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out the State, but repeated applications of nicotine dust gave satisfactory control.
A detailed account of the European corn borer infestations and the Asiatic beetle which is still injuring lawns in New Haven will be found on pages 277 and 294 of this Report.
SHADE TREE AND FOREST Insects. The great abundance of the tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americana Fabr., and of the fall canker worm, Alsophila pometaria Harris, in southwestern Connecticut, as well as the lime tree winter moth, have already been mentioned under Fruit Insects. They are also pests of shade and woodland trees, and might be included here with equal appropriateness. The gipsy moth also is a pest of both fruit and shade trees, but is discussed separately on page 254 of this Report.
The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Dru., was less abundant than in 1923, except in New London County, where it was about as abundant.
The elm leaf beetle, Galerucella xanthomelaena Schrank (luteola Mull.) was a contributing cause to many brown and leafless elm trees in certain localities in central and southwestern Connecticut in August. Even some trees which had been sprayed with lead arsenate presented a pitiable condition. Of course the extreme drought aggravated this condition and new growth did not follow quickly as is the case in a moist season. All choice trees should be sprayed very carefully the coming season to prevent defoliation, as three successive and complete defoliations will usually kill a tree.
The oak leaf-roller, Tortrix quercifoliana Fitch, was particularly conspicuous around Stamford, where certain pin oaks were nearly defoliated, as is described on page 336.
Woolly aphids on conifers were particularly abundant in 1924, perhaps the most noticeable being the larch leaf aphid, Chermes strobilobius Kalt., and the one attacking Douglas fir, which is probably Chermes cooleyi var. coweni Gill. The latter was unusually common, was sent to the Station several times, and the members of the staff observed it widely. Spraying with nicotine solution and soap is a remedy.
The arbor vitae leaf-miner, Argyresthia thuiella Pack., was not particularly injurious in 1924, yet some of its work could be seen here and there about the State. Twigs received from Pomfret, July 5, had the leaves partially mined by this insect.
The larch leaf-miner or case bearer, Coleophora laricella Hubn., was somewhat in evidence, though not so destructive as in 1923.
The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina Linn., though not so destructive to trees along the coast as a few years ago, has spread inland and is the cause of considerable injury. The writer saw in Hartford during the winter many branches which had broken from the trees on account of having been weakened by the large burrows of the larvae of this insect. Material has also been received from New Haven and Highwood during the season.
Sawfly larvae were rather more abundant than usual on pines, causing some defoliation.
The birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers, was generally less abundant than in 1923, but there were portions of the State where locally the gray birches were brown in September.
One event of the season was the recognition of a European sawfly, Fenusa pumila Klug., which has apparently become established in this country and which is a leaf-miner on the terminal leaves of
Evidence was also obtained to show that the European pine shoot moth, Evetria buoliana Schiff., occurs in Connecticut.
The bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius Gory, continues to kill European cut-leaf white birches throughout the State.
The juniper webworm, Dichomeris (Ypsolophus) marginellus Fabr., was received from New Canaan, June 19.
MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS. The European fly, Muscina pascuorum Meigen, which appeared in New England in 1922*, and which was rather abundant in Connecticut in 1923, was not seen at all around the Station laboratory in 1924. Plans were made for Mr. Friend to work out the life history of this fly, but as no material could be obtained, the plans were suspended.
Another instance was brought to our attention of a nuisance caused by the presence in greenhouses at Rowayton, of large number of the tropical cockroach, Pycnoscelus surinamensis Linn. (See Notes on Miscellaneous Insects.)
The biting dog louse, Trichodectes latus Nitzsch, (order Mallophaga) was received from Pomfret, this being the first record of the species in Connecticut.
Defoliation of honeysuckle shrubs and vines was caused by sawflies, Abia americana Cress., and of Rudbeckia, "golden glow", by some other species of sawfly which has not yet been identified with certainty.
