amb. Philips? Or flow my numbers with the quiet thoughtlessness of Mr. Welited. ,
But it may seem somewhat strange to affert, that our Proficient should also read the works of those famous
S Job, p. 267
Poets who have excelled in the Sublime: Yet is not this a paradox? As Virgil is faid to have read Ennius, out of his dunghill to draw gold, fo may our author read Shakespear, Milton, and Dryden, for the contrary end, to bury their gold in his own dunghilt. A true Genius when he finds any thing lofty or shining in them, will have the fkill to bring it down, take off the gloss, or quite discharge the colour, by some ingenious circumstance or Periphrafe, some addition or diminution, or by some of those Figures, the use of which we fhall shew in our next chapter.
The book of Job is acknowledged to be infinitely fublime, and yet has not the father of the Bathos reduced it in every page? Is there a paffage in all Virgil more painted up and laboured than the defcription of Ætna in the third Æneid?
“ Horrificis juxta tonat Ætna ruinis, “ Interdumque atram prorumpit ad æthera nubem, “ Turbine fumantem piceo, et candente favilla, * Attollitque globos flammarum, et sidera lambit. « Interdum scopulos avulsaque viscera montis “ Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras “ Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exæftuat imo.”
(I beg pardon of the gentle English reader, and such of our writers as understand not Latin.) Lo ! how this is taken down by our British Poet, by the single happy thought of throwing the mountain into a fit of the colic.
*“ Ætna, and all the burning mountains, find
" Their kindled ftores with inbred ftorms of wind
. Pr. Arthur, p. 756'
Horace, in fearch of the Sublime, struck his head against the Stars t; but Empedocles, to fathom the Profund, threw himself into Ætna. And who but wonld imagine our excellent Modern had also been there, from this description?
Imitation is of two forts; the first is when we force to our own purposes the Thoughts of others; the second confifts in copying the Imperfection or Blomishes of cekebrated authors. I have seen a Play professedly writ in the style of Shakespear, wherein the resemblance lay in one single line : 5. And fo good morrow t'ye, good Mafter Lieutenant." And sundry poems in imitation of Milton, where, with the utmost exactness, and not so much as one exception nevertheless was conftantly nathlefs, embroider'd was broider'd, hermits were eremites, disdain'd was 'Jdain'd, shady umbrageous, enterprise emprise, pagan paynim, pinions pennons, sweet dulcet, orchards orchats, bridge-work pontifical; nay, her was hir, and there was thir thro' the whole poem. And in very deed, there is no other way by which the true modern poet could read, to any purpose, the works of such men as Milton and Shakespear.
It may be expected, that, like other Criticks, I should next speak of the Passions : But as the main end and principal effect of the Bathos is to produce 'Tranquillity of Mind (and sure it is a better defign to promote sleep than madness) we have little to say on this subject. Nor will the short bounds of this difcourfe allow us to treat at large of the Emollients and the Opiats of Poesy, of the Cool, and the manner of producing it, or of the methods used by our authors in managing the Passions. I shall but transiently remark, that nothing contributes so much to the Cool, as the ufe of Wit in expressing pasfion: The true genius rarely fails of points, conceits, and proper fimiles on such occafions : This we may term the Pathetic epigrammacical, in which even puns are made + Sublimi feriam (idera vertice.
ase of with good success. Hereby our best authors have avoided throwing themselves or their readers into any indecent transports, : But as it is fometimes needful to excite the passions of our antagonist in the polemic way, the true students in the law have constantly taken their methods from low life, where they observed, that, to move Anger, use is made of scolding and railing; to move Love, of bawdry; to beget Favour and Friendship, of gross flattery; and to produce Fear, of calumniating an adversary with crimes obnoxious to the State. As for Shame, it is a filly passion, of which as our authors are incapable themfelves, so they would not produce it in others.
CH A P. X.
Of Tropes and Figures : And first of the variegating,
confounding, and reversing Figures.
BUT we proceed to the Figures. We cannot too earn
eftly recommend to our authors the itudy of the Abuse of Speech. They ought to lay it down as a principle, to say nothing in the usual way, but (if possible) in the direct contrary. Therefore the Figures must be so turned, as to manifest that intricate and wonderful Cast of Head which distinguishes all writers of this kind; or, (as I may say) to refer exactly the Mold in which they were formed, in all its inequalities, cavities, obliquities, odd crannies, and distortions.
It would be endless, nay impossible to enumerate all such figures; but we shall content ourselves to range principal, which most powerfully contribute to the Bathos, under three Classes.
1. The Variegating, Confounding, or Reversing Tropes and Figures.
II. The 4