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of the greater. This was the state of one of the bottles was emptied, in which Cæsar found them when by means of a funnel, into the vase he first entered Gaul, under pre- which I had prepared; it was, in tence of repelling the invasion of fact, nitrate of mercury. The fethe Helvetians.

cond bottle, labelled like the former, [To be continued.)

was uncorked, and a part of it

poured upon the contents of the For the Universal Magazine. first bottle; but after having introSOME REMARKS ON A PECULIAR duced about one hundred and thirty

CHEMICAL, PHENOMENON, BY grammes, or four ounces, it emitted C. PAYSSE.

a very sensible ethereal odour; and THOUGH from the present chen I was soon convinced that this mical knowledge which we possess liquid was neither more nor less we are enabled to account for a than the mercurial nitrate, or ranumber of interesting and curious ther undistilled nitric ether (the phenomena, the theory of which spirit of dulcified nitre). I then was before unknown, yet it must stopped from pouring any more, be confessed that there still remains but corked up all the bottles, and many discoveries to be made to ato replaced them. tain that station of perfection to I was anxious to see what effe& which men, who have illuftraied had been produced in the decanter this icience, are willing to elevate containing the mixture of about us; but hitherto confined in the five parts of the solution of mercury narrow path of discovered know- and one part of nitric ether. I obledge, we have been compelled to served that there had been produced adopt thofe hypotheses which pre- a white precipitate, very abundant, fent the greatest probabilities, or and which I feparated from the which appear to deviate least from liquid by filtration : it was carefully the criterion of pollible events. dried; its taste was very ftyptic and

The phenomenon that is the ob- metallic, communicating to distilled ject of this memoir, may, I think, water a disagreeable flavour, fomebe considered as one of those that thing limilar to that of the liquid of yet remains to be elucidated ; but Van-Swieten. A part of this preI apprehend it will be fufficient to cipitate was put into a phial, which I render it 'worthy of being known heated in a land bath, in order to to chemists, if it can be demon- sublimate or volatilise those parts strated to be of importance to that were susceptible of it: the science, though the cause remain phial being taken from the fire, unknown.

cooled and broken, presented on In a magazine of pharmacy, the its sides brilliant crystals pointed, care of which was entrusted to me and which I found, after fome exat the military hospital of Maef- periments, to be nothing but furoxitricht, two bottles of brown glass, genated muriate of mercury: dircorked and labelled “ Solution of folving it in pure water, I perceived, mercury with the nitrous acid," be- however, that it did not entirely ing about three parts full, fell into combine with this liquid; fo that, my hands while making a general, examining the insoluble part, I was furvey of the medicines of this de- convinced, by various experiments, pôt: the desire of uniting two ho- that it was only the muriate of mogeneous liquids, and of contain: mercury with an excess of oxide. , ing them both in a single phial well The bottom of the phial of the corked, to avoid the smallest eva- first operation contained oxide of poration, induced me to procure a mercury, of a pale red, brilliant decanter of white glass. The liquid and micaceous, Amilar to thatwhich

they prepare in Holland, and which the whole bottle was, at least, & is called in commerce (crijallise), demi-kilogramme: these pieces were red precipitate.

so small, that it was difficult to perIt is then evident that the preci- ceive them; the label was found pitate in question confitted of furoxi- almost entire upon the window; genated muriat, with an excess of and many very small pieces of glass oxide of mercurial nitrate, which might be perceived adhering to it, may be separated. The two mu. Is this phenomenon to be attri. riais appear to be formed by the buted to the fimultaneous deconipomuriatic acid, which the common sition of the nitric acid and alcohol? nitric acid of commerce almost al. Can it be attributed to the forways contains, and with wbich the mation of the nitric elber and its mercurial solution thould doubtless expansibility? be formed. This preparation comes Is it produced by the reaction of originally from the Auftrians. the isolated principles of the acid

The liquid that is feparaied from and alcohol, to make room for new the precipitate which we have been binarious combinations, such as waexamining, is that which presents ter, ammonjac, and carbonic acid ? the most complicated phenomena: Or rather, may it be referred to a fecond white precipitate was still more complex combinations of formed after two days quict, and oxigen, hydrogen, azote, carbon, which I carefully separated. The &c.? Of this I am ignorant, and decanter well corked, and the liquid I leave to abler chemists the trouble perfectly clear and limpid, were of refolving this problem. placed upon a thelf in the difpen. I should have announced ibis fary. Soine montbs pafled without faci long before, but I wibed to the least appearance of alteration produce it again by new experiin the liquid: it was quite clear, ments, to observe it with every porand not the smallest precipitation ; fible attention, and to throw some when all at once, one day about light, if poffible, upon this' aftofix o'clock in the evening (in au- nishing detonation ; but the expetumn), there was heard a most vio- riments which I have tried, during lent explosion in the shop; the two years, have not furnished any noise and the concussion were felt fatisfactory results. all over the hospital: being called, I loon ascertained the came which To the Editor of the Universal Mag. occafioned to much fear; I per SIR, cerved that the decanter in quef. “Let thoje teach others who themselves tion was vanilbed ; that many of e rcet" the bottles near it liad been broken,

