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ful experiments. New experiments include under-planting of red oak with red pine; plantations of white spruce and red pine in the open and replanting a burned area with white pine. A report covering the results to date is now in press. (Bul. 262.)

2. Effect of Thinning in White Pine (At Shaker Station) Three Grades of Thinning.

Students from the Yale Forest School made a second thinning in two of the plots in the spring of 1924.

3. Effect of Thinning in Hardwoods (At Quassipang Lake). The plots were visited in connection with other work but no measurements were taken and none are planned until 1927.

4. Studies on White Pine Needle Blight. No definite observations were made during the year, the season apparently not being conducive to this trouble.

Distribution of Planting Stock to Small Holders at a Reasonable Price. The department again assisted land owners in securing forest planting stock. A total of 775,000 trees, mostly two year seedlings, were distributed on 95 orders.

6. Willow Culture (for Basket and Furniture Manufacture). One holt was discontinued and the roots pulled up. Preparations were made to distribute a large number of cuttings but only two requests were received and only 1,000 cuttings were sent out for the cost of packing and postage. Distribution will be continued and plantings already made will be visited.

7. Control of White Pine Blister Rust (& Control Project). Wild currant and gooseberry bushes were eradicated from 6,000 acres in the towns of Canaan, Cornwall, North Canaan, Litchfield and Salisbury. About 20% of the cost was paid by town appropriations or private subscriptions. Educational work was carried on co-operatively with the Federal Bureau of Plant Industry by two field agents employed throughout the year. New Haven and Fairfield Counties have been covered and scouting in Litchfield County is practically completed. Eradication and educational work will be continued.

8. Studies of Forest Plantations (Listing Al Plantations and Taking Notes on Conditions, Success, Etc.). Blister rust agents have reported on more than 7,500 acres of plantations in 81 towns, but the studies are not yet completed. During 1925 the reports of plantations will be checked and additional studies made, with the plan of publishing a bulletin on forest planting before the close of the year.

9. Replacing Chestnut with Conifers in a Farm Woodlot. Planted evergreens have in most ases made good growth. Another cleaning will be necessary in 1925 and it may be desirable to remove more of the overwood.

10. Forest Soils Study. On 116 plots, for which the soil series and type have been determined, the following data has been recorded: (1) Locality, slope, aspect, site, quality, fires, silvicultural

treatment, (2) Forest cover (main stand) tallied on 1/20 acres by
species, diameter and crown class, (3) Reproduction tallied on
1/100 acre by species and by height classes, (4) Shrubby under-
growth noted as abundant, medium or scant for the 1/20 acre, (5)
Herbaceous growth noted similarly to (4). No definite conclusions
have been formulated from the assembled data, and plans for the
coming year must await the derived results. More plots will
probably be necessary to make proper correlations.
11. Coniferous Seed Bed Study to Determine:

1. The value of fertilizers in seed beds.
2. The value of different amounts of seed.
3. The value of dusts and sprays in preventing damp-

ing off. Thirteen seed beds were laid off on the Station grounds and were treated as outlined above. The experiment will be continued and data recorded.


Dr. D. F. Jones in charge. 1. The Inheritance of Characters in Corn. The widespread occurrence of lethal factors producing aborted and defective grains in corn has been determined and the effect of these factors upon development is being studied as well as their mode of inheritance. A number of factors influencing the development of the floral organs and affecting the fertility of the corn plant have been located.

2. The Effect of Inbreeding and Crossing Upon Corn. Four inbred strains of corn self-fertilized for eight generations were separated into two lines each and continued for eight generations more. Two of these four paired lines were visibly different at the end of this period and all gave significant increases in growth when the paired members were intercrossed.

3. Methods for the Improvement of Naturally Cross-Fertilized Plants by Selection in Self-Fertilized Lines. Preliminary crosses were made between the most promising selected lines of Evergreen sweet corn. Crosses between various lines of early maturing dent and flint com were grown from which a type for grain in Connecticut will be developed. Seventy-five lines of Whipple's Early Yellow Sweet Corn were started for the purpose of producing an early medium-sized yellow sweet corn of good quality for market gardeners.

4. Methods of Improving the Naturally Self-Pollinated Tobacco Plant. Forty-two selections from a cross of Cuban and Broadleaf tobacco have been grown. These include lines which have been one, two or three times back-crossed with Cuban. These are being selected as a shade type and being studied to determine to what extent the shade tobacco characteristics can be retained with added improvements from the other type.


