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The birthplace of the parents of the beneficiaries was:

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United States
United States (colored)
Austria (Jugo Slav)
Austria (Magyar)
Austria (Moravian)
Canada
Canada (French)
Canada (French) and England
Canada and United States
Denmark
Denmark and Germany
England ...
England and Canada
England and Switzerland
England and United States
France ...
France and Belgium
France and Germany
France and Poland
Germany
Germany (Jewish)
Germany and Poland
Germany and Russia
Germany and Switzerland
Germany and United States
Greece and Italy
Holland
Hungary and United States
Ireland ..
Ireland and United States
Italy ...
Italy and United States
Poland
Poland (Russian)
Poland and United States
Russia
Russia (German)
Russia (German) and Germany
Russia (Jewish)
Russia (Lithuanian)
Russia (Slovak)
Scotland
Sweden

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The towns in which the beneficiaries have a legal residence are:

1923

1924

1923

1924

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Ansonia
Avon
Berlin
Bethlehem
Bridgeport
Bristol
Brooklyn
Canterbury
Colchester
Columbia
Danbury
Danielson
Ellington
Enfield.
Essex
East Hampton
East Hartford
Farmington
Glastonbury
Granby.
Greenwich
Griswold
Groton
Haddam
Hamden
Hartford
Hartland
Harwinton
Killingly
Litchfield
Lyme
Madison
Manchester
Mansfield
Meriden
Middletown
Milford.
Naugatuck
New Canaan
New Britain
New Hartford
New Haven

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Newington New London New Milford Norwalk Norwich Plainfield Plainville Plymouth Pomfret Portland Putnam Ridgefield Salisbury Seymour Sharon Shelton Simsbury Stafford Stamford Sterling Stonington Stratford Suffield Thomaston Thompson Torrington Trumbull Vernon Wallingford Washington Waterbury Watertown Wethersfield West Hartford West Haven Westport Winchester Windham Windsor Windsor Locks Wolcott

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RELIEF FUND

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There was expended for the relief of needy blind persons for the year ended June 30, 1923, the sum of $9347.14; for the year ended June 30, 1924, the sum was $10,397.18. This work is of recent origin in Connecticut, so that the only figures which we have for comparison are those for the year ended June 30, 1922, when the total was $6962.30. It is evident that the calls upon the relief fund are increasing slowly.

A total of 100 persons, representing 41 townships and every county in the state, were benefited by the disbursements in 1922-23; in 1923-24 the total benefited were 102 persons, representing forty townships. This is about 12 per cent of the blind population of the state. Of the amount expended in 1922-23, the sum of $4122.52 was paid to the Connecticut Institute for the Blind for the cost incurred by keeping there a group of thirty blind people who have ceased to be pupils and who are termed workers. In 1923-24 the sum paid the Connecticut Institute for this for a similar group of twentynine workers was $4319.35. Although these persons have learned a trade, it is better for one reason or another that they should remain at the Trades Department for the Blind, where they receive their room and board and a small weekly wage in addition, and that this Board should pay the Connecticut Institute for the Blind for the cost which this involves.

In 1922-23 the balance of the principal sum, $5224.62, was expended for seventy blind people in their homes. In 1923-24 the amount expended for seventy-three blind persons in their homes was $6077.83. Of this latter group the cause of need should, in nearly every case, be ascribed to old age, ill health or physical impairments other than lack of sight, and not primarily to blindness. As one studies the causes of need in cases of blindness it becomes increasingly apparent that blind people, if given suitable training and favorable opportunities, do not become a social liability because they cannot see, but largely because of some added handicap which precludes the possibility of self support.

It is encouraging to note that the Board has, in a considerable number of cases, where there are relatives who are

in a position to give financial assistance, been able to secure their cooperation in providing for needy blind people. Uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, and foster children, as well as those nearer of kin, have agreed to help.

We have briefly characterized several cases which are typical of the conditions which are brought to the attention of this Board:

Mr. A. Eighty-six years old and totally blind. Comes of good American ancestry and in younger days was a man of means and position. Once owned the charger which General Grant rode in battle. Bereft of sight and property gone, could still get along without help, by means of his wife's capable management, if she had not been laid low by a serious operation from the effects of which she has not fully recovered. In spite of their difficult outlook, both man and wife preserve a quiet and determined faith that all will be well. We are helping to the full extent_$30 a month-mostly in groceries.

Mrs. B. The widow of a dentist, in her 60's, childless, with no near relatives, and without means, this estimable woman could provide for herself if it were not for serious physical ailments which render her intermittently blind and have so drawn upon her vitality that she can do no work. She is deaf but shows a fine courage and joys in the faithful ministrations of a few friends. We have cooperated with a private agency in keeping her in her small home.

Mr. C. Typical in some respects of the sad cases of neglect which occasionally come to the attention of a social worker. This young man was brought up by an uncle in Ireland. Conditions were primitive and when he broke his ankle medical attention was not available. Later when a thorn pierced the eye only home remedies were applied. As a youth he was sent to this country, lame, nearly blind, with little schooling and self conscious to a considerable degree. He could not secure employment because of lack of sight and was much disheartened through one unhappy contact after another. The case was brought to our attention and we were able to secure specialists' services and an operation which gave him, with glasses, reading vision. We secured

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employment for him and he is grateful and believes his prospects are good.

Miss D. In middle life, the daughter of a veteran, and possessing more than enough native ingenuity and determination to attain self support, in spite of her blindness, if it were not for ill health. Five operations, however, have left her in a much weakened and highly nervous condition. The case is appealing because of the woman's indomitable desire to attain self support under added handicaps. The King's Daughters, the Daughters of Veterans and a private charitable agency give some assistance. The case is one, because of its difficult phases, that is demanding much patient attention and supervision upon the part of the Board, as well as considerable financial assistance.

The amounts expended for relief purposes by months, for the year ended June 30, 1923, are as follows: July,

1922...... $515.81 January, 1923..... $682.71 August, 588.99 February,

802.96 September, 866.61 March,

999.43 October, 666.20 April,

835.69 November, 827.46 May

853.14 December, 583.27 June,

1124.87

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The 41 towns in which the 100 persons who received relief had a legal residence are as follows:

Berlin
Bolton
Bridgeport
Bristol
Brooklyn
Colchester
East Hartford
Essex
Glastonbury
Granby
Hartford
Litchfield
Madison
Mansfield
Meriden
Middletown
Naugatuck

New Britain
New Canaan
New Haven
New London
Norwalk
Portland
Putnam
Ridgefield
Salisbury
Seymour
Sharon
Shelton
Stafford
Stamford
Suffield
Thomaston
Torrington

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