WAS a maxim delivered by a rebut yet remained in their places: ry young writer, and has fince been the thelf that was over had been handed down by Tucceeding wits to thaaken. and alınott overturned. the present day. I do not unconBut the most remarkable circun- ditionally subscribe to the juttuels fiance was, that the class panes of of this precept; but I do think that a calement which was oppofie, and nothing is more ungracious than at lealt ten feet diliant from the for a man to allume the authority Melf where the bottle had stood. of dictating, or, in plain words, to was partly broken to pieces. Only

set himself up for a critic, and yet a part of the pieces of this bottle to be ignorant of his own language, could be found; the whole which and unable to write it even with I could collect did not weigh more propriety, much less with elegance. than thirty-two grammes (about These remarks were fuggefied to one ounce), while the weight of me by reading the account of i Maurices's Crips of Britain, a and energy there are in that ex

Poem,in the Imperial Review, or preslive to ! · Dublin Literary Journal: the cri- " Then fear alarm'd poor Harry Blake, ticism itself is of so harmless a caft, “And made poor Harry's head to has so little of acerbity in it

ake,” &c. that I am fure the writer has not

Ought we not, Mr. Editor, to been long used to the employment: expect something like correctness, but time will accustom him to the

at least, from those self-constituted cutting up part of his trade. But

arbiters of public taste. Ne futor at p. 504 I met with the following

ultra crepidam was justly applied expression :

to the preudo-connoisseur, who went * We may, however, be permitted

beyond his judgement: I believe it to remark, that though the change is a maxim that would equally apo of professed irreligion and atheism, ply to many of our diurnal, monthly, which Mr. M. urges against our quarterly, and annual critics; for enemies with vehement eloquence, we

wence we have all these now! How would might be relevant in 1798," &c. &c.

our forefathers have stared to have The only fense in which this seen the republic of literature overword relevant can be taken, accord. run with thele “ Tpawn !" Some ing to the context, is that of being two or three years ago, we were applicable, appropriate, &c. : but it perfectly contented with our monthhas no such Ggnification. The Re, ly reports from the court of critiviewer was probably led into this cilm; but having refined upon this error by the word irrelevant which system, we now gibbet authors, by standing for inappropriate, inappli- the day, by the month, by the cable, &c. he naturally conceived, quarter, and by the year, not in the true spirit of Hibernian ac- leaving them the remotest chance curacy, that relevant, deprived of to elcape ; for be they ever lo tri• its ir, must mean the contrary. iing, ever lo grave, or ever to imSo much for his philological dis. portant, they are sure to suit the cernment !

plan of some of them. Superficial In the same review, and in the

observers would be apt to conclude

ol account of Barrow's Travels in

that this inundation of reviews is Africa, p. 510, we behold a fin

indicative of our growing literary gular display of phraseological ele

importance beyond our ancestors. gance. Vide et crede!

Alas! quite the contrary! Our “ The third chapter contains an

Addisons, our Popes, our Drydens, account of a journey into the coun

and our Miltons, never dreamt of try of the Kaffers, which was not

a reviewer's approbation: their conaccomplished without danger, but

scious genius taught them to exwhich afforded a great variety of

pect the fuffrages of mankind! But objects worthy the notice of an in

our modern authors owe to requistive and well-informed traveller.

views, magazines, and newspaIn fome places the fcerery was

pers, nearly all the celebrity which beautiful and grand; and in others

is attached to their names. the roaring of the beasts of the

I remain, Sir, yours, &c. forest would make the stoutes heart

TIM, CRITIC. to trenoble."

COMMENTS UPON THE LAWS OF I question whether any banker's clerk or pert cit within the found

THE SOCIETY OF ENGRAVERS. of Bow Bell could roar us out a

(Concluded from page 355.] prettier piece of composition than

HAVING examined how the the above. What inimitable force

funds of this infutution are diso

pensed as a benefit society, let its VOL. I.

principles be next probed as a mer• ' no advantage in the prosperity of cantile association :---here the poor any commercial undertaking, px. money-fubscriber will have equal cept in the publication of the fire cause of complaint.

