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can have no fcruple in mentioning equilibrium of desire, and the means his authority for ihe insertion of of gratification, whether in the such a paragraph; and it would be humblent or most exalted fpbere, uletul to nane ine person who could conftitutes alike the maximum of derive pleasure from such a falfe- happineis. The influence of rank, bood.
therefore, is probably much less QUESTIONS to be answered next conducive to any variety of indivi. month.
dual happiness which may occur, Which are the inoft important than the moral and physical acepochs between the erecting of the cidents of life, and, perhaps, that tent in the wilderness for the wor- difference in the degree of mental thip of the one and only true God, cultivation which is the subject of and the invasion of Palesiine by the present paper. Joshua ?
There is fome difficulty in arrive What are the reflections to which ing at a satisfactory conclusion upthese epochs give rite ?
on this question, in confequence of Which are the most important the difficuliy of appreciating cor. epochs between the signing of Magna rectly the intensity of the feelings of Charta by John, and the reformation? men. Language is scarcely an ade
To what reflections do there e quate medium of representation, bepochs give rife?
caule fome men are loud and vociIs any human being ever twice in fervus on all occalions, fome are the same place?
cool and Gilent, some are prone to How far must the sura be removed exaggeration, while others magnanifrom us to appear as a star only of mouily depreciate their futieriros, the first magnitude?
and enjoy with all the temperance
of philofophy. If we recur tu a TRE INSPECTOR. NO. VI. comparison of our own sensations Be niggards of advice on no pretence, in fimilar circumstances, we then For the worst avarice is that of fenje. appeal to a fixed standard, which,
“ Which may be deemed the hap- if applied to others different in the pict:---the man of intellectual refine- cultivation and original modifica. ment, or the man of uncultivated tion of their understanding and tecla tasie?"
ings, will undoubtedly lead us into OUR reflections on the distribu- error. In this dilemma, we fall tion of happiness, as it flows perhaps come nearest to a fausiac. through the various channels of fo- tory inference by comparing our ciety, have generally terminated in own feelings not with those of the conviction, that impartial na- other men in similar situations, but ture has dealt out the invaluable with themselves at different periods gift with an equal and undilline of our exilience, and confequentis guishing hand. The quantum of under different degrees of cuitirathe pofleflion has appeared to be tion and rednement; and, fecondly, duly apportioned to the capability we thall examine how far the interof the pofleflor; and the measure ence that may be deduced from this of individual enjoyment, various as comparison is supported or invali. its capacity may be, bas teemed to dated by the evidence of other men, be filled respectively in fimilar pro- granting that that evidence may be portions. Enlarged means of gra- in itself somewhat imperfect. lification bring with them new and from the earlielt dawnings of augmented desires, followed by new intellect, the pleasures of imaginaand enlarged sources of difcontent tion or of taste are very important and disappointment; and as happi-parts in the composition of our ness is merely comparative, the happiness. Music and painting, songs and tales of fancy adapted to fication. In the same manner a our comprehension, arrest with a balfpenny ballad gives to the unrepowerful influence even our child- fined intellect a pleasure which the jih attention, and elicit the strongest fapient and critical man of laste emotions of childish delight. The does not derive even from the imjudgement is not then formed, and mortal productions of a Shakespear the utmost extravagance of fancy or a Milton: the emotions of the on the one hand, and every little former, during his perusal, are uniconceit and perly play of words on formly agreeable; those of the lat. the other, every novelty, in Nort, ter are often unpleasant, even paino which lies within the reach of ful, at the discovery of faults in the young apprehenfion, operates in its' most finished compositions. full force on the mind, uncorrect. But there is another ingredient ed by skill, and the emotions, there in the compound, happiness, which fore, which it excites, unrepreffed is of infinitely higher importance and undiminithed by the chilling than the pleasures of taste; I mean hand of maturer criticism, Mr. the exercise of the social affections. Burke seems to have felt equal Upon this the influence of the proconviction and regret of the fupe- gress of life, i, e. of the progress of rior gratification which the uncul- cultivation, is perhaps scarcely tivated taste of early youth derives more favourable. It is true, that from works of the imagination, we gradually acquire a delicacy, an compared with that of maturer acuteness of fenfibility, a greater years. “Lo the morning of our aptitude, therefore, to the play of days," he says, “ when the senses those affections; but at the fame are unworn and tender, when the time we attain an acuteness of difwhole man is awake in every part, cernment, and the qualities which and the glofs of novelty freth upon call them forth in focial interall the objects that surround us, course become cautiously scrutihow lively at that time are our fen- nized, and deliberately weighed. sations, but how false and inaccu- The open unsuspicious confidence rate the judgemenis we forin of of youth is superseded by the pruthings! I despair of ever receive dent and jealous calculations of ing the fame degree of pleasure maturer moral judgement. And from the most excellent perform as the differences of character are ances of genius, which I felt at general and confpicuous, while conthat age from pieces which my geniality is rare to a proverb, this pielent judgement regards as tri- deliberate scrutiny ends more frefling and contemptible,” (On Subl. quently in a diftant civility, than and Beaut., p. 35.) i
in the cordial interchange of unre: The man of uncultivated taste re- served and confidential friendship. mains during his whole lite nearly Yet, although this is, we believe, in this happy taie rif childhood, in a correct fiatement of the circumregard to the gratification afforded liances, as society is now constitute by works of fancy, Observe the ed in general, it must be acknowdelight which reigns at the cottage ledged, that the ideal perfection of door, when the pedlar opens his focial happiness must be fought for portfolio of mileravle pictures, that only among minds of that delicate "imitate humanity to abominably," refinement, which repels every apIf the external expreffion be a true proach of the coarse and grofler eriterion of the internal emotion, lentiments of the world, and is the critic, contemplating the pro- tremblingly alive to the pure and ductions of Raphael himtelf, teels not etherial feelings of dignity, proprie. such exalted and unalloyed grati- ty, and virtua. VOL. I.
