« PreviousContinue »
INSPECTION OF RASPBERRY PLANTATIONS. In addition to the inspection of nursery stock, some fruiting plantations were examined to ascertain whether or not they were free of the disease known as mosaic. This disease is not very well understood and its cause is not definitely known, but has at different times and by various investigators been supposed to be an enzyme or chemical ferment, and an ultra-microscopic germ or organism of bacterial or protozoan nature. Whatever may be the cause, it is fairly well established that it is transmitted by a small species of aphid, Aphis rubiphila Patch. This makes it somewhat analogous to the mosaic of potato which is transmitted by the potato aphid, Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashm.
Recently an attempt has been made in New York State to grow raspberry plants which are free from mosaic, and nurserymen are not allowed to ship raspberry plants into New York State unless some similar method of inspection and eradication is in practice in the State where the stock is grown. Similar action has been taken by the States of Ohio, Michigan and Minnesota. Consequently there were several applications for inspections on account of this disease, some from regular nurserymen, and others from owners of fruiting raspberry plantations.
As this problem required the co-operation of the Botanical and Entomological Departments, arrangements were made to visit New York State and learn the status of the raspberry inspection and the eradication of mosaic. By appointment, Messrs. Clinton and Hunt, Botanists, and Britton and Zappe, Entomologists, visited Poughkeepsie and Highland, N. Y., on July 10, where Dr. W. H. Rankin showed his work and gave the visitors all the information on the subject at his command. Evidently some varieties are much more susceptible to the disease than others, and it seems to be a difficult matter to grow the standard varieties
a of red raspberries and have them free from mosaic. The everbearing varieties, though not immune, are not commonly affected, and the black-caps and purple canes are not or almost never attacked. Blue stem and curly leaf are two other troubles apparently distinct from mosaic, though not well understood. The former is a disease of black-caps and the latter is found on red raspberries as well as is mosaic, though less common.
Shortly after returning to Connecticut, some inspections of raspberry plantations were made by Messrs. Zappe, Clinton and Hunt, beginning July 16 and extending through the regular inspection of nurseries. In a portion of the plantations of certain varieties, if much mosaic occurred, the owner expressed a desire to destroy the plants and not attempt to obtain a certificate. Certain other varieties were free or nearly free from mosaic and the diseased plants were removed or “rogued out" and a second inspection made a month or six weeks later. Thus it was possible to grant certificates on certain varieties where it had to be refused on other varieties. Altogether, eight plantations were inspected and five special certificates granted. These certificates were signed by both the Botanist and the Entomologist. The list of growers receiving special raspberry certificates is as follows:
SPECIAL CERTIFICATES ON RASPBERRY PLANTS.
Certificate CertifiName of Firm
Red Path... Oct. 10 3 Barnes Nursery and
Erskine Park Orchard Company.. Wallingford... St. Regis ... Oct. 10 4 Bertolf Brothers.. Greenwich... La France.. Oct. 10 5 Croteau, Fannie. Mount Carmel St. Regis... Sept. 15 1 Scheepers, Inc., John.. Stamford..... La France. . Oct. 10 2
INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK. The nursery stock imported from foreign countries and entering Connecticut during 1924 was inspected as in preceding years, mostly by Mr. Zappe, but assisted by Messrs. Botsford, Friend, Rogers and Walden. Though the number of shipments was slightly less than last year, there was an increase of about 75 per cent. in the number of cases and 71 per cent, in the number of plants. The following table shows the number of shipments, number of cases, and number of plants, inspected at destination, during each of the last five years:
These 33 shipments were imported by eight different Connecticut firms, 24 of them being consigned to two firms. Most of the stock consisted of seedling fruit and Manetti rose, for grafting and budding. There were 14 shipments of fruit seedlings, and 19 shipments of rose stocks; two shipments contained both fruit and rose stocks.
The cost of inspecting this imported nursery stock was about $500.00.
As in preceding years, the bulk of the shipments came from France and Holland, with a few shipments from England and other countries. The sources of this stock inspected during the year were as follows:
SOURCES OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK, 1923-1924.
3,489,170 The following table shows the quantities of stock as inspected by months:
3,489,170 In addition to the material tabulated above, there were 13 shipments containing 16 packages of seeds, mostly of trees and palms, which were not inspected in Connecticut.
Of the 33 shipments of stock inspected, 17 shipments or 49 per cent. were found infested with insects or plant diseases, though most of them were not dangerous pests. Details regarding these pests are given below.
PESTS FOUND ON IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK.
