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of Thielavia basicola and Thielaviopsis basicola have been made of asco strains with a species of Aspergillus and Fusicladium pyrinum as well as with Cladosporium fulvum. Crossings made with Thielaviopsis paradoxa failed to produced perithecia. Attempts to determine the parasitism of the asco strains have so far yielded negative results altho perithecia have been found deeply embedded in the roots of tobacco, pea and violet, but in these cases always associated with the conidium-chlamydospore stages.
7. A Study of Pythiums. Artificial cultures of various fungi are obtained and kept going on special media in the test tubes. These are then available for special study as desired. Pythium species obtained from about a dozen different hosts, chiefly as dampening-off fungi, are among those now being especially collected.
8. Comparison of Spraying and Dusting on Apples and Peaches, Especially to Try New Dusts. (Joint project with Entomological Department.) For fungi, spraying has uniformly given the better control. This year, however, the dust control more nearly approached the spraying because of dry weather which prevented the development of fungi. A test of spray and dust combination did not give marked results but it seems desirable to experiment further with combinations of spray and dust as this seems to be the way that dust may be used in the control of apple troubles. 9. Control of Celery Blights with Sprays and Dusts. During
. the past year tests were made in thirteen fields with eight different growers.
Home-made 4-4-50 Bordeaux mixture was compared with Niagara Sulfodust and Niagara D25 Copper Dust, checks being kept in each test. Comparatively little blight injury occurred in the fields so that decisive results were not obtained. On the whole control and yields seem to point to the following order of the plots: (1) Bordeaux Mixture, (2) Copper Dust, (3) Sulphur Dust, (4) Check. 10. Control of Root Rot and Improvement of Sweet Corn by Seed Selection. This experiment was started in 1920 to determine if it was possible, by seed selection, to control root and ear rots of sweet corn grown for seed. A composite sample of seed selected from the best lines during the preceding four years was planted in comparison with unselected seed of the same strain and unselected seed of the same variety grown in the same locality from a different seed source. The selected seed gave a better stand and more even growth especially early in the season. The number of diseased ears did not differ greatly in the three plots, but the yields of selected seed were much greater. The selected seed has also shown a steady increase in average per cent of diseasefree ears, determined by germination tests.
11. Comparison of Sprays and Dusts on Potatoes. (Joint project with Entomology Department.) Copper dust has been compared with 4-4-50 Bordeaux mixture in this experiment. There has been no blight in three years but each year the sprayed plot has given greater yield than the dusted, and the dusted has been better than the check. The sprayed vines have shown less injury from tipburn and flea beetle injury and have lived longer than those in the dusted and check plots.
12. Seed Testing. This is one of the oldest lines of work of the Station and is largely routine in nature. Farmers, and others, wishing to know the germination and purity of seeds purchased, send them in for testing. Particular attention is paid to testing seed-com for experimental purposes. At times special work is done on certain seeds. For example, grass and forage crop seeds were tested the past year to determine if their standard of purity and germination in this state compared favorably with that in other states, which seems to be the case as shown by the result of the tests.
13. Peach "Yellows." Started in connection with fertilizer experiments of peaches in 1908, this study has consisted, in part, of "Yellows” surveys in different orchards over a series of years. Budding and other infection experiments have also been carried on. No results have been published except general notes.
14. Musk Melons and Blight Resistance. Some time ago this experiment was carried on over a period of several years. It consisted in growing 100 so-called varieties for three years and in making studies on blight resistance, quality and yield with sprayed and unsprayed vines of a selected variety, Miller's Cream. The results have never been published and no recent work has been done; the fields of commercial growers have been visited from time to time.
15. Chestnut Blight. This subject was investigated and the results published some years ago. Renewed interest in the future of the chestnut in this state has induced the Botany and Forestry departments to take up some new phases of the subject in 1924. Surveys were made in several marked localities on the number of dead, diseased and free sprouts, seedlings and trees. Records will be kept and these plots examined again yearly. Seed was obtained and placed outdoors to grow seedlings, in part, for planting eventually under forest conditions, and, in part, for inoculation with old and new cultures of the blight.
16. White Pine Blister Rust. Two papers have already been published on this subject. Only a little infection work has been done during the past year. Considerable data has been obtained that has not been published. A final study may be made of assembled data during 1925 and the results published in the next report.
17. Infection Experiments and Other Studies with Rusts. Work along infection lines has been carried on in the past. Much of this has been done with leaves in petri dishes. A bulletin (No. 260) on this work is now in press.
18. Tobacco Diseases. All field and observational work on tobacco is included under this general title. Field and greenhouse studies on black and red root rot and general notes on all tobacco troubles, including culture of the fungous ones, are the chief phases of investigation at present.
19. Onion Diseases. Work in the past has consisted of general notes on the troubles of this host, seed treatment for smut on infected seed, and spraying experiments against blast of the seed crop.
20. Tree Diseases. General forestry and shade tree work is covered in this project. A list by hosts, of all of the fungi that had been collected on either living or dead trees and their products, has been prepared. A general article on Fungous and non-Parasitic Diseases of the Ornamental Trees of Connecticut has also been written.
21. Bud Inheritance on Yield of Peaches. It is planned to start a young orchard with scions budded from the most prolific and healthy, as well as from the less prolific and healthy trees, which have been under observation during the past sixteen years at the Barnes Experimental Peach Orchard. This is to determine if bud selected trees from these two sources will continue to show the same differences in yields. This will indicate if it is more advantageous to select buds from high-bearing trees than to practice miscellaneous selection. Seed stock for the budding has already been grown.
