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general use of poisoned bran mash would certainly reduce the losses occasioned annually by cutworms.
The stalk borer, Papai pema nitela Guen., as a pest is fairly constant each year, and tunnels in nearly all kinds of herbaceous stems, even in weeds. It attacks plants here and there, but never are all stems attacked. Growers pay little attention to it, until the stems have been injured. Control measures other than destroying the infested stalks are not successful. Probably on account of the wide distribution of this insect and the character of the injury which it causes, few reports come to this office. However, specimens were received in potato from Terryville, August 7, and in rhubarb from Wethersfield, August 12.
The cucumber or potato flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris Harris, is usually a garden pest each year, and in 1924, was abundant in many fields attacking potato, tomato, egg-plant, cucumber and squash. Reports were received of the abundance of this insect at Woodstock, Brooklyn, Killingly, Cheshire, North Haven, Southington, Plainville and Stratford in June. In the potato field at the Station Farm, Mount Carmel, the beetles were very abundant on the untreated rows, moderately abundant on the rows treated with Niagara potato dust, and much less so on the rows heavily sprayed with Bordeaux mixture and lead arsenate. About 300 gallons per acre was applied on August 2.
On July 18, specimens were received from Shelton of the silverstriped webworm, Crambus praefectellus Zinck., which eats into the side of the corn plant near the surface of the ground. Occasionally this insect is the cause of considerable injury, and in 1919, an acre field of corn in New Haven was destroyed by it.
Only limited numbers of the corn ear worm, Chloridea obsoleta Fabr., were present on the ears of late maturing corn. Specimens were received on October 17, from Milford, where in one field about five per cent. of the ears were injured. On the whole, this insect did little damage.
The western corn root worm, Diabrotica longicornis Say, is present in Connecticut, where it was found in Granby feeding on the petals of flowers. More information regarding this insect may be found under Notes on Miscellaneous Insects in this Report.
One of the tortoise beetles, Deloyala clavata Fabr., feeding on potato, was received from Norwalk, July 25. Only rarely are these beetles sufficiently abundant to cause injury, and lead arsenate is an effective remedy, as it is also on foliage for the blister beetles, of which there are several species.
The spinach leaf-miner, Pegomyia hyoscyami Panzer, was present around New Haven, Stratford and Westport, in moderate numbers, but Mr. Friend failed to find a badly infested field suitable for a line of experiments which had been planned.
The cabbage maggot, Hylemyia brassicae Bouche, was scarce in Litchfield County, but was reported as causing much injury in New
Haven, Hamden, Vernon, Hebron and Ellington late in June. By June 26, it had attacked cabbage and cauliflower in Ridgefield, Bethel and Danbury. Common control measures are tarred paper disks, and the corrosive sublimate treatment, but Mr. Friend obtained good control by trapping the adult flies. His experiments are given in detail on page 314 of this Report.
The green cabbage worm, Pontia rapae Linn., though fairly abundant at the Station Farm, Mount Carmel, was generally scarce and caused little damage. In most cases no poison was applied. The cabbage looper, Autographa brassicae Riley, was more prevalent than the green cabbage worm, and injured the leaves and heads by riddling them with holes.
Another pest, the parsnip leaf-miner, Acidia fratria Loew, was discovered in Wethersfield, July 12. The infestation was slight though the mines were rather extensive in the leaves. The species has before been taken in Connecticut, but we have never observed its injury until 1924. The life history and control measures have not been worked out, and therefore we cannot recommend any treatment.
The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Linde., was found injuring a field of onion sets at Wethersfield. The plants had not been wilted, and on July 16 and 21, nicotine was applied as described on another page of this Report.
Asparagus beetles, Crioceris asparagi Linn., and C. 12-punctata Linn., were reported as being troublesome at Suffield, June 9; Black Hall, June 18; Riverton, June 24, and Danbury and Norwalk, June 26. As a rule, spraying with lead arsenate after the cutting season is over, and on young beds will control these beetles. Some growers report success with applications of nicotine sulphate.
