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Sagnifying the age of man, fent for
16 a present at a birth-day in one hun
3. So is the character
A dred different forms, to fignify the
Fo (1), happiness, fent to friends willing to the person honoured with
and others, to with them a hundred it, that he may change his age
happinesses. wie hundred times, namely, that
The above mentioned learned he may live one hundred years..
Emperor Lim-ti, however, left a 9. The character 2194 Le memorable and permanent indica
waar tion to pofterity of the prescrence pleasure, is also fent in its centu- which fome of the eight' tiyles of plicate form, to willa any one a antient characters deferred above hundred pleafures.
all others; nur did he neglect to
set forth the superiority which the number 18,000 has not added of his modern Kiai-xu (see above, : 376) own (as I much fufpect) the word merited over them all, by caul's (each) chacun; for no Chinele fabu the five Chinese facred books, called lous chronology that I have seen re
Kim (rw), to be engraven on fortycords fuch an age* - But I could overlook the above tonpidity of Dr.
fix large marble Nabs, in the styles Hager, he not being fütliciently ac- Ta-chuen, Siao-chuen, and Li-ru. quainted with the English language, as as well as in the most clafical he confeffes in his preiace, if the fame antient and modern ones, Ko-len page i did not contain a blunder of and Kiai-ru : (fee Mailla in the Chinese literature dill more grofs, by Chou kug, by Mr. De Guignes, confounding the actient with the mo
p. 395): there were exposed by dern characters, and attributing to the latter that variety of forms which only
his order to the public view on as belongs to the föriner -The length of many marble pedestals before the this Letter prevents me froin entering South Gate of the Imperial College, upon this fubject, which will appear A.C. 175. (See Mailla, tom. III, with greater propriety in my next, p. 499, of the History mentioned in where I thall treat of the modern cha- Nole c), Althou h all historians racters; and there the reader will see
mention this circuinftance, F. Malo
me with what aadacity this blundering Doctor fupports his impenetrable ignon
illa observes, that he was not able sance, by making learned men appear to get information in any of these as abectors and accomplices of his intolerable effrontcry, by ineans of inGdiouily mutiloting and distiguring quo
(o) The rca ler muit obferve, that tutions, and thus clothing his wining
thy lame character 140 is fometimes tupidity with the Lion's Jkin.- can
written only in one large torin, in the not, however, ditini's the subject of
inodern Ku-ru, by the emperors of antient characiers, without proiniling
Chin, on luperb liker iheets, ornathe reader additionui obfertations at
Bented with the unperial dragous, and the end of this Letter, w set forth in
is then one of the highest honours they its true light the unparalleled ignorance
can' bestow to pretent any one with concerning them, betrayed by Dr. Hu
this character. The reader will find
a curious anecdote concerning this ger in a PROSPECTUS.
letter Fo in the Leit es éditiautos,
Rec. XXII. . 281. . I must not omit obse: viag, that weircei in the Chi ese chronologies two characters alluding (w) Tlofe derous of knowing more 30 the reign of these first imaginary monarchs fully the coutertybf ihete sacred books, which have a great resemblance of sound and in
or him, of the Chinese, muit consult fure (a very uncommon case, indeed, in the Chi. pese language; though Dr. Huger, ibid., will the often quoted veinoires--tee the bave it to be very cominon), but are very different Index, Vo, X, at the wori Kiny. But in their signification; I mean the charac:ers 2 others, unwilling w attempt the perulad
of thiut yait chaos of good and bad, Ko, each, a d A Ho, together, which is even may form some idea of thete books by pronounced Ko. These may have ben easily reading the account given of thein nistaken by the Chinese printers aod engravers, or the European t.anslators, who may have given the authors a mcaming very concury to their jatention, Guigues, as quoted above.
monuments are now extant, or entitled Çien-fu-ten, of compofition where preserved.
