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verfal grove.

While waters, woods, and winds, in they resemble each other too much to concert join,

contend for superiority : nd Echo sweils the chorus to the skies. And oft he trac'd the uplands to survey, The Itarry bort, rode brightest till the

.................Hesperus, that led When o’er the sky, &c.

morn; When were so many truly pasto. Rising in clouded majesty at length, ral images collected together in fo Apparent queen unveild her peerless Small a compaís as in the following And o'er the dark her filver mantle stanza?


PAR. LOST. But who the melodies of morn can tell? The wild brook babbling down the

See also those charming lines in mountain ride;

the Iliad, commencing with, The lowing herd; the theepfold's fim

As when the moon, refulgent lamp of ple bell;

night, The pipe of early ihepherd dim descried

O'er heav'n's clear azure spreads her saIn the lone valley, echoing far and

cred light. wide. The clamorous horn along the cliffs You have, no doubt, observed that above;

all Beattie's poetry is strongly tinged The hollow murmur of the ocean's tide; with a kind of plaintive melancholy, The hun of bees, and linnet's lay of excited by a strong sense of moral love,

perfection, and the disappointment And the full choir that wakes the uni

consequent to the indulgence of such

fenfibility. How well your favourite There is something sublime in the author, to whom following:

The mighty mother did unveil Thence onward to the sounding More Her awful faceThe lone enthusiast oft would take his

understood this character, is fully way, Listening with pleasing dread to the exemplified in those inimitable ones deep roar

of Hamlet and Lear. This nice Of the wide welt’ring waves, in black moral faculty made the one constantarray:

ly wretched, and deprived the other When fulphureous clouds rolld on the

of his reason : the Minstrel, the Ode vernal day, E'en then lie hallen'd from the haunt

to Hope, and the Hermit, abound of man,

with the same feeling, and this diAlong the trembling wilderness to stray: vine melancholy becomes highly inWhat time the lightning's fierce career teresting, when we perceive it is began,

made the perpetual theme of instrucAnd o'er hicaven's rending arch the rat tion to avoid disappointment here, by tling thunder ran.

keeping our eyes constantly fixed on I will conclude my quotation with

an hereafter. the following, which is inexpresibly Gray had also a great deal of the beautiful and grand:

same kind of sengbility, as is shown ..Now beam'd the evening particularly in his Odes to Spring, star,

Adversity, and Eron College. You And from embattled clouds, einerging will perceive a strong resemblance llow,

between the latter part of the Ode Cynthia came riding on her silver car, on a Prospect of Eton College and And boary mountain cliffs thonc faint

Beattie's Ode to Hope. I ly from afar,

read these pictures of what “flesh is This you

will allow to be equal at heir to," without being in a degree Jeast to those often quoted elegant affected, though it must be confefied descriptions of Milton and Homer, the weeping philosopher was all pawhich I will add, and you will ob- ramount in the eyes of these two au. serve they well may be equal, since thors, when they looked with such




gloomy eyes upon human nature.- Before I close these observations, To give an example of our poet's re- already too tedious, I will contribute flections

my mite of approbation to the style Shall spring to these fad scenes no more

of verse chosen for this poem. I return?

think it is peculiarly happy, as from Is yonder wave the sun's eternal bed? the author's own words in his preSoon thall the orient with new lutire face it seems, from its Gothic struc. burn,

ture and original, to bear some rela. And spring shall soon her vital infuence tion

tion to the subject and spirit of the thed, Again attune the grove, again adorn poem.". But in concentering in one

point of view the rich assemblage of the mead, Shall I be left abandon'd in the dust,

images fo frequent in the production, When fate, relenting, lets the flow'r re- it stands unrivalled by any other Ityle. vive?

It is not only musical, but is well Shall Nature's voice, to man alone un- adapted to the plaintive moral sub

jects, which take up fo laige a part. Bid him, tho' doom'd to perillı, hope to

I remain Yours, &c. fire?

X. Y. Z. Is it for this fair virtue oft must strive With ditappointment, penury, and pa n? No! Heaven's immortal spring thall For the Universal Magazine. yet arrive,

OBSERVATIONS RELATIVE And man's majefiic beauty bloom

THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA. again Bright thro' the eternal year of love's

FROM THE ARABIC AUTHORS. triumphant reign.