Ants were very abundant everywhere during 1924, and many complaints were received of ants in houses, of ants injuring vegetable and flowering plants in gardens, and of ants infesting lawns. In each case a copy of Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 17, “Control of Ant Invasions", was sent and in several instances the Federal formula for poison bait given on page 4, was used with success.
* Report of this Station for 1922, page 373.
CONVENTION OF ENTOMOLOGICAL WORKERS. As there are now several entomologists employed at this Station, and several field foremen on gipsy moth work, several Federal men in the State on gipsy moth and European corn borer control, teachers of entomology in Yale University and the Connecticut Agricultural College, and several amateur entomologists, it was thought desirable to bring them all together for a conference. Consequently they were invited to meet at the Station on October 31, 1924. Dr. Britton was elected Chairman of the meeting and additional talks were given by Mr. D. J. Caffrey, a former Assistant at the Station, now in charge of the Federal European Corn Borer Laboratory, Arlington, Mass., and by Mr. S. S. Crossman of the Federal Parasite Laboratory, Melrose Highlands, Mass., who has made several trips to Europe in search of gipsy moth parasites. The following program was arranged and carried out, not a single speaker being absent.
PROGRAM. A.M. 10.00 Words of Welcome,
W. L. Slate, Jr., New Haven 10.05 Entomological Work of the Station, W. E. Britton, New Haven 10.15 Some Animal Parasites,
G. H. Lamson, Jr., Storrs 10.30 The Asiatic Beetle in Connecticut, M. P. Zappe, New Haven 10.45 Teaching Entomology in Connecticut Institutions:
Connecticut Agricultural College, J. A. Manter, Storrs
Yale University School of Forestry, W. R. Coe, New Haven 11.30 Opportunities for Beekeeping in Conn., L. B. Crandall, Storrs 12.00 Oriental Peach Moth in Conn., Philip Garman, New Haven 12.30 Luncheon.
1.45 Some Baits Attractive to Cabbage Maggot Flies,
R. B. Friend, New Haven. 2.00 Hints on Photographing Insects, B. H. Walden, New Haven 2.15 Gipsy Moth Work in Connecticut in 1924,
J. T. Ashworth, Danielson 2.45 Status of the Gipsy Moth in the United States,
A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 3.30 The European Corn Borer in the United States,
L. H. Worthley, Arlington, Mass. 4.15 Anti-Mosquito Work in Connecticut in 1924,
R. C. Botsford, New Haven Messrs. Zappe, Friend, Walden, Garman and Botsford illustrated their talks by lantern slides,
There were a number of opinions expressed, all to the effect that the meeting had been a success and a hope that other meetings may be held in the future. About 60 were present as follows: Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Burgess, A. F. Burgess, Jr., C. W. Collins, H. L. Blaisdell, S. S. Crossman, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; L. H. Worthley, D. J. Caffery, R. A. Vickery, T. M. Cannon, Arlington, Mass.; Mr. and Mrs. Albert Hartzell, Yonkers, N. Y.; H. C. Huckett, Riverhead, N. Y.; H. J. Evans, Mineola, N. Y.; D. G. Murphy, Pittsfield, Mass.; H. A. Ames, Bound Brook, N. J.; Professors Alexander Petrunkevitch and W. R. Coe, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Professors G. H. Lamson, Jr., J. A. Manter, L. B. Crandall, A. J. Grady, T. F. Cronin, V. A. Johnson, J. W. Balock, Storrs, Conn.; F. C. Rich, Ansonia, Conn.; W. A. Collins, New Milford, Conn.; J. J. Pillsbury, Burnside, Conn.; Professor Pauline H. Dederer, Connecticut College for Women, New London, Conn.; S. E. May, Canaan, Conn.; P. H. Meagher, Wallingford, Conn.; John T. Ashworth, J. W. Longo, A. J. Gilbert, H. A. Woodmancy, H. E. Cook, 0. B. Cooke, Č. M. Spencer, Danielson, Conn.; Dolor La Belle, Ballouville, Conn.;
James A. McEvoy, Putnam, Conn.; A. W. Yates, Hartford, Conn.; H. W. Coley, Westport, Conn.; E. J. Smith, Clintonville, Conn.; Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. Woolley, Waterbury, Conn.; P. L. Buttrick, New Haven, Conn.; Robert E. O'Brien, New Haven, Conn.; and Messrs W. L. Slate, Jr., E. H. Jenkins, G. P. Clinton, E. M. Stoddard, G. E. Graham, Philip Garman, M. P. Zappe, B. H. Walden, R. C. Botsford, R. B. Friend, Leslie Rogers and W. E. Britton of the Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn.
