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Art. II, Sec. 28. The Legislature is prohibited from enacting any private or special laws in the following cases:

2. For laying out, opening or altering highways, except in State roads cases of state roads extending into more than one county, and than one military roads to aid in the construction of which lands shall county. have been or may be granted by Congress.

3. For authorizing persons to keep ferries wholly within this state. Sec. 29. After the first day of January, eighteen hundred and Labor of

convicts. ninety, the labor of convicts of this state shall not be let out by contract to any person, copartnership, company or corporation, and the Legislature shall by law provide for the working of convicts for the benefit of the state.

County prisoners to be worked. See 88111-113.
State convicts may be worked. See 8361.

Art. VIII, Sec. 6. No county, city, town, school district, or Limit of in

debtedness other municipal corporation shall for any purpose become in. of counties, debted in any manner to an amount exceeding one and one-half cities and

school disper centum of the taxable property in such county, city, town, tricts. school district, or other municipal corporation, without the assent of three-fifths of the voters therein voting at an election to be held for that purpose, nor in cases requiring such assent shall the total indebtedness at any time exceed five per centum on the value of the taxable property therein, to be ascertained by the last assessment for state and county purposes previous to the incurring of such indebtedness, except that in incorporated cities the assessment shall be taken from the last assessment for city purposes: Provided, That no part of the indebtedness allowed in this section shall be incurred for any purpose other than strictly county, city, town, school district, or other municipal purposes: Provided further, That any city or town, with such assent, may be allowed to become indebted to a larger amount, but not exceeding five per centum additional, for supplying such city or town



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with water, artificial light, and sewers, when the works for supplying such water, light, and sewers shall be owned and controlled by the municipality.

Cities may go five per cent. for special in addition to five per cent. general-1 W. 297. No limit on necessary expenses—13 W. 518; 16 W. 568; 18 W. 55; 30 W. 608; 24 W. 549; 26 W. 272. Water debt not a part-2 W. 667; 12 W. 524 ; 19 W. 320. Does not apply to local assessments—25 W. 300; but applies to street improvements by city -17 W. 315. Nor to irrigation districts—4 W. 147. Valuation to be at time debt incurred-5 W. 452; 6 W. 427. Lake Washington canal a county purpose-15 W. 9. See Terry v. King County, 43 W. 61. Repayment not debt-15 W. 367. Validation—12 W. 369. Cash and uncollected and delinquent taxes are assets in fixing limit of amount-14 W. 59 ; 19 W. 447. Benefits of county road may be offset to damages-37 W. 14. Assessing means listing by assessor-42 W. 299. Vote to be only three-fiths of those voting on proposition—25 W. 578. "Three-fifths of the voters" means three-fifths of those voting-1 W. 297; 43 W. 74. Taxes due and unpaid and interest thereon offset debt in fixing limit-17 W. 447 ; 43 W. 290 ; 14 W. 59; 14 V. 376 ; W. 447 ; 15 W. 697. Does not apply to special funds created by special assessments—12 W. 465 ; 12 W. 524 ; 17 W. 57 ; 17 W. 315 ; 19 W. 89 ; 19 W. 320; 22 W. 404 ; 25 W. 207 ; 48 W. 75. For what purposes debt may be incurred—45 W. 519.

System of county govo ernment.

Art. XI, Sec. 4. The Legislature shall establish a system of county government, which shall be uniform throughout the state, and by general laws shall provide for township organization, under which any county may organize whenever a majority of the qualified electors of such county voting at a general election shall so determine; and whenever a county shall adopt township organization, the assessment and collection of revenue shall be made, and the business of such county, and the local affairs of the several townships therein, shall be managed and transacted in the manner prescribed by such general law.

Construed : 49 W. 75; 54 W. 383.