But if the capability of the This tendency as well as facility highest happiness belongs to thefe, of enlarging upon our ills, alords, does ihe evidence of mankind tend we think, the principal appearance to prove that they enjoy the potef- of an argument in favour of the fion? Or does it corroborate ihe non-refinement of our understand. deduction we have drawn from the ing and feelings; becaute to cui progress of individual cultivation? tivate them is necessarily to cultWe shall allow a poet to answer the rate this tendency and this facility, queftion, who, while the alludes and in many, therefore, to counter. moje particularly to the pofleflion act a fclicitous difpofition, and to of poetic fenfibility, and the favours contribute to mental inquietude. of the Muse, presents a picture of But we wonld earnetily hope more general application.
that there fombre complainers bave < But far, far bappicr is the lot of those left us rather the language of occa" Who never learu'd her dear delue fonal and imaginary inquietude “ five art;
than a picture of their habitual and 6 Which, while it decks the head with real ftate of mind, since we know
I“ many a role, “ Reserves the thoin to fester in the
that the writings and dispoGtions of “ heart.
poets are often greatly at rariance, « Tor full lie bids foft niti's meltine ove We would hope, too, that where “ Stream o'er the ills the knows not the delineation is true, the tempe“ to remove ;
rament of the individual may be of. « Points ev'ry pany, and deepens ten alligned as a cause of thele “ ev'ry tighi,
murmurnigs and melancholy views Of mourning friend hip or unhap- of things; aided perhaps by ditie
“ py love. « Ah! then, how dear the Mule's fa
culties of circumstance, or the use “ vours cost,
furefcco trials of adverfity : for un“ If thele paint forrow helm-uho ficit der there conditions only can we
" moji." CHARLOTTE. SMITH. conceive that the cultivation of inIn the fame strain of reply, no tellect and the refinement of tafie deubt, the Cowpers, Chatierions, can in any degree contribute to unCunninghams, and even Johntonis happiness. of the last age, would feelingly For it must be remembered, that join; and the imple and pathetic the same acuteness of discernment eloquence of Burns would not be and sensibility, which originates in less impressive on the subject. Nor this cultivation, neceffarily implies would Young, and Goldimith, and an equally vivid perception of pleaShenlone, refuse the tesumony of surable as of painfulemotions. And their sentiments in corroboration of indifference to the one is of neceflitheir filter-poet's opinion. The ty accompanied with inditierence evils of the world are unquestionably to the other. But his cocdition is numerous, and the fenfibility that surely not enviable whole faculties is 1harpened by refinement to the are born to obtafely, that, through keenest perception is bui 100 apt the varied scenes of life, do dwell upon them both by anti- « Joy is ne'er felt, and forrows never
tion and reflection, and even lo : “known:” magnify them through the obfcurity of diliance. Thlis, as a waggiíh
and unqueilionably ilie man of re
fined iatie enjoys the exquifite enpoet has remarked, « We all can magnify our ills;
dearments of society, where there “ It requires none or little art are in his power, tar above the « To turn our bon-bons into pills, coarse uncultivated being of parure.
" Or inako a bolus of a tart. And the many instances of that en « To make a sweetmeat of a pill, joyment which we find among poets • Requires tome tancy, and more 1.ill."
and wits, not indced from their own STEVENSON.