22. Influence of Root Grafts on Scions of Apples. This is to determine the effect of root on scion (1) on Baldwin with respect to quality of fruit borne (2) on McIntosh to observe the effect of root on color of fruit. Scions will be taken from Baldwin trees that have borne good fruit on their own roots and will be placed on roots from trees that bear poor fruit. This operation will be duplicated with poor-fruited trees. The McIntosh striped and self-colored trees will be grown each on its own roots and on roots of the opposite color.
Dr. W. E. Britton in charge. 1. The Life History, Habits and Control of the Plum Curculio on Apple. Several new facts regarding the habits and life history of Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst. have been learned during a study of two seasons in the five year program for the study and control of the plum curculio on apples. No satisfactory control methods have been ascertained, however.
2. Tests of Paradichlorobenzene to Control the Peach Borer. (Inactive.)
3. Comparisons of Spraying and Dusting on Apples and Peaches, Especially to Try New Dusts. (Joint project with Botany Department.) (See Botany.)
4. Comparisons of Sprays and Dusts on Potatoes. (Joint Project with Botany Department.) (See Botany.)
5. The Life History, Habits and Control of the European Red Mite. (Inactive.)
6. Control of Foul Brood of Bees. Testing denatured alcohols to obtain a satisfactory product for making Hutzelman's alcohol formalin solution, in addition to comb treatment with the commercial preparation for control of American foul brood, comprised the work during 1924.
7. A Study of the Asiatic Beetle, Anomala orientalis. A study of this beetle was undertaken following a severe infestation of New Haven lawns. Some progress has been made in life history studies. Calcium cyanide is effective in killing larvae of the beetle but it injures vegetation and is a menace to children and dogs. Carbon disulphide is more satisfactory.
8. The Life History, Habits and Control of the Raspberry Fruit Worm. (Completed.)
9. Insect Survey of Connecticut. For four years data has been gathered on the prevalence or absence of insect pests and monthly reports have been sent to the Federal Bureau of Entomology for publication in a bulletin covering conditions in the United States.
10. Inspection of Orchards and Nurseries. All nurseries (116 in 1924) were inspected for insect pests. The botanist, co-operating with the inspectors, searched for plant diseases. Fortyseven orchards and gardens were inspected on request.
11. Control of the Gipsy Moth. State scouts covered 73 towns, Federal scouts 35 towns in 1923-24. All of the 10,007 egg clusters found were creosoted, and 327 infestations were sprayed in May and June, using 8,483 pounds of lead arsenate. Around the infestations, 6,315 larvae were destroyed besides those killed by spraying. State scouts covered 6,975 miles of road.
12. Elimination of the Mosquito Nuisance in Salt Marshes. Under State supervision 5,000 acres of salt marsh were patrolled throughout the season and 154,000 lineal feet of ditches recut. Salt marsh areas in Stamford were reditched and new ditching is in progress in Westbrook. Ten new iron culverts and six new iron tide gates were installed. One dike was repaired.
13. Inspection of Apiaries. Among 953 apiaries, containing 8,929 colonies of bees, 17 apiaries (47 colonies) were found infested with European foul brood, and 10 apiaries (20 colonies) with American foul Brood. Directions and, in some cases, demonstrations, were given the owners regarding control.
14. A Study of the Chemical Changes in Standard Spray Mix. tures. (Joint project with Chemical Department.) Tests of the effect which the order of mixing various ingredients has upon color, character of sediment and suitability for spraying of the spray mixture and also analyses of various combinations for water soluble arsenic to determine which combinations are best from a chemical standpoint, have yielded results which must be verified by additional chemical study.
15. Bionomics of the Birch Leaf Skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella. The main points in the life history have been worked out and several parasites uncovered. Work has been started on fungous diseases. Some features of morphology have been established and control measures determined. The distribution of the insect in Connecticut has been partly surveyed.
16. Experiments with Baits Attractive to the Cabbage Maggot Fly. The residue left from distilling an alcoholic extract of cabbage was found to be attractive when in suitable medium. This has been compared with other baits and is being developed as an efficient control measure.
17. Life History and Methods of Controlling the Oriental Peach Moth, Laspeyresia molesta. Threatening outbreaks late in the season of 1923 led to control studies in which nicotine dusts and sprays were tried with 50% control. A limited number of observations have been made on the life history in Connecticut and a general, observative survey of the State, supplemented with information from questionnaires sent to various growers, has been made.
18. Life History of Imported Current Worm. Data has been collected on egg laying habits, number of eggs laid by individuals, period of incubation, etc. Adults appeared two to three weeks late in 1924 and there were apparently only two broods.
19. Control of the European Corn Borer. Federal men scouted all towns along the shore, also Orange and Wethersfield and found seven infestations. State scouts covered four towns. All infested fields and some adjoining fields were burned over.
Mr. W.0. Filley in charge. 1. Experimental Plantations on a Sandy Tract at Rainbow.
a. Comparison of a wide variety of conifers and hardwoods.
b. Methods of management for those species that have survived.
c. Studies on growth and habits of the several species. These were begun in 1902. In 1924 liberation cuttings and cleanings were completed where needed, fire lines were harrowed and new plantations were started to replace discontinued or unsuccess