of a thousand characters lee As inere is nothing, perhaps, Fourm. Gram. Sin., p. 363). The more memorable, in the history of superior talie and accuracy of ihis tre whole world, than this effort perioșmance obtained him the of imperial munificence towards Emperor's pardon, and he was fet propagating, and almost eternizing at liberty. the' foundest principles of mora- I have by me several editions of lity and literature, deprived as I this fingular performance; and I am of the text of the Annals, of must not omit observing, what newhich I have juft quoted the version ther Relandius nor Fourmont hare by F. Mailla, I will, at least, pre. done ; that, to my great allonifie sent your readers, Mr. Editor, with ment, every character is ditlerent, the text of a chronological work in and no one occurs twice. A fine my poffesion, entitled Kia çu-hoci- gular edition of mine exbibits ibis ki [fee Fourm. Gram. Sin., p. 493) work in fire styles, and not in fix, where the author thus bricdy re- as Relandius says, which are all the cords this glorious historical fact abovementioned, with the excepunder the eighth year of Lim-ti. tion of the Ko-teu, for wlaich the te chunk In the
Çao-çu is fubfiituted. Moul? b.
This famous work ferves as an ergraven
elementary and claflical book to
the youth of China ; it contains marble
not only the most necefiary characters, but also fuch ones as ex
hibit a great variety of forms, so placedon
as to render it impoflible that any - the
other compound character thould imperial
be found of great importance that
is not maniletily composed of fome college's
of the most conspicuous groups to o that the books be met with in the Cien-cu-ten.
How then could that helluo-librocalled
rum FOURMONT not have read the the five
above quoted page of Relandius,
and how could he give us such an yithout. Di vai. láir T rim
inapplicable account of this work,
as he does at page 363 ?-Non omAnother literary anecdote is re- nia poginus omnes. lated by Relandius, concerningibe I thall now, Ir. Editor, conhigh eltimation the above antient clude this long Leiter with laying styles of writing have enjoyed, and before your readers a specimen of still retain free Diteitai. Mifcel the antient and modern fivles of lan., vol. II, p. 118), where he writing now in general use in China, mentions that an impritoned iterato according to the above account; wrote an elegant composition, con- but those who may not reli fatisfied filling of one thousand characters, wiih a Gingle character of each fort written in eix different ftyles, and must seek for more in the Philofocontaining, as it were, a Cumpen- phical Transactions, vol. LIX, or dium Naturæ, as he says, which was in the Lettre de Fékin. As to the
Ta-chuen, the plate Vth, of the * Tai being a title given to eniperors and 32 fpecimens published in the Motheir families, by the Vth rule of the Lo xu it fignifies imperial.- Hio means science;
nument of Yu, will answer that and by the Vlih rule of the same it is used for purpose. (See also Note o.) sollege, where science is taught. See p. 333. [To be concluded in our neth]
ANSWERS TO THE HISTORICAL years from the birth nf, Christ. On
AND PHILOSOPHUCAL QUES- these dates we camiod expect the TIONS PRJPOSED IN THE LAST utmost accuracy; but Joseph is NUMBER.