INSPECTION OF NURSERIES IN 1924. The annual inspection of growing nursery stock was begun July 25, and was finished October 14, except for one plantation inspected December 30. This work was in charge of Mr. M. P. Zappe, and was conducted about the same as in 1923, except that Mr. W. R. Hunt of the Botany Department assisted and was present during the inspection of all the larger nurseries. Consequently more attention could be given to plant diseases than heretofore. The work was done by Messrs. Zappe, Friend, Hunt, Cronin and Rogers. Mr. Ahearn inspected one strawberry nursery and Dr. Britton helped inspect two nurseries. Two nurseries were inspected in the spring and again at the time of the annual inspection.
In addition to the inspections made from this office, the gipsy moth scouts were instructed to make careful inspections for gipsy moth eggs in and around nurseries, and to have it reported to the office in case any were found.
In 33 nurseries, no important pests were found. Following is a list of insects and plant diseases found in nurseries, together with the number of nurseries infested by each, as taken from the inspection reports on file in the office:
LIST OF Pests FOUND IN NURSERIES IN 1924
Aphids, apple, green
Lace bugs, on rhododendron.
2 4 1 2 2
INSECTS-concluded. Sawfly, larch... 1 Scale, San José.
32 Scale, elm...
West Indian peach. 1 oak...
1 oak gall scale (Kermes) 1
5 pine leaf..
5 White grub in seed beds (Abies) 1 rose.
6 White grub in Multiflora roses. 1
PLANT DISEASES Apple scab... 12 Mildew on cherry...
1 Black knot.
1 Brown rot.
6 Canker on apricot.
8 Crown gall. 3 Rust on ash.
1 Fire blight...
1 Leaf spot on roses.
white pine blister, Mildew on apples.
cedar (on apple). 15 From the preceding list it may be seen that the oyster-shell scale is still the commonest pest found in Connecticut nurseries, and was found in 44 different nurseries. The next commonest is the spruce gall aphid, 40_nurseries. Next in order is the San José scale, 32 nurseries. Following these comes a fungus, the poplar canker, 25 nurseries.
In order to show how the figures of 1924 correspond with those obtained in preceding years, the following table gives the figures as reported by the inspectors for the past seven years.
SEVEN YEAR RECORD OF SERIOUS AND COMMON NURSERY Pests. Pest
1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 Oyster-shell scale.....
38 36 44 42 44 San José scale.
18 19 11 28 19 20 32 Spruce gall aphid..
15 19 21 31 21 28 40 White pine weevil.
5 5 1 1 19 17 5 Apple and thorn skeletonizer
2 Poplar canker.
6 * 5 13 2i 31 34 25 Blister rust (on Ribes).. 1
2 9 6 8 No pests.....
32 32 46 36 36 32 33 It may be seen from the figures given in the table above that the oyster-shell scale (44) is, and has been for the past seven years, the most common pest found in nurseries. In 1924, the pests which were the next commonest are the spruce gall aphid (40), the San José scale (32), and the poplar canker (25). Then follows the pine blister rust which was found in eight nurseries, in all cases on the leaves of Ribes. The apple and thorn skeleton