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not be considered the perfect stage of Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk.) Ferraris any more than of the other fungi above noted. The results with extracts, here recorded, are an additional indication that Thielavia basicola is a distinct fungus and they are also an argument against any ideas of heterothallism that may have been connected with it.

Thielavia basicola Zopf has always been found associated with Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk.) Ferraris on the same hosts. Whether or not it is by itself parasitic on these hosts or, as has been suggested by Dr. Clinton, a parasite on Thielaviopsis basicola, is not yet determined. Inoculations of Thielavia basicola have been made on tobacco in the greenhouse as well as in the field without definite results. The biologic relationship of these two forms is not yet clear.

SUMMARY Perithecia of Thielavia basicola Zopf have been secured in artificial culture.

Since the name Thielavia basicola was given by Zopf on account of the presence of perithecia, the fungus secured from their ascospores should be considered Thielavia basicola Zopf. This is the first report of its isolation in artificial culture.

Thielavia basicola Zopf has a tendency to produce perithecia when grown alone, but this is greatly stimulated when the fungus is grown with Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk.) Ferraris with which it is associated in nature.

It has been shown that Thielavia basicola Zopf is also stimulated to produce perithecia when it is grown with Cladosporium fulvum, Aspergillus umbrosus, Aspergillus of the glaucus group, Eurotium amstelodami Mangin, and to a certain extent with Fusicladium pirinum.

It has been shown that Thielavia basicola Zopf is likewise stimulated to produce perithecia when it is treated with water extracts obtained from Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk.) Ferraris, Cladosporium fulvum, Aspergillus umbrosus, Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and also with a water solution of Taka-diastase.

The above evidence indicates that Thielavia basicola Zopf is not the ascospore stage of Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk.) Ferraris although the two forms are commonly associated.

LITERATURE CITED. 1. Aderhold, R. Impfversucht mit Thielavia basicola Zopf. Arb. Biol.

Adt. Land. Fortw. Kaiserl. Gesundh. 4: 463-5. 1905. 2. Berkeley, M. J. and Broome, C. E. Notices of British Fungi. Ann.

Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 5: 461. 1850. pl. II, f. 4. 3. Brierley, W. B. The ‘Endoconidia' of Thielavia ba sicola Zopf. Ann.

Bot. 29: 483-493. 1915. 4. Cappelluti-Altomare, G. I semenzai del Tabacco e la Thielavia basi7. Dale, Elizabeth. On the morphology and cytology of Aspergillus

cola Zopf. R. Inst. Scafati: 137-47. 1902. 5. Clinton, G. P. Report of the Botanist 1906. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta.

Rept. 1906: 342-368. 1907. 6. Clinton, G. P. Report of the Botanist 1907. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta.

Rept. 1907: 363-368. 1908.

repens DeBary. Ann. Mycol. VII: 215-225. 1909. 8. Duggar, B. M. Fungous Diseases of Plants: 213. 1909. 9. Ferraris, T. Hyphales. Soc. Bot. Ital. Flora Ital. Crypt 1: 233.

1912. 10. Foex, Et. Maladie du pied de la violette. Ann. Ecole Nat. Agr.

Montpelier, N. S., 10: 165-171. pl. 6. 1910. 11. Fraser, H. C. I. and Chambers, H. S. The Morphology of Aspergillus

herbariorum. Ann. Mycol. 5:419-431. 1907. 12. Gilbert, W. W. The root-rot of tobacco caused by Thielavia basicola.

U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Ind. Bul. 158: 1-48. pls. I-IV.

1909. 13. Heald, F. D. and Pool, Venus W. The influence of chemical stimu

lation upon the production of perithecia by Melanospora Pam.

peana Speg. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept. Univ. Neb. 22: 130-132. 1909. 14. Jenkins, E. H. Report of the Director. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta.: 6.

Oct. 31, 1921. 15. Johnson, James. Host Plants of Thielavia basicola. Jour. Agr. Res.