ALEXANDRIA, which the And carrying his speculation fill Arabs call él. Eskenderyeh, the only farther as to the uncertainty in which port of all Egypt in the Mediterrawe are placed, refpe&ing the wise nean, is situated towards 47° 554 dispensations of Providence, of which longitude, and 31° 11' 30" latitude, we are led to doubt from the appa- according to Bruce, who adopted : rent inconsistency of vice triumph- mean term between his own obserant over virtue, so beautifully de. vations and those of other travellers. fcribed in the Ode to Hope.

Eratosthenes places it in 31° 3' 15".

--The modern él-E/kendergeb is by Alas! full oft on guilt's victorious car The spoils of virtue are in triumph deed does it occupy the fame poli

no means so cousiderable, nor in. borne; While the fair captive, mark'd with

tion as the Alexandria of the ancients, many a scar,

These differences have been a fruitful In lone obfcurity, opprefsd, forlorn, topic for the ingeouity of modero auResigns to tears her angel form.

thors, among whom may be particoHe has these interesting and wise Jarly distinguished the academicians

Bonami and Danville, who have, as it

were, completely restored the antiOne part, one little part, we dimly scan

ent city. The latter likewise bas Thro’ the dark medium of life's feverish dream;

paid some attention to modern Alex. Yet dare arraign the whole fupendous andria, of which he has published a plan,

geometrical plan, and which he reIf but that little part incongruous seem; gards as being“ much less imperfect Nor is that part, perhaps, whąt mor than that of Mr. Norden, which is tals deem!

deficient (he says) in the precision of Oft from apparent ills our blessings rise. its details, as well as being without a then renounce that impious lelf-ef- fcale.” Danville was confessedly a

teem, That aims to trace the secrets of the

man of astonishing powers; but here skies;

he has suffered himself to be milled For thou art but of duft; be humble by prejudice, and I will simply opand be wise.

pose to the bold assertion of the

lines :



of Norden, an evi. which was but ill cured when Alexdence far superior to his on the pre- ander arrived there, I know not. It sent subject. That excellent Danish is, however, certain, that his architraveller and engineer M. Niebuhr tect Dinocrates, or Dinochares, mere(Trav. in Arabia, vol. I, p. 39.), ly rebuilt the ruins of Raqoudah, who saw hiinself that which he de. a famous city in the antient annals of scribes, says, “ that he did not wish Egypt. This assertion, I confess, to take a plan of Alexandria, be would appear bold, were it not supcause we already possess a very ex., ported by the authentic testimony of cellent one, for which we are in. the most eminent oriental authors, debted to Mr. Norden.”

and by the existence of numerous But Danville may juttly stand ac monuments which are yet to be found cused of a Itil more serious error ; among the ruins of Alexandria. an error, indeed, which he shares in Almost all the Arabic and Pera common with all modern historians, san authorst (worthy being mencritics, and travellers; an error, tioned as authorities), and who have which has been transmitted to us by spoken of el-Eskenderyeh or Alexanthe Greek and Latin authors", which dria, agree in describing it as one of the learned Abouffe that himself, and the grandest and most antient cities Cheryf-Eddricyt, have likewise coin in the world. Before Alexander, it mitted in their geography. It is the ge. was called Raqoudaht, in which we nerally received opinion, and which may easily discover the origin of attributes to Alexander the Great Rhacotis, the name given by the the foundation of the city of which Greek and Latin authors to the place we are speaking. The ingenious chosen by Alexander for the foạn. Sainte-Croix, not having consulted any dation of the city of Alexandria. authors but those which we have just enumerated, profeffes also the * Rakoti and Rakote, in Egyptian. fame opinion : he refers the foun + Al-Maqryzy, chap. of the Egyptian dation of this city to the fifth year yås, defcrip. of el-Eskenderyeh, p. 22, of

cities. Descrip. of el-Ffenderyeh, of the reign of Alexander, that is, The Manuscript No. 595 in the National in the first of the CXII Olympiad, Library at Paris. 332 years before the vulgar eraç.