17 Shipments Infested.
INSECTS. Emphytus cinctus Linn., on Manetti rose. (15_shipments). S. Bide &
Son, Ltd., Farnham, Surrey, England; W. Fromow & Sons, Windlesham, Surrey, England; W. c. Slocock, Woking, England; B. Ruys, Ltd., Dedensvaart, Holland; Franco-American Seedling Co.,
Angers, France; Georges Benard, Olivet-Orleans, France; Oudyh Brothers Nurseries, Boskoop Holland; Association Flora, Boskoop, Holland; H. K. Woldering, Veendam, Holland; M. Gielen, Oudenbosch, Holland; V. Levasseur & Sons, Ussy, Calvados, France; D. J. de Jonge, Sappemeer, Holland. On Fruit stock, Andre Choplin,
Maze, France. Lepidopterous pupae on apple. (3 shipments.) Andre Choplin, Maze,
France; Franco-American Seedling Co., Angers, France. On
Quince, Louis Leroy's Nurseries, Angers, France. Notolophus antiqua Linn., on apple (1 shipment.) Franco-American
Seedling Co., Angers, France.
England. On fruit stock, Andre Choplin, Maze, France; Franco-
INSPECTION OF APIARIES IN 1924.
In 1924, as in past years, the apiary inspection work has been done by Messrs. H. W. Coley of Westport and A. W. Yates of Hartford on a per diem basis. Mr. Coley covers the southern half of the State, comprising Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex and New London Counties. Mr. Yates covers the northern half, composed of Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland and Windham Counties.
This work required a total of 159 man days and the entire cost for the season was $2,306.40.
More apiaries and more colonies were inspected in 1924 than have ever before been inspected in a single season. The following table shows the number of apiaries and colonies inspected, and the average number of colonies per apiary for each year since the inspection work was commenced in 1910.
FIFTEEN YEAR RECORD OF APIARY INSPECTION IN CONNECTICUT.
No. of No. Colonies Cost of Inspection
per Apiary Per Apiary Per Colony 1910 208 1,595 7.6 $2.40
.28 1911 162 1,571
.21 1912 153 1,431
.21 1913 189 1,500
.21 1914 463 3,882
.19 1915 494 4,241
.19 1917 473 4,506
.166 1918 395 3,047
.25 1919 723 6,070 11.2
.41 1921 751 6,972
.257 1923 725 6,802
In 1924, apiaries were inspected in 142 towns as against 119 towns in 1923, and 125 towns in 1922.
For the first time an inspection was made in the town of Union, as the inspector heretofore had been unable to learn of any bees in that town. On account of the law compelling registration, he obtained this information and made the inspection. However, it was only one apiary containing two colonies of bees.
In 1924 inspections were made in the following 35 towns not visited in 1923: Fairfield County: Brookfield, Ridgefield and Weston: New Haven County: East Haven, New Haven, North Branford, Wolcott and Woodbridge; Middlesex County: Portland and Westbrook; New London County: Colchester, Griswold, Ledyard, Lisbon, North Stonington, Salem, Sprague and Voluntown; Litchfield County: Bridgewater, Canaan, Cornwall, New Milford, Norfolk, North Canaan, Roxbury, Salisbury and Sharon ; Hartford
County: Avon and Hartland; Tolland County: Stafford, Tolland, Union and Willington; Windham County: Ashford and Thompson.
In 1923, apiaries were inspected in the following 13 towns not visited in 1924: Fairfield County: Bethel; Middlesex County: Saybrook; Litchfield County: Harwinton and New Hartford; Hartford County: Bloomfield, East Granby, East Windsor, Granby, Suffield, Windsor and Windsor Locks; Tolland County: Bolton and Hebron.
EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD. This disease is caused by Bacillus pluton which attacks and kills the young larvae in the cells, being more destructive in spring and early summer than in other seasons. The odor of fermentation is usually present but it is not very offensive and the contents of the cells are usually not gelatinous or ropy. The common remedy consists of requeening with Italian queens and having the colonies strong by uniting if necessary.
Of the 953 apiaries, and 8,929 colonies inspected in 1924, 17 apiaries and 47 colonies were found infested with European foul brood. This is 1.78 per cent. of the apiaries and .526 per cent. of the whole number of colonies inspected during the season. Though the percentage of colonies infested is somewhat larger than 1923, the percentage of infested apiaries is smaller than ever before. In fact this disease has shown almost a gradual reduction, due we believe to the system of inspection and better handling of apiaries, since the inspection work began in 1910, as the following table will show:
RECORD OF EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD.
Percentage of Infestation
.526 During 1924, European foul brood was found only in Meriden and Waterbury, New Haven County ; Durham and East Hampton, Middlesex County; Lebanon, Old Lyme, Salem and Stoning