6: 289-300. 1916. 16. Molliard, M. Rôle des bacteries dans la production des peritheces des

Ascobolus. Comp. Rend. 136: 899-901. 1903. 17. Molliard, M. Sur une condition qui favorise la production des peri

theces chez les Ascobolus. Bull. Soc. Myc. de France XIX:

150-152. 1903. 18. Oudemans, C. A. J. A. Champignons dans Les Pays-Bas. Tab. II.

Fig. 1. 1897. 19. Peglion, V. La moria delle piantine nei semenzai. Ricerche intorno

mezzi di defesa. Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital. 33: 221-237. 1900. 20. Peters, Leo. The biology of Thielavia basicola. Mitteil. aus der

Biol. Reichsanst, für Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Heft 21: 63-74.

1921. 21. Reddick, D. Diseases of the Violet. Mass. Hort. Soc. Trans. 1913 :

85-102. 1913. 22. Saccardo, P. A. Thielavia basicola Zopf. Sacc. Syll. Fung. I: 39.

1882. 23. Saccardo, P. A. Torula basicola B. et Br. Sacc. Syll. Fung. 4: 257.

1886. 24. Saccardo, P. A. Clasterosporium fragile (Sorok) Sacc. Sacc. Syll.

Fung. 4: 386. 1886. 25. Sartory, A. Sporulation d'une levure sous l'influence d'une bacterie.

Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 72: 558-560. 1912. 26. Sartory, A. De l'influence d'une bacterie sur la production des

peritheces chez un Aspergillus. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 79: 174

175. March 4, 1916. 27. Sartory, A. Sporulation by symbiosis in fungi. Compt. Rend. Acad.

Sci, 167: 302-305. 1918. 28. Sartory, A. Production of perithecia by an Aspergillus under the

influence of a bacterium. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 83: 1113

1114. 1920. 29. Sorauer, P. Ueber die Wurzelbräune der Cyclamen. Zeitschr.

Pflanzenkr. 5: 18-20. 1895. 30. Sorokin, N. Ueber Helminthosporium fragile sp. n. Hedw. 15: 113.

1876. 31. Thaxter, R. Fungus in violet roots. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept.

1891: 166-167. 1892. 32. Wineland, Grace O. An ascigerous stage and synonomy for Fusa

rium moniliforme. Jour. Agr. Res. XXVIII: 909-922. 33. Zopf, w. Thielavia basicola Zopf. Genus novum Perisporiacearur.

Sitz. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenb. 18: 101-105. 1876. 34. Zopf, W. Ueber die Wurzelbräune der Lupinen, eine neue Pilz

krankheit. Zeitschr. Pflanzenkrank. I: 72-76. 1891.



Fig. 1. Violet plants infected with Thielaviopsis basicola (Berk.) Fer

raris and Thielavia basicola Zopf. Fig. 2. Part of section of infected violet root. P, perithecia of Thielavia

basicola. Fig. 3. Part of section of infected violet root showing sclerotial masses

of hyphae and chlamydospores of Thielaviopsis basicola.

Photographed by Mr. E. V. Stoddard. Fig. 4. Part of section of infected violet root showing perithecia of

Thielavia basicola. Fig. 5. Part of section of infected pea root showing perithecia of Thie

lava basicola. Photographed by Mr. E. M. Stoddard. Fig. 6. Part of section of infected tobacco root showing perithecia of

Thielavia basicola. Photographed by Mr. E. M. Stoddard.


Figs. 1-8. Germination of ascospores of Thielavia basicola Zopf.

Figs. 1 and 6 magnification x 1,000; Figs. 2-5 and

7-8 mag. x 150. Figs. 9 and 10. Hyphae of Thielavia basicola Zopf. x 600. Figs. 11-22. Stages in the development of the perithecium of Thie

lavia basicola Zopf. Figs. 11-16, 18, 20-22, magnifi

cation x 1200. Figs 17 and 19 mag. x 1,000. Fig. 23.

An ascus of Thielavia basicola Zopf with ascospores.

x 1,200.

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