account (for men are less apt to fit the most desperate circumstances. down and recount their joy's lu the Could we prolong" the gloss of world ihan to muse in public over novelty freth upon all the objects their forrows), but from the ac- which surround us," as in youth, counts of others, tend liill farther the uncultivated mind would then, to impress a conviction that the no doubt, experience the greatest complaints of those murmuring enjoyment; but as familiarity nepoets, above alluded to, are to be cellarily ensues on repetition, and conlidered as the offspring of their admiration declines, to reason from wayward moments of ennui and our early pleatures is but to amuse fplecy, or to be attributed to pecu- ourselves with fophisms. Perhaps liarity of mental constitution, irritat- the Horatian appeal will bring the ed by the unpleasant casualties of life. question home to the conviction of Lady W. Montague says of her re- every cultivated understanding; lation Fielding, that “no man en- “Will ye exchange your refined joyed life more than he did, though fenfibility for the undifcerning Blufew had less reason to do so. His por of ignorance ?” What murkappy confitution (even when he murer will answer in the aflirmahad, with great pains, hall demo- tive? lished it) made him forget every
" Hinc vos, thing when he was before a venifon « Vos hinc mutatis difcedite partibus, party, or over a falk of cham
“Eja! pagne; and I am perfuaded he “ Quid ftatis? Nolint. Atqui licet esse has known more happy moments
6 bcatis." than any prince upon earth. His
HoR., Sat. 1. natural fpirits gave him rapture
2. with his cook-maid, and cheerful
07 From a conviction that greuter la
titude will be giren to discusion, and ness when he was fiarving in a gar- being uwure that there are many imret." Similar observations have portant topics which cannot conicbeen related, too, relpecting Sir nicnily be thrown into the form of a Richard Stecle, and the profligate qucjiin, wc intend, in future, to and unfortunate Savage; and it
drop that part of our “ In pector." was probably their acuteness of
le thall, however, continue it as a
“ periodical cluyili,” but upon a more fenfibility, refined by cullivation,
eitenfive piun thun the Rambler, to which this vivid perception of
Spectator, &c., because we Jhull admit emotions of happiness, even in the into it dilipuisitions upon every jiddia molt desperate circumítances, is lo ject, connected either with moralily, be attributed.
literature, lcicnce, politics, or philotin Thus, upon the whole, the evi
phy. By this means we shall be ence dence of mankind is, on this lub
bled to embrace a much more compre
henjive sphere of enquiry, and conjeject, very contradictory, which ine
quently contribute jo much the more viiably leads to the conclufion), that to the umujement and injiruction of the refinement of intellect and the our reader's. cultivation of taite are not greatly infirumental cither in the produc TIIE BABILLARD. NO. VI. tion of happiness or of milery : and
Come like shadows; so depart! it seems probable, that the contri
SHAKESPEARE. tutional temperament, the store of
• Voltaire. animal spirits, and the corporeal AV impertinent person had teazhealth, have contributed more ed this lively writer with continual powerfully to excite murmurs, in letters, to which no answer had fpite of the most favourable and been given; at last Voltaire wrote ectatic happiness, in opposition to to himn ibus :
“My dear Sir,
a man, fould stand upon the “I am dead, and cannot fame foundation, therefore, in future, have the ho “ One of my friends, a man of nour to write to you."
very delicate health, but of great
Nrength of character, used to say of Rameau,
bimteli, I am as well the reed that THIS great musician poffcffed bends and never breaks, as the vak that enthualarm without which noc that breaks and never bends, homo in thing great is ever effected. He had terior totus nervus. one day fome men of leliers at his “ A man without character is a house, who laughed at him very thing, not a man. much for making an anachronism. “ A man without rinciples is Raineau flew with great emotion to commonly a man without charac. his harpsichord, and, running rapid. ter. Had he been born with a chajy over the keys of it, played a most racter, he must have ler n the necef exquisite piece of harmony." Now," et forming to himselt principles faid he, " gentlemen, it surely co jsistent with it. Thews more talent to be able to “ Philosophy, like the art of compose such a piece of mulic as medicine, contains a great deal of that you have just heard, than to trath; very few remedies, and hardly be able to tell in what year Char- aliy specifics. lemagne or Clovis died. You on- " Vanity causes a man to exert ly remember, I invent; and pray his talents more forcibly than be which is most admirable, genius or otherwise would have done. Put a erudition ?"
fick to a piece of pointed iron, it On a quarrel he had with the becomes a dart ; add a few feathers elegant Quinault, whose operas he to it, and it becomes an arrow. set to music, he said, “You will "Weak men are lo rigues and des see how well I can do without my figning persons what light troops are poer. I will, in future, let the to an army, who do more milchief Dutch gazeite to music.”
than the army ittelf, by scouring
and ravaging the country. Du Cerceau,
“If a man really withes to avoid In his life of the modern Roman being a quack, he thould never get demagogue Rienzi, observes, that upon a itage ; bụt ii once he has “« popular talents, in general, are played his trick, upon it, he must combined with a certain degree of continue them, or lùbmit to have insanity.” The mass of mankind stones thrown at him by the poappear rather to be pleased with pulace. what dazzles than with that which .“ Most men are Naves because convinces them; and are more im- they cannot pronounce the monoprefied by the ardour of enterprize fyllable “ No," and are unable to than by the fobriety of practicabi- live alone, lity. It is the exercised eye alone “ General maxims are in the which prefers the impasto of Titan conduct of lite what routine is in to the glaze of Barocci-folid and ceriain arts. Situations in each substantial colour to airy and dia. occafionally arise, which require phonous tints.
something beyond thein."