Al-Bakoucy, p. 30, of the KetábBut I think I may venture to dif- talkhys, &c. attributes the foundation of

Alexandria to the first Alexander, the same pute with the Macedonian con with Achek, son of Seleukus, the Grecian, queror a glory which belongs not 10 who travelled over the world, and built the him. He was only the restorer of a

walls of Gog and Magog. Some, he says, city, the first foundation of which is pretend that it was built by Alexander, the

ion of Darius by a daughter of Philip; ac. lost in the immensity of time, but

cording to others, by Chedad; but it is cer. which, at the period of his appear tain there are to be found buildings and stone ance on the scene of this world, was columns anterior to the constructions of certainly much beneath its pristine Alexander; and, Jastly, the anonymous au

thor of a Turkish work, intituled “The grandeur, though, whether owing to

Torch of the Mediterranean Sea'; or, a De. the ravages of the Persians (as the scription of all the Ipands, Coasts, and Ci. Arabic authors affert), or whether ties, from the Straits of Gibraltar to those the invafion of these strangers had of Conftantinople,says positively, that á.

lexandria is a very antient city, the founder inflicted on all Egypt a wound

of which is unknown. Alexander rebuilt it when it had fallen into a state of dilapida.

tion, and called it after himself. (See the * Arrian, lib. iii, c. 1. Plut. Vit.

description of the coast of Alexandria, in the Aler. Diod. n. 0.52. Justin. lib. xi, c. xii. above work, which was written in Turkish, Curt. lib. iv.

towards the year of the hegira 927 (1520), + Defcrip. Ægypt. p. 21. exedit Arab.

by a nephew of Kemâl-reïs, the greatest of lat. Michaelis.

the Ottoman admirals, who lived during the Geogr. Nub. p. 91.

reign of Soliman II.

I have used the ei. Exam. Critique des Hiftor. d'Alex. cellent translation in French, by Cardonne. ]

And Maqryzy formally maintains the face VOL. I.

4 Y

P. 72.

The same authors describe Rha “ day, when theuniverse shall change cotis as a village inhabited by thep- "iis face t." We cannot precisely fix herds and fishermen, and guarded theepoch when Mesfrâim and Chedad by a garrison, to prevent the decent lived; history places it in the fabulous of enemies * ; but the ruins of l'al- periods of the Arabs, respecting which myra, of Balbeck, of Tchehelminar, we have no documents: the same or Pertepolis, those even of A- authors say, that “ Raqoudah had lexandria, do they at the present been built and destroyed many times; day present any other alpect than that one hundred and ten folar what the ruins of Raqoudah bore yearst after Bakht Nafjar(or Neboin the time of Alexander? Some chadnezzar) had facked it as well place the era of its foundation un as Menf (Memphis) in the time of der Meffraim, son of Beyffer and the Greeks, Ejkender ben Filibous grandson of Noah: others ascribe it (Alexander, ton of Philip, furnamed to a very antient Arab king, called the Conqueror), the same who vanChédad, fon of Aail, who caused quilhed Dárú (Darius), and who this infcription to be put upon its reigned over Perfia, rebuilt it, and walls: “ Me, Chedad, son of Aad; called it after himself: he made it * I commenced the building of this the seat of the empire, which was city while I had yet not a wbite before at Menf." To this it may be “hair, and did not fear the ap- added, that the hieroglyphic monu

proaches of death; I have accu. ments, wbich are yet to be found " mulated, in the bottom of the sea, among the ruins of Alexandria,

a treasure thirteen cubits high: it prove the existence of a city “ cannot be drawn from hence un- greatly anterior to Alexander. No “ til the end of the world, the final one is ignorant that, before the ar

rival of the Macedonian Conqueror, fact in two chapters of his Political and Geo.

even before the voyage of the father graphical Description of Egypt: 1. in that entitled Etymology of the Name Egypt, and of history to Egypt, the knowledge its Signification: 2. in the Defcription of of the facred hiftory was entirely Alexandria. In the first chapter he says, loft. May it not be, that Alexander that it was the brethren of the grand priest caused nunerous texts of these Qelymoum, who, in the reign of Mellraim, discovered the treasures of Egypt, worked writings to be engraven on the mothe mines, placetalisınans, conttructed im. numents of his new city? But it mense edifices, and founded various cities, will be said, they are the spoils of among which was difiinguished fi agouduh; fome neighbouring cries; and I am built on the site of Alexandria. In another chapter our author ays, that “this city was

well aware that those of Memphis constructed in the time of Mediâim." contributed to the embellidhment of

* The faine academician as was just Alexandria. Is it, however, proba . quoted fiepposes, “ that in choosing the li.