Mr. M. F. Morgan in charge. 1. Utilizations and Fertiliser Requirements of Important Soil Types of Connecticut. Previous intensive studies of soil conditions and land utilization in Lebanon yielded data which was studied in relation to the economic survey conducted by the department of Rural Economics of the Connecticut Agricultural College. It was found that, in the above town, the area in which the Charlton series of soil occurred, was markedly superior as a dairy region to the other portions of the town where Gloucester fine sandy loam, Gloucester stony fine sandy loam and the Merrimac series were the principal soils. Interesting relationships of soils to land cover were also manifested.

These results having shown the necessity for further study in regions where somewhat different soil conditions occurred, the areas of Wilton, Goshen, Middletown, Pomfret, Eastford and Stonington were surveyed during the field season. The use of airplane photographs materially aided the study of land utilization and accurate mapping of soil type areas in the town of Middletown.

A lack of uniformity of soil conditions was found in the areas studied during the 1924 field season but certain soil types were shown to be fairly constant in their characteristics wherever found.

Land utilization studies as tabulated thus far bear out the fact that soils such as the Gloucester stony fine sandy loam, are of value chiefly for forestry and recreational sites, those similar to the Charlton loam are particularly adapted to dairying; while soils like the Merrimac sandy loam are peculiarly adapted to potatoes, intensive trucking and vegetable gardening.

The need for a thorough soil and land utilization survey becomes more and more apparent as the results of the present studies are considered.

Sub Project A-Soil Survey and Land Cover Studies of Selected Areas in Connecticut. This project has taken three phases of development: (1) Completion of maps and data incident to the soil-land cover and economic survey of Lebanon town, (2) Detailed land cover and soil type studies in the towns of Wilton, Goshen, Middletown, Pomfret, Eastford and Stonington, (3) Tabulation of data on these areas to show distribution of cover on the more important soil types.

Sub Project B-Pot Experiments on Effects of Fertilization of Important Soil Types. Pot experiments with 12 soil types of Connecticut, using alfalfa and buckwheat to show the effects of Lime, Nitrogen and Phosphorus, and these plus Potassium, show wide differences in fertility of untreated soils and in relative responses to treatment. Sixteen samples of soil have been collected for further experiment.

Sub Project C-Soil Reaction Studies. Samples of various horizons of most of the soil types represented in each area studied in sub-project A have been collected for studies in lime requirement, h-ion concentration, and soluble aluminum compounds.

Sub Project D-Mechanical Analyses of Important Soil Types. Similar samples have been collected for this experiment in determination of mechanical analyses by U. S. Bureau of Soils and Harlan Jonson's method, and determination of colloidal material.

Sub Project E-Studies of Forest Adaptations of Important Soil Types. This experiment has two phases: (1) Identification of soil types on plots upon which forestry department made detailed studies of stands and associations, (2) Collections of seven soil types upon which studies are to be made of growth of seedlings of forest species in pot experiments.

Sub Project -Chemical Analyses and Reaction Studies of Particular Pasture Soils. Soil samples have been collected from 25 pasture demonstration fields located in various parts of the state to determine the total Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium and the reaction of all samples.

TOBACCO SUB-STATION AT WINDSOR. The sudden resignation of Mr. C. M. Slagg on March 1, made necessary a restriction of the Service work possible during the season of 1924. The experimental program, however, went forward without interruption. A very elaborate new project was launched, having as its object the improvement of the several types of Broadleaf and Havana now recognized among growers. A large number of so-called strains of each type were grown at Windsor and on plots scattered about the various type districts. These will be continued next year. Experiments under way may be listed: 1. Fertilizer Experiments

Sources of Nitrogen.
b. Ratio of Phosphoric Acid.

Sources of Potash.
d. Fractional Applications.
e. Manure (New York and cow (steer) compared

with none) f. Magnesium, Chlorine and Sulfur. (U. S. D. A.). 2. Varietal Improvement a. „Strain trials of Broadleaf, Havana and Cuban as a

basis for future improvement.




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b... Tests of crosses made by Dr. Jones. i
Round tip cultural experiments to improve

d. Trials for "foreign" or new types.

e. N. rustica as a source of nicotine.
3. Curing Experiments.
Lack of land for growing material prevented the carry-

ing out of these as planned. 4. Diseases.


Tests of Control Measures for Wildfire. b. Brown Root Rot (U. S. D. A.).

C. Black Root Rot, the effect of soil treatments. Except as noted, the above program was carried out in spite of the fact that the position of superintendent was not filled. The weather was extremely dry and a partial crop failure resulted. At this time it is too early to estimate the results, the crop not being sorted.

A Field Day was held at the farm on August 5, about 400 persons attending. An excellent lunch was served by the ladies of a local church. A program for the day, held in the new shed, was a unique feature.

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