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exatnple, must not only be conscious, but conscious that it is the same being with the Particle B. that went before.
We answer, this is only a fallacy of the imagination, and is to be understood in no other fenfe than that maxim of the Englifh-Law, that the King never dies. This power of thinking, felf-moving, and governing the whole Machine, is communicated from every Particle to its immediate Succeffor; whô, as soon as he is gone, immediately takes upon him the Government, which still preferves the Unity of the whole System.
They make a great noise about this Individuality : how a man is conscious to himself that he is the fame Individual he was twenty years ago; notwithstanding the flux ftate of the Particles of matter that compoft his body. We think this is capable of a very plain anfwer, and
may be easily illustrated by a familiar example. Sir John Cutler had a pair of black worsted stockings, which his maid darned fo often with silk, that they became at last a pair of filk stockings. Now, fuppofing those ftoekings of Sir John's endued with fome degree of Conscioufness at every particular darning, they would have been sensible, that they were the same individual pair of ftockings both before and after the darning; and this sensation would have continued in them through all the fucceffion of darnings; and yet after the last of all, there was not perhaps one thread left of the first pair of stockings, but they were grown to be filk stockings, as was said before.
And whereas it is affirmed, that every animal is confcious of some individual self-moving, self-determining principle; it is answered, that, as in a House of Commons all things are determined by a Majority, so it is in every Animal system. As that which determines the House is said to be the reason of the whole assembly ; it is no otherwise with thinking Beings, who are determined by the greater force of several particles; which,
like so many unthinking Members, compose one thinking System,
And whereas it is likewise objected, that Punishments cannot be just that are not inflicted upon the fame individual, which cannot sublift without the notion of a fpiritual substance : We reply, that this is no greater difficulty to conceive, than that a Corporation, which is likewise a flux body, may be punished for the faults, and liable to the debts of their Predecessors.
We proceed now to explain, by the ftru&ure of the Brain, the several modes of thinking. It is well known to Anatomists that the Brain is a Congeries of Glands, that separate the finer parts of the blood, called Animal Spirits; that a Gland is nothing but a Canal of a great length, yariously intorted and wound up together. From the Arietation and Motion of the Spirits in those Canals, proceed all the different sorts of Thoughts. Simple Ideas are produced by the motion of the Spirits in one simple Canal ; when two of these canals disembogue themselves into one, they make what we call a Proposition: and when two of these proportional Channels empty themselves into a third, they form a Syllogism, or a Ratiocination. Memory is performed in a diftin& apartment of the brain, made up of vessels fimilar, and like fituated to the ideal, propofitional, and syllogistical vefsels, in the primary parts of the brain. After the fame manner it is easy to explain the other modes of thinking; as also why some people think so wrong and perversely, which proceeds from the bad configuration of those Glands. Some, for example, are born without the proportional or fyllogistical Canals; in others, that reason ill, they are of unequal capacities; in dull fellows, of too great a length, whereby the motion of the spirits is retarded; in trifling geniuses, weak and small; in the over-refining spirits, too much intorted and winding; and so of the rest.
We are so much persuaded of the truth of this oui Hypothesis, that we have empoyed onc of our Mem
bers, a great Virtuoso at Nuremberg, to make a fort of an Hydraulick Engine, in which a chemical liquor resembling blood, is driven through elastick channels resembling arteries and veins, by the force of an Embolus like the heart, and - wrought by a pneumatick Machine of the nature of the lungs, with ropes and pullies, like the nerves, tendons, and muscles : and we are persuaded that this our artificial Man will not only walk, and speak, and perform most of the outward actions of the animal life, but (being wound up once a week) will perhaps reason as well as most of our Country Parsons.
We wait with the utmost impatience for the honour of having you a Member of our Society, and beg leave to assure
that we are, etc. What return Martin made to this obliging Letter, we must defer to another occasion : let it suffice at present to tell, that Crambe was in a great rage at them, for stealing (as he thought) a hint from his Theory of Syllogisms, without doing him the honour so much as to mention him. He advised his Master by no means to enter into their Society, unless they would give him sufficient security, to bear him harmless from any thing that might happen after this present life.
CH A P. XIII.
Of the Secession of Martinus, and some Hints of his
T was in the year 1699 that Martin set out on his
Travels. Thou wilt certainly be very curious to know what they were. It is not yet time to inform thee. But what hints I am at liberty to give, I will. Thou shalt know then, that in his first Voyage he was
married by a prosperous Storm, to a Discovery of the Remains of the ancient Pygmæan Empire.
That in his second, he was as happily shipwrecked on the Land of the Giants, now the moit humane people in the world,
That in his third Voyage, he discovered a whole Kingdom of Philosophers, who govern by the Mathematicks; with whose admirable Schemes and Projects he returned to benefit his own dear Country; but had the misfortune to find them rejected by the envious Ministers of Queen Anne, and himself fent treacherouily away.
And hence it is, that in his fourth Voyage he discovers a Vein of Melancholy, proceeding almost to a Dirgust of his Species; but, above all, a mortal Deteftation to the whole flagitious Race of Ministers, and a final Re. solution not to give in any Memorial to the Secretary of State, in order to subject the Lands he discovered to the Crown of Great Britain.
Now if, by these hints, the Reader can help himself, to a farther discovery of the Nature and Contents of these Travels, he is welcome to as much light as they afford him; I am obliged, by all the ties of honqur, not to speak mo're openly.
But if any man fhall ever fee such very extraordinary Voyages, into such very extraordinary Nations, which manifeft the most diftinguishing marks of a Philosopher, a Politician, and a Legiflator; and can imagine them to belong to a Surgeon of a Ship, or a Captain of a Merchantman, let him remain in his Ignorance.
And whoever he be, that shall farther observe, in every page of such a book, that cordial Love of Mankind, that inviolable Regard to Truth, that Paffion for his dear Couniry, and that particular attachment to the excellent Princess Queen Anne ; surely that man deserves to be pitied, if by all those visible signs and Characters, he cannot distinguish and acknowledge the Great Scriblerus *.
Gulliver's Travels were first intended as a part
CHA P. XIV.
Of the Discoveries and Works of the Great Scriblerus,
made and to be inade, written and to be written, known and unknown.
HERE therefore, at this great Period, we end our
first Book. And here, O Reader, we entreat thee utterly to forget all thou hast hitherto read, and to cast thy eyes only forward, to that boundless Field the next shall open unto thee; the fruits of which (if thine, or our fins do not prevent) are to spread and multiply over this our work, and over all the face of the Earth.
In the mean time, know what thou owest, and what thou yet inay'st owe, to this excellent Person, this Proj digy of our age; who may well be called, The Philosopher of Ultimate Caufes, fince by a Sagacity peculiar to himself, he hath discovered Effects in their very Cause : and with out the trivial helps of Experiments, or Observations, hath been the Inventor of most of the modern Systems and Hypotheses.
He hath enriched Mathematicks with many precise and geometrical Quadratures of the Circle. He first dircovered the Cause of Gravity, and the intestine Motion of Fluids.
To him we owe all the observations on the Parallax of the Pole- Star, and all the new Theories of the Deluge.
He it was, that first taught the right use sometimes of the Fuga Vacui, and sometimes of the Materia Subtilis, in resolving the grand Phænomena of Nature.
He it was, that first found out the Palpability of Colours ; and by the delicacy of his Touch, could distinguish the different Vibrations of the heterogeneous Rays of Light.
His were the Projects of Perpetuum Mobiles, Flying Engines, and Pacing Saddles; the Method of discovering the