County offi- Sec. 5. The Legislature, by general and uniform laws, shall cers, compensation of. provide for the election in the several counties of boards of

county commissioners, sheriffs, county clerks, treasurers, prosecuting attorneys, and other county, township, or precinct and district officers, as public convenience may require, and shall prescribe their duties and fix their term of office. It shall regulate the compensation of all such officers, in proportion to their duties, and for that purpose may classify the counties by population. And it shall provide for the strict accountability of such officers for all fees which may be collected by them, and for all public moneys which may be paid to them, or officially come into their possession.

Cited: 5 W. 461; 6 W. 163; 7 W. 114 ; 9 W. 378; 9 W. 531 ; 14 W. 119; 16 W. 573; 24 W.: 429; 24 W. 554 ; 25 W. 266 ; 28 W. 498; 37 W. 430 ; 46 W. 273 ; 47 W. 701; 53 W. 552; 54 W. 153 ; 54 W. 456 ; 59 W. 486. Deputies may be appointed-11 W. 435. County commissioners shall classify counties--25 W. 264. Road supervisors are not county officers37 W. 428. Fruit inspectors are county officers and must be elected-46 W. 270. Game wardens, same-47 W. 701. A road supervisor does not lose his office because the boundaries of the district are changed, leaving him outside-7 W. 114.

Sec. 6. The board of county commissioners in each county Vacancies

in office. shall fill all vacancies occurring in any county, township, precinct, or road district office of such county by appointment, and officers thus appointed shall hold office till the next general election, and until their successors are elected and qualified.

Cited: 5 W. 398; 7 W. 115 ; 9 W. 377 ; 11 W. 437; 37 W. 271.

Sec. 7. No county officer shall be eligible to hold his office Ineligibility

for more more than two terms in succession.

than two

terms. This does not apply to holding by appointment—6 W. 161 ; 12 W. 59; 24 W. 426. Nor where successor fails to qualify–53 W. 543.

Sec. 8. The Legislature shall fix the compensation by salaries Salaries. of all county officers, and of constables in cities having a population of 5,000 and upward; except that public administrators, surveyors and coroners may or may not be salaried officers. The salary of any county, city, town, or municipal officer shall not be increased or diminished after his election, or during his term of office; nor shall the term of any such officer be extended beyond the period for which he is elected or appointed.

As to salaries—4 W. 797; 7 W. 445; 9 W. 229; 11 W. 435 ; 13 W. 201 ; 14 W. 255 ; 14 W. 482 ; 19 W. 396 ; 22 W. 267; 25 W. 264 ; 35 W. 168; 48 W. 461 ; 54 W. 453. Term is two years-5 W. 458. Term of office may extend beyond two years—24 W. 426. Extra pay to county treasurers—6 W. 250; 21 W. 99.

Sec. 11. Any county, city, town, or township may make and Privileges enforce within its limits all such local police, sanitary, and other

of cities. regulations as are not in conflict with general laws.

Cited: 14 W. 294 ; 16 W. 573; 26 W. 275 ; 28 W. 722; 40 W. 468. Legislative act supercedes ordinance-14 W. 288. City may prohibit stock running at large-5 W. 303. Automobiles and bicycles regulated—33 W. 392; 44 W. 397.

(NOTE—This section gives the county commissioners power to make rules and regulations the same as city councils. Ex Parte Roach, 104 Cal. 272.)

Sec. 12. The Legislature shall have no power to impose taxes Local taxaupon counties, cities, towns, or other municipal corporations, or erned by genupon the inhabitants or property thereof, for county, city, town, eral laws. or other municipal purposes, but may by general laws vest in the corporate authorities thereof the power to assess and collect taxes for such purposes.

(See Rem.-Bal. Code, Vol. 1, p. 102.)

money a

Sec. 14. The making of profit out of county, city, town, or Unlawful

use of public other public money, or using the same for any purpose not authorized by law, by any officer having the possession or control felony. thereof, shall be a felony, and shall be prosecuted and punished as prescribed by law.

See 12 W. 288; 16 W. 146; 18 W. 612.

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