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were every day performed; the pensive than in any state where a, dupes of the new folly daily increaf- fimilar ele&ion is not allowed. For ed; and they who saw through it these and many other confiderawere awed into silence. Every: tions, both in the public and privice was covered by an attachment vate character of the great Alfred, to, but no virtue cuuld redeein the his name will remain upon record man who dared to be disobedient among those who have defended to, these pretended holy orders. their country by arms, improved it
But the object in this period the by arts, and established it on the most worthy of attention is the firm basis of wife laws and imparreign of Allied. It cannot be too tial administration of justice. Nei. much ftudied in this country, byther Lycurgus, nor Solon, nor either prince or people. (In it we Numa, nor any hero of antient or discern the feeds of every thing modern times except Moses, can great and good that still remains claim the superiority over, or be in the conftitution of the united placed even on the same level with, kingdom. Whether he was the our immortal countryman. founder of various institutions, or Quest. III. What is the meaning of whether he only more firmly esta. Druidism, and what were the chief blished them, it is in his reign that points of the Druids' faith? their influence was seen to the great- Druidism means the faith and est advantage. The Wittena.ge-, doctrine of the Druids, who were mati, or the meeting of the men the priests of the antient religion of of wisdom in the laws of their coun- the Britons, Gauls, and the northtry, performed the duties of the ern states of Europe, before they parliament at present; and the were conquered by the Romans. principles of representation, though They derive their name from the not so well known as at the present word Drew, which in the antient day, were held in the highest honour Celtic language means wisdom or by the wiselt and greatest prince knowledge; and from its affinity to that has ever been seated on the drus in Greek, which means an English throne. The trial by jury oak, and the religious ceremonies immortalises the name of Alfred; used by the Druids in cutting the and the noble instance of just seve- milletoe from the oak, they were rity, which marked one year of his supposed by the Greeks to derive reign, is a proof of his regard for their name from the oak and their justice and the welfare of his people. attachment to it. The more igno. Ju one year, forty-four judges were rant a nation is, the more attached hanged up for their mal-practices; it is to thote who pretend to supe-, and the example was highly bene. rior knowledge, and particularly ficial, for it has been the mean of to those who affect to have an inimpressing a regard for justice in tercourse with heaven, and are imour courts of law, unknown in most ployed in the rites of religion. The other countries. The annual elec- Druids abused their influence in tion of the executive officers of go. the most horrid manner; interfered vernment, such as sheriffs, aldermen, in every affair of life ; secured to conftables, bertholders, and the like, themselves the education of youth; who were all annually elected by the possessed a variety of immunities; people, is another great proof of and by the formidable instrument the wisdom and magnanimity of of excommunication kept in awe all this king, which made his office their opponents. The wretched obmore easy and more honourable, ject of this sentence was held in aband the essential parts of the admi. horrence by all his countrymen, piltration of government less ex. even by his family and friends, he
rays are probably loft by reflection ably affected ; and the glare of fo as are gained by refraction : conse- many balls in the air, contrafted quently the bottom of the street with the gloom around, is by no does not gain more light, upon the means pleahng. whole, than if it had been left to The advantage, then, of patches the natural action of the lamp. of pavement being lighted in a fu.
But a third circumstance is of perior manner than they would be much greater consequence. The by a common lamp, seems to be intent of these lenses is to throw as very much overbalanced by the difmuch light as poslīble upon the agreeable effects of the lenfes on pavement; and to do this, care the eye, when placed in the best must be taken that the lamp and manner; by the loss of light which the lens Mould be adjusted in such is certain when they are ill placed; a manner that this advantage and the almost impoflibility that Thould be obtained. Very night the managers of thele lamps thould things in the adjustment will discon- even give to them the advantages cert the whole plan; and instead of of which they are susceptible. It throwing the light upon the pave. is to be observed, also, that these ment, it will be seen at some dif- lenses add to the expence as well as tance upon an oppofite wall, or diminish the comfort which a lamp wasting itfell in the air. Among is intended to communicate. .. several lamps in one place, which
POLYHISTOR.. the writer of this article noticed not long ago, two out of three were in QUESTIONS, to be answered next this last predicament, and instead of
Month. superior light, a considerable degree Which are the most important of gloom prevailed. It may be epochs between the flood and the worth the reader's while to notice erecting of the tent in the wilder this circumstance in any street nels by Moses for the worship of where these lenses are ufed : and he the one and only true God? may find fome amusement in ob To what reflections do these serving the cones formed by the epochs give rise ? rays of light and the surfaces of the Which are the most important pavement, or the houses, as they epochs between the invasion of this are enlightened by these refracted kingdom by William the Normaa rays; and he will then, perhaps, and the present times ? be of opinion, that it is not to be What are the reflections to wbich expected from lamp lighters, lamp- they give rise? cleaners, and lamp-makers, that all Is it poflible to improve the lightthe requisites which the theory of ing of our streets by some contrivthe lens requires will be observed in ance free from the objections fpeci. practice.