Aphids of certain kinds were present in usual numbers and caused the usual amount of damage. On August 6, the turnip aphid, Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis, was brought to the Station from East Haven, where it had killed and seriously injured turnip plants in a small field. The pea aphid, Illinoia pisi Kalt., was not generally troublesome, though it did injure certain fields, and made its appearance very late in the season. It was reported from Thomaston and Danbury on June 24, and a heavy infestation at Ridgefield on June 26. A small field in New Haven was found infested on June 19, and a few days later a small portion of it was dusted with nicotine by Messrs. Friend and Walden. The results are given on page 319 of this Report. The potato aphid, Macrosiphum solanifolii Ashm., was rather scarce and only one thoroughly infested field in Branford, was observed on July 1, but the aphids were heavily parasitized. Slight infestations were observed in Westville and Highwood on June 30, but there was no infestation of the potato fields at the Station Farm at Mount Carmel. The cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn., was common throughout the State, but repeated applications of nicotine dust gave satisfactory control.
A detailed account of the European corn borer infestations and the Asiatic beetle which is still injuring lawns in New Haven will be found on pages 277 and 294 of this Report.
SHADE TREE AND FOREST Insects. The great abundance of the tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americana Fabr., and of the fall canker worm, Alsophila pometaria Harris, in southwestern Connecticut, as well as the lime tree winter moth, have already been mentioned under Fruit Insects. They are also pests of shade and woodland trees, and might be included here with equal appropriateness. The gipsy moth also is a pest of both fruit and shade trees, but is discussed separately on page 254 of this Report.
The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Dru., was less abundant than in 1923, except in New London County, where it was about as abundant.
The elm leaf beetle, Galerucella xanthomelaena Schrank (luteola Mull.) was a contributing cause to many brown and leafless elm trees in certain localities in central and southwestern Connecticut in August. Even some trees which had been sprayed with lead arsenate presented a pitiable condition. Of course the extreme drought aggravated this condition and new growth did not follow quickly as is the case in a moist season. All choice trees should be sprayed very carefully the coming season to prevent defoliation, as three successive and complete defoliations will usually kill a tree.
The oak leaf-roller, Tortrix quercifoliana Fitch, was particularly conspicuous around Stamford, where certain pin oaks were nearly defoliated, as is described on page 336.
Woolly aphids on conifers were particularly abundant in 1924, perhaps the most noticeable being the larch leaf aphid, Chermes strobilobius Kalt., and the one attacking Douglas fir, which is probably Chermes cooleyi var. coweni Gill. The latter was unusually common, was sent to the Station several times, and the members of the staff observed it widely. Spraying with nicotine solution and soap is a remedy.
The arbor vitae leaf-miner, Argyresthia thuiella Pack., was not particularly injurious in 1924, yet some of its work could be seen here and there about the State. Twigs received from Pomfret, July 5, had the leaves partially mined by this insect.
The larch leaf-miner or case bearer, Coleophora laricella Hubn., was somewhat in evidence, though not so destructive as in 1923.
The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina Linn., though not so destructive to trees along the coast as a few years ago, has spread inland and is the cause of considerable injury. The writer saw in Hartford during the winter many branches which had broken
from the trees on account of having been weakened by the large burrows of the larvae of this insect. Material has also been received from New Haven and Highwood during the season.
Sawfly larvae were rather more abundant than usual on pines, causing some defoliation.
The birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers, was generally less abundant than in 1923, but there were portions of the State where locally the gray birches were brown in September.
One event of the season was the recognition of a European sawfly, Fenusa pumila Klug., which has apparently become established in this country and which is a leaf-miner on the terminal leaves of
Evidence was also obtained to show that the European pine shoot moth, Evetria buoliana Schiff., occurs in Connecticut.
The bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius Gory, continues to kill European cut-leaf white birches throughout the State.
The juniper webworm, Dichomeris (Ypsolophus) marginellus Fabr., was received from New Canaan, June 19.
MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS. The European fly, Muscina pascuorum Meigen, which appeared in New England in 1922*, and which was rather abundant in Connecticut in 1923, was not seen at all around the Station laboratory in 1924. Plans were made for Mr. Friend to work out the life history of this fly, but as no material could be obtained, the plans were suspended.
