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SOURCES OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK, 1923-1924.
3,489,170 The following table shows the quantities of stock as inspected by months :
3,489,170 In addition to the material tabulated above, there were 13 shipments containing 16 packages of seeds, mostly of trees and palms, which were not inspected in Connecticut.
Of the 33 shipments of stock inspected, 17 shipments or 49 per cent. were found infested with insects or plant diseases, though most of them were not dangerous pests. Details regarding these pests are given below.
Pests FOUND ON IMPORTED NURSERY STOck.
17 Shipments Infested.
INSECTS. Emphytus cinctus Linn., on Manetti rose. (15_shipments). S. Bide &
Son, Ltd., Farnham, Surrey, England; W. Fromow & Sons, Windlesham, Surrey, England: W. c. Šlocock, Woking, England; B. Ruys, Ltd., Dedensvaart, Holland; Franco-American Seedling Co.,
Angers, France; Georges Benard, Olivet-Orleans, France; Oudyh Brothers Nurseries, Boskoop Holland; Association Flora, Boskoop, Holland; H. K. Woldering, Veendam, Holland; M. Gielen, Oudenbosch, Holland; V. Levasseur & Sons, Ussy, Calvados, France; D. J. de Jonge, Sappemeer, Holland. On Fruit stock, Andre Choplin,
Maze, France. Lepidopterous pupae on apple. (3 shipments.) Andre Choplin, Maze,
France; Franco-American Seedling Co., Angers, France. On
Quince, Louis Leroy's Nurseries, Angers, France. Notolophus antiqua Linn., on apple (1 shipment.) Franco-American
Seedling Co., Angers, France.
England. On fruit stock, Andre Choplin, Maze, France; Franco-
INSPECTION OF APIARIES IN 1924. In 1924, as in past years, the apiary inspection work has been done by Messrs. H. W. Coley of Westport and A. W. Yates of Hartford on a per diem basis. Mr. Coley covers the southern half of the State, comprising Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex and New London Counties. Mr. Yates covers the northern half, composed of Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland and Windham Counties.
This work required a total of 159 man days and the entire cost for the season was $2,306.40.
More apiaries and more colonies were inspected in 1924 than have ever before been inspected in a single season. The following table shows the number of apiaries and colonies inspected, and the average number of colonies per apiary for each year since the inspection work was commenced in 1910.
FIFTEEN YEAR RECORD OF APIARY INSPECTION IN CONNECTICUT.
Average No. of No, of No. Colonies Cost of Inspection Year Apiaries Colonies per Apiary Per Apiary Per Colony 1910 208 1,595
.28 1911 162 1,571
.21 1912 153 1,431
.21 1913 189 1,500
.21 1914 463 3,882
.19 1915 494 4,241
.175 1916 467 3,898
.19 1917 473 4,506
.166 1918 395 3,047
.25 1919 723 6,070
.29 1920 762 4,797
2.565 .41 1921 751 6,972
2.638 .24 1922 797 8,007
.257 1923 725 6,802
.27 1924 953 8,929
In 1924, apiaries were inspected in 142 towns as against 119 towns in 1923, and 125 towns in 1922.
For the first time an inspection was made in the town of Union, as the inspector heretofore had been unable to learn of any bees in that town. On account of the law compelling registration, he obtained this information and made the inspection. However, it was only one apiary containing two colonies of bees.
In 1924 inspections were made in the following 35 towns not visited in 1923: Fairfield County: Brookfield, Ridgefield and Weston; New Haven County: East Haven, New Haven, North Branford, Wolcott and Woodbridge; Middlesex County: Portland and Westbrook; New London County : Colchester, Griswold, Ledyard, Lisbon, North Stonington, Salem, Sprague and Voluntown; Litchfield County: Bridgewater, Canaan, Cornwall, New Milford, Norfolk, North Canaan, Roxbury, Salisbury and Sharon; Hartford County: Avon and Hartland; Tolland County: Stafford, Tolland, Union and Willington; Windham County: Ashford and Thompson.
In 1923, apiaries were inspected in the following 13 towns not visited in 1924: Fairfield County: Bethel; Middlesex County: Saybrook; Litchfield County: Harwinton and New Hartford; Hartford County: Bloomfield, East Granby, East Windsor, Granby, Suffield, Windsor and Windsor Locks; Tolland County: Bolton and Hebron.
EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD. This disease is caused by Bacillus pluton which attacks and kills the young larvae in the cells, being more destructive in spring and early summer than in other seasons. The odor of fermentation is usually present but it is not very offensive and the contents of the cells are usually not gelatinous or ropy. The common remedy consists of requeening with Italian queens and having the colonies strong by uniting if necessary.
Of the 953 apiaries, and 8,929 colonies inspected in 1924, 17 apiaries and 47 colonies were found infested with European foul brood. This is 1.78 per cent. of the apiaries and .526 per cent. of the whole number of colonies inspected during the season. Though the percentage of colonies infested is somewhat larger than 1923, the percentage of infested apiaries is smaller than ever before. In fact this disease has shown almost a gradual reduction, due we believe to the system of inspection and better handling of apiaries, since the inspection work began in 1910, as the following table will show:
RECORD OF EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD.
Percentage of Infestation
.526 During 1924, European foul brood was found only in Meriden and Waterbury, New Haven County; Durham and East Hampton, Middlesex County; Lebanon, Old Lyme, Salem and Stonington, New London County; Barkhamsted, Cornwall and Roxbury, Litchfield County; Hartland, Hartford County; Ellington, Tolland County ; Brooklyn, Plainfield, Putnam and Sterling, Windham County. This disease was not found in any of the apiaries inspected in Fairfield County.
AMERICAN FOUL BROOD.
American foul brood is also a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus larvae, and attacks the brood at a later stage than European foul brood. It usually shows itself at the time the larvae are mature and pupating, when the cells are sealed or capped. The diseased cells later become sunken and if broken open the contents emit an offensive odor, and have a peculiar stringy or ropy consistency. Shaking into clean hives, destroying all infected combs and disinfecting the old hives is the treatment. Almost the whole danger of a recurrence is careless treatment and reinfection from infected combs and honey. Some authorities are recommending and using an alcohol-formalin solution containing 20 per cent. formalin, in which they soak the combs to sterilize them, after which they can be safely used. This may prove of great value in stamping out the disease.
Of the 953 apiaries and 8,929 colonies inspected in 1924, 10 apiaries and 20 colonies were found diseased with American foul brood. This is 1.04 per cent. of the apiaries and .22 per cent of the colonies, a slight increase in percentage of the apiaries and decrease in that of the colonies over last year. With American foul brood there has never been any gradual decrease as in the case of European foul brood, but spasmodic outbreaks have occurred here and there since 1914. The following table will show the percentages of apiaries and colonies found diseased with American foul brood since the beginning of inspection work in Connecticut.
RECORD OF AMERICAN FOUL BROOD.
Percentage of Infestation
During 1924, American foul brood was found in the towns of Greenwich and Shelton, Fairfield County; Naugatuck and Wallingford, New Haven County ; Clinton, East Hampton and Haddam, Middlesex County; Old Lyme, New London County; Thomaston and Washington, Litchfield County. The disease was not found in any apiaries inspected during the season in Hartford, Tolland or Windham Counties.
The system of controlling this disease in some of the States is that known as the "area clean-up" method, and an attempt is made to eradicate the disease, working around the centers of infection. A movement has been started to procure Federal cooperation in this work.
STATISTICS OF INSPECTION. The statistics of apiary inspection by towns and counties may be found on the following pages, with summary on page 252.