fied to the lenses now in use, and Besides, if we fuppofe that every which mall throw the light on the thing is properly adjusied, then pavement which is now lost in the patches of pavement are very light, air? the intervals between them dark. Suppore fifty men to be placed The walker, in pathog over them, in a Itraight line one hundred feet feels his eyes affected by a glare of long, and to be wheeled into a line light, as long as he is in a cone of perpendicular to the first direction, rays; and before it recovers its the pivot man remaining in his tone, he enters another cone equal- place; how many yards will they Jy glaring. Thus the eye, paffing go over more than if each man from light to dark, is very disagree- march Araight to his last position:
such a sudden change, found thein- obferves to contain the Siao-chuen; selves deprived of their polis, began it, I say, we compare them with to expoftulate with the people fone of those far more antient ex. against the conduct of this mighty hibited in the other dictionary monarch, and, quoting the golden Chuen-cu-lui (see Fourm. Gram. morals of submillion and humility, Sinic., pp. 359 and 362.), we shall with which their sacred books are find the It rongest fimilarity between replete, endeavoured to represent them, and that those called Sigothe celebrated exploits of their chuon are only a simplification of the sovereign as acts of the greatest inhumanity, and the most defpotical most antient tyranny.
and other characters analogous to i-fu. Prime Minister them, which were composed during
the two first and part of the third of Xi-hoam-ti, a man of very fupe- dynasty : they were called, as ob. rior talents, was the infamous infi- ferved above, Chuen-çu. nuator of a most barbarous project And since it is but natural to to check the complaints of the learn- suppose that these characters, as ed. He ordered, with the consent foon as the large and magnificent which he artfully obtained from the form Ta-chuen (sce above) was inemper r, that all the facred and vented, from their apparent diother books fould be burnt minutive fize and sender strokes, throughout the empire (those on fhould be distinguished with the agriculturc, medicine, and foothsay. name of Siao-chuen, it is more ing, only excepted), and attached than probable that this denominato the neglect of such a vile injunc- tion is antecedent to the time of the tion the most atrocious and capital conflagration of books by fix whole punishments.
centuries, and that it is but improThis fatal decree was put into perly applied to the characters of execution in the 25th year of the the dictionary due-ren exclusively reign of Xi-huam-ti, being the of all others, they being, as above 212th B.C.
observed, only a fimplitication of Li fu, to be more certain of the the most antient characters extant strict compliance with this decree, analogous to the Ko-teu ; and for caused the books excepted to be that reason more near the present copied in a particular style of cha- Chinese mode of writing, as even
the fpecimen given by Dr. Hager racters, called
at page xlviii of his Analysis may be chuen ; and all the copies written
sufficient to prove (o). otherwise were doomed, without
(0) While I here refer your readers,
Sir, to Dr. Hager, let them not suppose exception, to the flames.
his authority, in the present initance, F.Mailla, with many authors, main
as derogatory, in the least, from what tain this sort of characters to be the has been previously observed. Dr.
L 21 Huger gives us a convincing proof, in invention of
his Analysis, why he has not entered
into the lpecification of the characters Hu-mu-kim, and affiliants em- Tu-chuen and Sivo-chuen, and has imployed by Li-su: but, if we com- properly called the latter by the general pare the characters of the dic denomination of Chuen-çu. We fee tionary Mueren (compiled by Hire at pp. xxix, xxx, and xxxi, superb fpe
cimens of the Ta-chuen promiscuously rin at the beginning of the dynasty
exhibited with other antient cbaracters, Han, about two hundred years
to which he could allign no name. B.C.), which Father Mailla himlelf Alas! the famous Encyclopedy (as be