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each side of the capital are too power- ardour and success in our settlements in ful for their head; and the empire, India. The King of Ceylon is faid to weakened by interior commotions, will have quitted his capital, and to be · not eafily ward off the blow that is pre- trembling for his fate : his name will

pared for it in the north. Egypt probably foon increase the litt of loveis held by it under a very precarious reign princes who have bent undertenure; and the time is not coine, neath the yoke imposed on them by a when that country, the former seat of company of traders in England. . fcience and of arts, is 10 thake off its America presents to us a very differdisgraceful yoke, and ceale to be the ent picture. In the northern parts, batest of kingdoms, the subject of they who were formerly, and they who Naves. The Mabometan fuperftition still remain, subject to the English seems, however, like its filter the Po name, are with great industry and pith fuperftition in Europe, to be on perseverance bringing their woods into its decline. Arabia begins to enquire cultivation. The United States are, into the pretences of its antient pro- by a wife policy, taking advantage of phet; and its return to truth may open the troubled state of Europe; and . the road to thote scenes, of which, in whilst they are increating their cointhe present state of the world, very merce, agriculture is improved, new few can entertain any conception. towns are springing up in the deserts, Every thing, however, leems to por and the burdens of their revolution are tend some great changes in both parts daily leffened by the frugality of their of the antient Roman empire, which government and the improvement of will excite the surprise of those who their resources. The scheme attempt bare not contemplated the regular pro- ed of allimilating their constitution cess of Providence in the government more to that of European states has of the affairs of men.

completely failed; and the representaWhilst Europe is thus agitated, the tive system is taking tuch deep root, . immense regions in Asia and Africa are that it will not hereafter be eally perfectly unconcerned in the disputes. Thaken: various causes contribute to The majesty of China may, perhaps, the probability, that the United States have heard, that some petty princes of will baifle the conjectures of most poa petty district are contending for fupe- liticians. The great extent of country, riority; but the annihilation of both and the case with which new settleparties would not be felt in these dist- ments are formed, render the influence ant regions, and, in their system of of party less sensibly felt than in the politics, the balance of the European mother country; and the great use that powers is much beneath their notice. is made of the press, together with the If we extend our views to those im custom of the representative commumense plains whence our ancestors mi- nicating to his constituents the grounds grated to seize the northern parts of of his conduct and votes, diffuse a mass Europe, and to exchange a roving for of political knowledge, to which the a settled life, we fhall see the Tartar subjects of any other state in the world pursuing his usual mode of occupations, have not been liitherto accustomed. and travelling with his waggons, un- One of the first things now eliablithed heedful of thofe objects which are of in an infant colony is a printing press; to much importance to us, and as ig- and on the banks of the Ohio are printnorant of our contentions as we are of ed the transactions of European armies the scenes which are daily taking place or philofophical societies. This premaamong his wandering tribes. In India ture eitablithment of such a manufacthe found of war is more diit nctly ture is chiefly owing to the impolicy heard. The natives of the country are of our government, which by its duties then felves scarcely involved in the has fo railed the price of books, that a quarrel; and, as the French power is trade is now nearly loft, which by tolevery trifling in that part of the world, rable prudence might have been prethe politics of the Company will con- ferved for nearly a century in this countinue nearly the same during the whole try. The religious toleration that is of the conflict. They are now too established every where in these States ftrong for the neighbouring powers; is a phænomenon from which some cuand the saine syitem of aggrandizement . rious results might be expected; and, which has so much increated the terri- by the last intelligence from Kentucky, Lory of France, is pursued with equal it appears that religious controversy is there carried on with so little rancour, king and people, he made room for ihat congregations can leparate on im- one of milder manners, and a greater portant topics without breach of social regard for the old conftitution of Eng kuion. The Governor himself is a mi- land. Justice was permitted to take Dilter of a congregation, and his peo- its usual course; and an insurrection in ple are divided into nearly as many Ireland, which would probably by the lects as are to be found in England. late adminiftration have been convertThe trinity was the subject of contro- ed into a latting rebellion, was quelled verly in his fect; and in opposing it his by a proper exertion of the powers influence had no sway, though leveral with which the civil government was congregations embraced his opinion. entrusted : a rigour beyond the law was

The louthern provinces of America not thought necessary, nor were torprelent little of activity: they continue tures inflicted to extort confeflion. their obedience to the mother state The commanding powers of elomore from babit, and the mildness of quence no longer adorn the Treasury the government, than from the fear of Bench; but it has been found, that any confequences that might result a loan may be negotiated without such from disobedience. The length of a waste of words, and prudent meapeace which thele provinces have en- sures may be adopted, though they jored could not fail of adding to the are not inforced with all the pomp of Improvement of the country, and, in idle declamation. After the meature fome degree, of the minds of the inha- of declaring war, in whose propriety bitants; but little can be known of the country seemed to acquiesce withtheir internal state, from the difficulty out hesitation or enquiry, the volunof accels to such remote regions, and teer system is the boldeit feature of ihe very few publications that make the administration. This will probatheir way to Europe from those coun- bly be the subject of many interesting tries.