supposed, in the year 1702 before QUEST. I. Which are the most Christ, to have sold out 'corn to important epochs between the fiood the famillied Egyptians for the fee and the erecting of the tent in the fimple of their lands, which he rewilderness by Moses for the wor- stored to them again, on condition fhip of the one and only true God ? that they thould be subject to an
There epochs are, the difperfion annual tax exactly double of the of mankind, the birth of Abraham, tax, or tithe, which is paid to the the birth of Isaac, the change in clergy in this country. This tax the state of Egypt by Joseph, and was reserved for the expences of the birth of Mofes. The first governincnt, the clergy of Egypt epoch, or the dispersion of man- having their own lands reserved to kind, happened about one hundred them, which were not affected by years after the fiood, or in the year the general tax. 1757 from the creation of the The fourth epoch is the birth of world : consequently this date may Moses ; of importance, as he mav be easily remembered. The food be considered as the founder of came on in the year 1756 from the the Jewith polity; and it may be creation; and Noah came out of the remembered from its being about ark in the year 1757 from the cre- eighty years from the fetting up of ation. About thirty years after the tent for the worship of one the dispersion, Nimrod the rebel is God, in opposition to the idolatrous supposed to have laid the founda- worship of the nations around, tion of the first imperial govern- where more persons than one were ment in the world at Babylon. worshipped as gods. The birth of
The second epoch mentioned is Moses took place in the year before of high importance, both with re. Christ 1571, fpect to the advantages derived from Subordinate to these epochis are, it in general by mankind, and by the birth of Isaac, one hundred the aflistance it affords us in all years after the birth of Abraham; chronological researches. Abra- the birth of Jacob, fixty years after han was born in the year 2008 af- that of Isaac, or a hundred and ter the creation, and confequently fixty years after that of Abraham; his birth very nearly divides the the birth of Jofeph in the ninetytime between the criation and the first year of bis father Jacob's age, birth of our Saviour. It is not im- or two hundred and fifty-one years probable, that, if our accounts of after the birth of Abraham. Ma. preceding times were more accu-, ny uncertain epochs take their rile rate, we should find that the inter- in there periods; as, the establishval of time between the birth of ment of the Chinese monarchy, Christ and the creation is accurate about three hundred and fifty years ly divided by the birth of Abraham. after the flood; the expulsion of
The third epoch mentioned is af- the Hycles, or King Shepherds, sumed in preference to others, as from Egypt, about five hundred the birth of Jacob, the sale of Jo- and twenty years after the flood; · feph, or the journey of Jacob's fa- the origin of the Athenian governmily into Egypt, becaufe it is easily ment, about eight hundred years remembered, and from it we can after the food: but these things, as eafily refer to other events. It hap- well as every thing relative to propened nearly 300 years from the fane history, are wrapped up in fo birth of Abraham, and about 1700 much-obscurity, as to the precise
time when they happened, that lit- manly characler which ennobles his ile dependance can be placed on fpecies, the information conveyed to us by The call of Abraham was the profane historians, or the politled great barrier to superstition and tre writers of Greece, who found obem- ranny. He left family, friends, selves loft when they attempted to and country; he taught his own give an account of any thing before household the worship of the Perthe establishment of the liraelites in fon whom he adored; and received Palestine.
the covenant from him, tbat his fa. Queft. II. To what refe&ions mily hould potless the land in do thefe epochs give rise ?
which he was a tranger. Yet this, Our cbjef attention in the above event was not to take place till a periods must be drawn to Abra- distant period, that ile world, wankain, the greateti man asuredly , dering in its own inagination, might that liver in those times, and one not only reap the consequences of of the greateft men that have ever its fully, see how inadequate its appeared upon the carth. At his own powers are to extricate itself, birth idolatry had taken poilellion but be prepared for the great of inankinci, probably introduced changes that were to be efiected by by Nimrod, the author of arbitrary the chosen people. Again the fagovernment and of perfonal Navery. mily of Abraham was permitted to The previous difportion of inankrud funk into the utmost distress, that prevented the furins of idolatry the promises made by God io their from being the fame, and of courle progenitor thould be fulblled not by would, in procets of time, lead their efforts, but by his power; fome to fee the excelles into which that no excuse thould be left to a departure from the worBhip of mankind for persilting in the fully the only Perfor, whom gratitude which led them inevitably to their and afledion would least