mentioned fubfcription plates, of The governors have given them the valne of twenty-five guideas selves the power of ordering paint. each. ings and drawings to be made; they The governors have authorised have reserved to their own order themselves to allow unto themselves "the right of embellishing books with the sum of two guineas at each

engravings, and of publifhing the monthly meeting, to be equally difame; they have been so provie vided amongst such of themselves as dent of their pockets, as to secure Mall be affembled within the fri an authority for providing the very half hour after the chair fhall be copper on which their engravings taken ; fo that, if the bufness of are to be made ; and all this fhall the meeting fhall be to appropriate be paid for from the funds of the the funds of the society to their fociety, together with all the ex- own speculations in trade, they pences of advertisements and pub- have taken care to reimburse themlications and have afterwards given felves for the trouble. themselves a right to divide the pro- Whatever may be the policy of fits amongft those of their own any engraver, or any number of order whose plates form a com- engravers, associating together for ponent part of luch works. Should the publication of their own works, the works so published answer to let it not for a moment be supposed the expectation of the governors, that I dispute the right. Every they have taken care to repay to man has an undoubted claim fairly the funds of the society the ori. and boneftly to apply his talents to ginal expence. It is remarkable his beft advantages ; but in the that, provided works so publithed foundation of all focieties that are Tould not repay that original ex- to be permanent, the fuperftructure pence, the laws provide no means must be raised upon juftice, equality, of making good the fums for that and reciprocity; all of wbich are purpofe taken from the funds of the wanted in the formation of the fosociety. Surely the pollibility of ciety in question; and, wanting such an event could not but occur those etlentials, it will not only be to the law-makers; why then was it found unworthy the patronage of not provided for? If their inten- the public, but can never answer tions were jut, the omission is in the purposes intended. explicable; if unjust, palpable. If How far this fociety may tend to the funds of the society are inade- the advancement or depression of quate to its purposes, they have, the arts, may be of more conleas before observed, given themselves quence to the public than ibe iDthe power of lending money to the teretis of the engravers as a body of fociety, which shall be paid as the men. A remarkable coincidence contributions of the money-sub- of two circumftances is here worthy scribers come in. As one of the of confideration. In the reign of purposes of the society is trade, Lewis XIV, the French painless they can, therefore, lend money asociated theinselves for the purto themselves for that purpose, and pose of exhibiting their own preenjoy the whole of the profits. Ac- ductions, and tbereby advancing cording to the laws of the fociety, their own intereft with that of the its funds are in danger from every arts. So far from this being the fpeculation in trade in which they result of the experiment, it was Are employed, whilft they can Lave found that private julerelis quie

superior to public advantage, and unfinished work. Greater evils than paltry considerations to the ad- this may still be supposed ; for. after vancement of the art they purlued; such a work thall, by great exhence arose tyranny and oppreiliun. pences, become profitable, the The nionurch was resorted to, to power I suppose may withdraw its remedy the evil, and the French allittance, and the publication is at Academy was founded. From liini an end. That power, then, alone is lar causes (prung the English Aca- capable of proceeding with the pubdemy. What the laws of those fo- lication, and building its advancieties were, I know not. It is vantages on the ruin of the original next lo impoffible they Mould have projector. Such a number of gobeen more illiberal, rapacious, and vernors may determine on finishing absurd, than tbole under consider their works in a less complete manation,

ner, which will be equivalent to a It has been before observed, that higher price : brcoming publishers the governors of this inftitution themselves, they would have an have been eager in grufping at additional motive to such a deterpower; and that power has been mination, in order to give a lupedirected by the hand of felfillness. riority to their own publications to If, upon such principles, the go- that of others. I have freely, and vernors sufficiently increase, the I hope fairly, commented upon consequences will be in proportion what the governors have a&ually to the power; and this fociety, done : far be it from me to suppole which ought to have had in prospect they will ever be guilty of such the elevation of the arts, may be- atrocities; I only reprobate the come a conspiracy to destroy them. power, as it must tend to depress Suppose all, or nearly all, the prin- great fpeculations where the alliitcipal engravers of this metropolis ance of art is required, and cun. become governors of this alloci fequently injure the arts them. alion, where they have regular felves; for every inan of commor meetings, committees, with records information must know how foof their deliberations and relolu cieties of men have in general.acled, tions; what would then hinder when cumbined for interested purthose men from railing their prices pores; and it will be well worth to any amount ? Without their af- the confideration of chuse that are hstance, no work requiring any to be dependant upon them. considerable number of plates could 'The governors of this fociety be completed. Suppose, for in- are so united by interell as to be. stance, a {pirited bookseller Mould come a fort of fraternity : as their begin to publila a splendid edition laws suppose them entitled to ad. of the bible in numbers, with inany vantages over the other parts of plates, and calculate his expences their community, will it be furon the general price of the plates priling if they reconimend, support, kc may intend. A very large ca- and bolster each other up in works pital will soon be funk in such an of credit and advantage ; and that undertaking. He then becomes other engravers, who are neither completely in the power of such a governors, nor supporters of gonumber of goveruors as is supposed. vernors, may be thereby injured ? If he proceed in the undertaking, Having examined the equity and he muli pay the price they may de policy of the laws of this fociety, mand; if he find that impollible, it may be well to conlider their a considerable portion of his capi. legaliiy. By the sixth section of tal is lott, and the public are bür- the “ Act for the Encouragement thened with a few numbers of an and Relief of Friendly Societies,'".

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