debates in seliions of parliament, The From such a general survey of fo formation of corps of volunteers, Teign countries we naturally turn to the amounting to upwards of three huncontemplation of what more concerns dred thousand effective men, cannot our own domestic politics; and here a fail to present fome irregularities, on wide field is open for discussion, much which its opponents will dwell with too extentive for our limits, and on the utmost acrimony, at the same time which we must leave the future hiito- forgetting the benefits that have arisen rian to expatiate. He will trace the to the country from an armed force, prelept appearance of things to the raised in to thort a time, and at fo litfystem which was planned fomewhat tle expence. Volunteers are not to more than forty years ago, and has be treated, nor is it neceflary to treat been carried on to this time with un- them, in the fame manner as a regular wearied alliduity and altonithing fuc- army: local circumttances require difCels. It has, indeed, quintupled the ferent arrangements, and the laudable national debt, occafioned the loss of emulation that prevails amongit them Ainerica, changed in a great degree amply compensates for that difcipline, the manners of the people, and pro- which is necessary for those with duced establishments againtt which the whom war is pursued as the means of jealousy of our ancestors was perpetu gaining a subtittence. It is natural Dy on its guard. Great were the dif- that disputes should arise in some ficulties which the fytiem lad at first to corps: the constitution of them all encounter, and it required many fa- may not, from the hutte in which thev vourable circumstances to mature its were formed, have been drawn up progrets. The late administration made with equal judgement; yet time would flery thing easy, and a minitier choien correct these errors, and experience by the fovereign, and supported by the allim late their regulations nearer to people, was a fit initrument for the each other. One of the braveit GeneDeafures to be put into execution. He rals that this nation has produceri, anticipated the schemes, planned pro- and whole triumphs in the late war bably before he was in existence; and excite no small fürprise at the inferior bax in his administration the horrors ttation in which he is now placed, has Puppetrated by the Duke of Alva in the exprefled his approbation of the voActherlands renewed in Ireland, luntary force now in arıns; and if apually, at last, disagreeable to the their pursuits in life might render


them unsuitable to all the exercises of ing to public justice those, whom it has a foreign campaign, they are atured- emyloved spies and informers to hunt ly competent to all the calls that can out for mildemeanours. The dangerous be made on their services in their own consequences of such a fociety are ob

vious. Thele spies must do something, or The arming en masse, the original their employers will withdraw their replan, was fuperleded by the volunteer wards; and many may be denounced lyftem. Recurrence to its principle to the secret committee, whom it will may obviate some of the present ditti not think proper to prosecute by a reculties, and if the first levy, consisting of gular courie of law, as it possesses effeczhofe between twenty and thirty years tual means to ruin them by safer and of age, were trained to the ule of more secret devices. Men who make arms, without drawing them to a dift- such pretenfions to fanctity are selance from their homes, or cloathing dom overburdened with the milk of them in an expensive military garb, a human kindness; and they who can system may be ettablithed, which fall degrade themlelves fo low as to emgive a military strength to the kingdom, ploy all the arts of espionage will not be far fuperior to any power of the ene- very scrupulous in the use of any other my. On this, however, parliament means to obtain their ends. The fpy, will deliberate, and no one can doubt also, will not be content with the lathat the utmott caution will be applied lary he obtains from his employers : he in speaking on fo important a question; will have his favourites and his foes; fince it is evident to all, that, if the and for one, whom he denounces, bulk of the people are not capable of ten may be induced by terror of a trial bearing arms, the nation must in care to pay him an exorbitant compensation. of an invasion fall, like Switzerland or That such a fociety is wanted, no Holland, under the pressure of a vigor- proofs have been given; that it is unous enemy.

conititutional is notorious. The conIn the finance bill the minister fol- ftitution has provided a grand jury in lowed the scheme of his predeceffor every diftriét to enquire into every kind under a different name. A tax is or of misdemeanour; and gentlemen dered to be raised on income; but the might in their proper places perform difficulties in the wording of the act, their duty, where they thought it rerender its execution problematical, The quifite, in a mapner honourable to evident inequality in the tax, and the in- themselves, and beneficial to their quisition into the circumstances of each country. A self-constituted inquisition, individual, by bodies of men acting in fe- with a regular train of spies, cannot cret, excite a degree of odium against long be tolerated in a free country. it, which cannot long be fmothered; The alarm spread on the subject of and when the gain is balanced with invasion produced fome effect both on that odium, we cannot doubt that the the trade of the country and the pubprudence of the minister will see rea- lic stocks. Specie disappeared. Indifon for its repeal. What is to be said viduals prudently availed themselves in defence of it, when an officer of of the opportunity of guarding against the army, compelled by his fituation future contingencies; and the cash fo to appear like a gentleman, thall be hoarded was doubtless preserved in a taxed in the same fum as a private in- manner more beneficial to the public dividual, who may live as he pleases than in the cells of the Bank. The on the same income? The funds of the strange power allowed to a banking one may expire to-morrow; those of company of coining paper money, withthe other remain not only during life, out permillion even to give cash in exbut may be bequeathed to his chil change for it, or, in other words, the dren, and remgter pofterity.

annual prefent made by government of From subjects of a general nature, many hundred thousands, continues in the attention of the legislature will full vigour: the patural effect on the probably be called to one in which the price of provisions and articles of life interests of many and eventually of all has followed, and men in general dethe community may be concerned. A fpair of the bank returning to its antient society is forined under the name of usages. That it fhould recover its anthe Society for the Suppreilion of Vice, tient credit, is impoffible, for credit is which proteffes to aim at a purer mora- of a most delicate nature; and the molity, by reviving obsolete laws, and bring- ment a government interferes with the interior concerns of a trading company, payable in gold; and thus a return will that moment its security becomes pre- , be made to that faith which ought to difcarious. There is now an opportunity tinguish the transactions of a commerof forming an imperial bank, on land- cial country. ed security, whose notes ihould be

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