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Weftminster Abbey, of St. Paul's, artificial mount, and even sometimes a of Salisbury Cathedral, or the com- monastery) to be placed between the positions of Mazzinghi, Reeve, or
first and second walls. A second ditch
with its draw-bridge was fometimes inKelly? Upon such foundation,
troduced. and upon such a childish hypo “ The most important part however thefis, we might undertake, in the of that species of fortification, called life of any individual, to give a an ancient castle, was the keep, or complete account of the musicians, house of residence, in which the baron actors, painters, sculptors, &c. who
of former times held his state. The
walls and towers before enumerated flourished at the same period of
were a fort of extrinsic defence, froin
which, when the first and second walls In his remarks on the Gothic
were taken by the besiegers, the garri. style of architecture, Mr. Godwin fon retreaied to the mansion, where has principally followed the au- they made their last fiand. thorities of Milner, Warburton, and “ The keep, in the fort of fortificaBentham, and indeed has done
tions erected in England previoully to little else than transcribe from those
the conqueft, feems to have been gene
rally, if not always, built on the top of authors. We must leave Mr. God
an artificial mount, whose fummit was win to decide how an edifice can nearly of the fame dimentions as the abstractedly be called “ more re- plane of the editice it was destined to ligous;" p. 143. We have vet to receive. From this circumitance it is learn, that religion is to be found
suppofed to have derived its Latin and only in the walls of a church.
French appellations, dunjo, donjon, the
etymology of which is ascribed by the The word Castle, caftellum, a di- glossarilts to an old Saxon and French minutive from the Latin caftrum, ori- word, oun, dune, a hill. ginally fignified a little camp; and the
“ Very foon after the conquest, how
“ Very soon after the dimentions and plan of the ancient ever, great improvements were made castles are in fufficient correlpondence in the art of fortification, which are with this idea. The projector ordina- principally ascribed to Gundulph Birily chose for the fite of his edifice a ihop of Pochefter, architect of the riling ground in the neighbourhood of White Tower in the Tower of London, a river. Having marked out the li- and of Rochester Castle. So long as mits of his inclosure, he then surround- the artificial mount was retained, the ed it with a wall, ten or twelve feet keep was frequently placed in the exhigh, flanked with towers, and with a terior wall of the fortification; but, narrow projection near the top on the when this contrivance was laid alide intide, where the defenders might as operose and unnecessary, the keep place themselves for the convenience was for the most part removed into the of reconnoitring, or of using their wea- centre of the building. In the conpons. Immediately before this wall struction of the artificial mount, partion every fide a ditch was hollowed, cular attention was given to the renwhich was filled with water where it dering it fteep, and its summit, except could be procured, and formed what in one point, inaccessible. The portal, we call the moat of the castle. A therefore, in this plan of building, was bridge was built over this ditch, or placed on the ground floor. The exa draw-bridge set up on the inside, pedient introduced by Gundulph, with to be let down as occasion required. the view of superfeding the use of the
* Another effential part of an an- artificial mount, conlisted in carrying cient castle was the barbican, or watch- up the portal to the fecond or third tower, always an outwork, and fre- story, and leaving no place for en. quently placed beyond the ditch, at trance on the level of the ground; the the external foot of the bridge.