Another instance was brought to our attention of a nuisance caused by the presence in greenhouses at Rowayton, of large number of the tropical cockroach, Pycnoscelus surinamensis Linn. (See Notes on Miscellaneous Insects.)
The biting dog louse, Trichodectes latus Nitzsch, (order Mallophaga) was received from Pomfret, this being the first record of the species in Connecticut.
Defoliation of honeysuckle shrubs and vines was caused by sawflies, Abia americana Cress., and of Rudbeckia, "golden glow”, by some other species of sawfly which has not yet been identified with certainty.
Ants were very abundant everywhere during 1924, and many complaints were received of ants in houses, of ants injuring vegetable and flowering plants in gardens, and of ants infesting lawns. In each case a copy of Bulletin of Immediate Information No. 17, “Control of Ant Invasions”, was sent and in several instances the Federal formula for poison bait given on page 4, was used with success.
CONVENTION OF ENTOMOLOGICAL WORKERS. As there are now several entomologists employed at this Station, and several field foremen on gipsy moth work, several Federal men in the State on gipsy moth and European corn borer control, teachers of entomology in Yale University and the Connecticut Agricultural College, and several amateur entomologists, it was thought desirable to bring them all together for a conference. Consequently they were invited to meet at the Station on October 31, 1924. Dr. Britton was elected Chairman of the meeting and additional talks were given by Mr. D. J. Caffrey, a former Assistant at the Station, now in charge of the Federal European Corn Borer Laboratory, Arlington, Mass., and by Mr. S. S. Crossman of the Federal Parasite Laboratory, Melrose Highlands, Mass., who has made several trips to Europe in search of gipsy moth parasites. The following program was arranged and carried out, not a single speaker being absent.
PROGRAM. A.M. 10.00 Words of Welcome,
W. L. Slate, Jr., New Haven 10.05 Entomological Work of the Station, W. E. Britton, New Haven 10.15 Some Animal Parasites,
G. H. Lamson, Jr., Storrs 10.30 The Asiatic Beetle in Connecticut, M. P. Zappe, New Haven 10.45 Teaching Entomology in Connecticut Institutions:
Connecticut Agricultural College, J. A. Manter, Storrs
Yale University School of Forestry, W. R. Coe, New Haven 11.30 Opportunities for Beekeeping in Conn.. L. B. Crandall, Storrs 12.00 Oriental Peach Moth in Conn., Philip Garman, New Haven 12.30 Luncheon.
1.45 Some Baits Attractive to Cabbage Maggot Flies,
R. B. Friend, New Haven. 2.00 Hints on Photographing Insects, B. H. Walden, New Haven 2.15 Gipsy Moth Work in Connecticut in 1924,
J. T. Ashworth, Danielson 2.45 Status of the Gipsy Moth in the United States,
A. F. Burgess, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 3.30 The European Corn Borer in the United States,
L. H. Worthley, Arlington, Mass. 4.15 Anti-Mosquito Work in Connecticut in 1924,
R. C. Botsford, New Haven Messrs. Zappe, Friend, Walden, Garman and Botsford illustrated their talks by lantern slides.
There were a number of opinions expressed, all to the effect that the meeting had been a success and a hope that other meetings may be held in the future. About 60 were present as follows: Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Burgess, A. F. Burgess, Jr., C. W. Collins, H. L. Blaisdell, S. S. Crossman, Melrose Highlands, Mass.; L. H. Worthley, D. J. Caffery, R. A. Vickery, T. M. Cannon, Arlington, Mass.; Mr. and Mrs. Albert Hartzell, Yonkers, N. Y.; H. C. Huckett, Riverhead, N. Y.; H. J. Evans, Mineola, N. Y.; D. G. Murphy, Pittsfield, Mass.; H. A. Ames, Bound Brook, N. J.; Professors Alexander Petrunkevitch and W. R. Coe, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Professors G. H. Lamson, Jr., J. A. Manter, L. B. Crandall, A. J. Grady, T. F. Cronin, V. A. Johnson, J. W. Balock, Storrs, Conn.;