them, it own defiruction. might be thought, to have adored: Anotherremarkablecircumstance but it is certain ilint all nations attending these epochs, is the exwere inledled with fully; and, un- trene deficiency of every heathen less menns had been devised by record relative to the aflairs of the Providence for our relief, we might times. The Chinese monumenti at this very day have been bowing are the only vestiges of deep redown to all the vain conceits of search: the fabulous age of Greece man's imagination. By the call of scarcely dates its origin so early. Abraham, one family at least was They who pretended to fpring preserved from the prevailing fully from the earth can give no acof the times; a check was opposed count at what time this fabled to the inoft ruinous fcheme that event took place: while in facred could have been devised for debaf. hiftory we see the regular genealoing human nature. The chains of gy, from the first man to perfons of arbitrary power are fulliciently gall- the highest note in the history of ing; but when the mind as well as mankind. All the traditions of the the body is endaved, when the east look to Abraham as a must priest adds his vain terrors to those splendid chieftain, and take plea. of the tyrant, the fubject, enslaved fure in tracing their origin up to to both these powers, is reduced him; and inuch of the mythology below the level of the brute. He is of Greece took its rise from per. taught to despise his own reason, io verted accounts of facts in the time deteit every one who would raise of his not very remote descendants. him from the duft, teach hiin his The history, however, of the fort true dignity, and lead him to but two thousand years of the world is contained in a few pages; for opening a way to the infariable Abraham could neither read nor avarice of Europe to plunder the write, yet he pofleffed those facul. weak inhabitants of Hindoostan, ties of the heart which merited him and to bring back in return those the title of the Friend of God. - uneans of corruption which would
Quest. Ill. Which are the tnost be a greater vengeance than important epochs between the in the injured furterers could take on valion of this kingdom by Williarn their oppressers. The reformation the Norman and the present times? began in Germany in the year
In this period are three great 1517, and atfords a melancholy epochs, which every Englishman proof of the difficulty of making should make the daily object of his reasonable beings employ their fac reflection. The firit is the ligning culties in the correcting of prejudice, of magna charta ; the fecond, the or the discovery of truth. The Gerabolition of the power of the pope mans, in fome parts, got rid of the in this kingdoin; and the third, power of the pope; but their detbe revolution.
fcendants became as bigotted to The first event took place in the the names of Luther and Calvin, us reign of John, a weak Prince, and their predecetlurs had been lo the a tyrant, who first debated himself fee of Rome. fo low as to do homage to the Pope The papal authority remained for his kingdum ; and then, to le- firm in England for some years afcure the fidelity of the barons, was ter the blow had been iruck against compelled to lign wbat is called it in Germany. Henry VIII was magna charta, or the great charter, vain enough to write a book in its by which his power was greatly lin favour, and to receive from the mited, and fume general principles fee of Rome the einpty and falle were acknowledged, which inay be title of Founder of the Faitá. conlidered as the foundation of His passions, however, were beneEnglish liberty. John fucceeded ficial to his country; for being to the crown in the year 1199; of thwarted by the papilts, and artful course the round numbers 1200, ly inflamed by the protestants, serve as a landmark in our history, they led him to act that part in by which we are led to one of its England to which Luther had been most important features. The King instigated by more zeal for his orligned this charter at Runnymede, der, and the love of gain and preor the mead of council, a meadow eminence. In the year 1733, the between Staines and Windfor, on King divorced his wife, and was in which place it was intended some confequence excommunicated by years ago to erect a pillar in ho- the Pope; and, in revenge, thook of nour of this great event.
the bale yoke under which he and The second event happened in his fathers had groaned, abolished the reign of Henry VIII; and as the power of the Pope, and turned the end of the century preceding out of the country cremites and his reign was marked by great friars, white, black, and grey, with events, the date 1500 may be con- all their trumpery cowls, hoods, fidered as the epoch beti calculat- and habits; their reliques, beads, ed to fix in the mind this and indulgences, difpenies, pardons, other important transactions. At bulls. the close of the fifteenth century, The third event, the revolution, namely, in the year 1492, America as it is called by way of distinction, was discovered ; and some years happened to hear our own times, before, the Purtuguese had doubled that every child is taught, and prothe Cape of Good Hope, thereby pre tauglii, tu reverence the name,