ble that they would bring away to tuation of Alexandria, Alexander did not so much conlider the salubrity of the place as

many hicroglyphical monuments, its polition, which was so favourable as to

some of which do not evev appear Tender it, in a very hort time, one of the most flourishing cities in the world." We their removal? Let it also be remera

of fufficient importance to induce certainly cannot doubt the insalubrity of the climate of Alexandria, which contributed as bered, that the history of Pharos, much, perhaps, as any thing to the decline of Ragoudah ; and, at the same tiine, we are + Edrycy relates the same inscription, compelled to confess, from its foriner (pienwith some variations; but it is still evident dour, that it was susceptible of encouraging that Chedad claims to himself the glory of a numerous population. It rnay even be having founded this city. added, that, after the inconveniences of every # Maqryzy places the invation of Ballt kind which it presented, it was rather im- Nossar, and conlequently the ruin of Menprudent to found a large city there; as, did phis and Raqoudah, towards the year 2356 not experience contradict it, it might have after the deluge, 1684 before the destrucbeen supposed that it would not have been tion of the temple of Jerusalem. I merely foon inhabited, or, if inhabited, luon depo. give these dates, without engaging in e pulated.

chronological disculion.

which is incontestably much older terranean, and likewise maintained than Alexandria, properly speak an intercourse with the Ealt; but ing, is intimately connected with ftill Egypt was not less the depôt that of Raqoudah. A city for for the merchandize of the known which they had constructed such an world. The post most advantaedifice could not be of eriling im- geously situated, not to say the only portance. Whether it was built one which Egypt poflefies, for such for the purpose of facilitating navi. a commerce, is inconiettably that gation, or for the safety of Egypt in

which we

now know under the general, could such an immense edi name of Alexandria. Can it be tice remain long isolated ? On what supposed that the Egyptians, who grounds can we question the existeixe were then fo active, to industrious, of the city of Riiqoudah, near which fo bold as to undertake to join the it was ftuated ?

two seas, so fixed as to complete But without examining here all that «canal of communication, the the motives which might attract - pollibility of which has been coninhabitants to the vicinity, the fire tested in our days* ? Can it be was fufficient to fix the attention supposed that such a people would of the Pharaohs, who have left fo Beglect the opportunity of an esiamany proofs of their love for the blishment of this kind, until a vicarts, and their geal to encourage torious firanger taught them what national industry : certainly, they they ought to do, and created for were feconded by peaceful, fober, them a post which unhappily beindustrious, patient, and even en came daily of less use to them? I terprising fubjects. I know that am not ignorant, that, even under Strabo* and other authors repre- the dominion of the Greeks, Egypt sent the Egyptians to us as being saw a few bright days; but what confined within their own country,

were they in comparison with those and feeling the greatest horror at Mie krew under the reigns of the the sea. But, did I not fear to en

Pharaohs, an epocht, during which ter into a long discussion in which they created and accumulated more must be eftablished a certain chro. monuments Than the enemies of art nological order and pafiages dif- and science have been able to des cuffed, it would not be difficult for firoy in nearly twenty centuries, me to thew that the Egyptians ri To convey an idea of the imcalled the Phenccians in their com- menlity of this city, the Arabic aumercet. The learned Huett re Thors say, that it formed three, with prefents both the one and the as many walls, and seven ditches other to

as the most antient round it. Il was three hundred navigators in the world. The Egyp blayryny given us a circumltantial tians were policfed of the com

history of this canal, which is very long.

Froin it we learn, that it was dug at a pemerce of the Eail through the Red

riol now buried in the lumber of forgotien Sea, which they reached by the years, that it was frequently repaired, and canal of Suez; the others bad ihat it was not completely finished until the the whole commeree of the Medi. year of the Hegira 145, or 726 of the vulgar

+ This epoch is certainly very anticnt, much * Strab. Geogr. Lib. XVII.

more fo, indeed, than is generally imagined. + History of the Commerce and Naviga. According to Herodotus, the civilisation of Lion of the Antienis, p. 22. The learned author above cited might sand years B.C. According to Magryzy.

the Egyptians may be placed nineteen thou. have added froin Merodotus that the Egyp the foundation of the Temple of Ekhmym is tians furnithed to the army of Xerxes t svo at least thirty thousand years old; an antikundred seilels. Herod. Trans. of C.

quity which feems to be supported by the Larch., vol. V, p. 61. At this period, the Egyptians were greatly falien or from iheir prodigious monuments of Egypt ; and yet

it has been inhabited but very recently, primitive grandeur and impostance.

compared with India and Tibet.




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