form of the keep being commonly " In many castles there was a fe square, and the walls ten or twelve feet cond wall, of considerably smaller cir- in thickness. cuit than the first, which was in like “ In this plan the entrance was by tranner flanked with towers. In this a spacious stone staircase on the outside case it was not unusual for various of the building. This staircase free works (barracks, a well, a chapel, an quently went in part round two sides of the keep. After having ascended a quately lighted. Those below the story certain number of steps, there was a upon which the state-rooms were strong gate placcd, which must be placed received the beams of the fun forced by an enemy before he could only through chinks or loops, extremeproceed farther. He then came to ly narrow, and cautiously contirucied what might be called the landing-place, in such a manner as to afford no adwhere was an interval, with a draw- vantage to beliegers. In the ftatebridge to be let down on occalion, rooms there were windows; but geneThis draw-bridge being paried, he next rally fmall in proportion to the fize of encountered a second tirong gate, the apartments, often but one in a which was usually the entrance of a room, broken through the thickness of tower of finaller height and dimenfions, the wall, and protected by an internal forming a vestibule to the principal arch, and placed at a confiderable tower, or keep. This portal, beside its height from the level of the floor. The gates, was detended by a herle, or port- ftate-rooms, however, though few in cullis, a machine precisely in the form number, were not small; those in Roof a harrow, coniposed of beams of chester Cafile, which may be taken as wood crolling cach other at right an- a medium, were fifty feet in length by gles, with itrong iron (pikes projecting twenty feet broad. from their points of interfection. This “ The thickness of the walls, usualmachine was fixed as a Nider in grooves ly amounting to twelve feet, was fuch of fione hollowed for that purpote, and as to afford room for various construcwas worked up and down by a wind- tions within the substance of them, lais fecurely contained with the walls such as wells, galleries of communicaof the keep. It was extremely heavy; tion, &c. The we'ls constructed in the and, belide the spikes already mention- walls, some of them, included circular ed, was furnished with other spikes in ftair-cates, and others were left open, a perpendicular direction, for the pur- being destined for the purpose of railpofe of striking into the ground or ing to the top of the building, in the door beneath. The entrance of the times of liege, beams and other matekeep ittelf was by a farther portal, fe- rials for the making or repairing of miparating the principal tower from the litary machines, Thefe machines were appendant one, and provided in like usually placed upon leads and a platmanner with strong gates and a portcul- form, contrived for the purpofe, above lis. The grand entrance is varioully the highest story of the keep. Wells placed in the castles of this period; in for water were also sunk in some part Tome on the fecond, and in others on of the building, but not in the sub'the third fiory.
stance of the walls, with conveniences “ The keep usually consisted of five for railing the water to any story of the foors: one below the surface, which editice. Another, almost universal, conwas commonly the prison : the ground- trivance, was that of a door, intended floor, appropriated for the reception as a sally-port, raised several feet above ot' stores; the second story, for the ac- the surface of the ground, but with no commodation of the garrison; the third, external itair leading to it, which was ftate-rooms for the habitation of the framed to favour unexpected attacks Jord; and the fourth, bed-chambers. upon the besiegers, yet with every ima
“ The accommodations of these ginable precaution to prevent the use times, though ftately according to the of it being turned againīt the besieged, ideas then prevailing, were such as The chimneys were by loops in the would appear to a modern observer walls, timilar to those contrived for the flender and inconvenient.' Guilford admillion of light into the lower apartCastle, where King John in one instance ments. celebrated his birth-day, had only one “ Another artifice frequently introroom on a floor. The usual number duced in the erection of ancient castles of principal rooms, in that floor which was the formation of a subterraneous the poffeffor of the castle appropriated passage, the commencement of whieh to his own convenience, did not ex- was in the keep itself, while the other ceed two. The garriton, who occupied extremity was at fome dillance withthe story immcdiately beneath, were out the walls, being intended, like the crowded into a fmall proportionable door last mentioned, for a fally-port, compass, and fept on trufles of ftraw, enabling the garrison to issue forth upThe apartments were also very inade- on the beliegers by surprise."
Chapter IX is occupied with the last we thall probably introthe sculpture, painting, metallic duce to the notice of our readers. arts, embroidery, and music of the “ Chaucer,” obferves Mr. G., fourteenth century. The following “ faw immediately, in which way account of the tapestry of Bayeux the path of fame was most open to may be interetting to some of our his access; that it was by the culreaders.
tivation of his native tongue : and * A very curious monument of the his seeing this at the early age of state of this art at the time of the Nor- eighteen, is no common proof of the man conquest is the celebrated tape try magnitude of his powers." Thus far of Baveux, which ftill exists, and is had perhaps been well; but our publicly exbibited at itated periods in the cathedral of that city. It is a
autbor in his zeal for his venerable web of linen, ncarly two feet in
countryman, destroys, in a few breadth, and two hundred and forty
lines afterwards, the very fabric he two in length, embroidered with the had raised to his fame, and proves luftory of that memorable expedition, “the magnitude of his powers" to from the embafly of Harold to the have been little else than bare neNorman court, in 1065, till his death ceflity. Thus he proceeds to obin the following year. The scenes of
ferve : this buly period are fucceflively exhibited, and confilt of many hundred Nor was the prosperous career fisures of men, horses, beasts, birds, our language was about to run, by any trees, houses, castles, and churches,
urches, incans the only, or the strongelt, arguwith infcriptions over them, explana
ment for recurring to the use of it. tory of their meaning and history.
For the poet to attempt to express his This work is understood to have been thoughts in French, was for hun volunperformed under the direction of Ma
tarily to subject hiinself to many of the tilda, confort to William I, and was dich,
disadvantages which attend the atpot improbably executed by the hands
tempt to write poetry in a dead laika of English women, whose superiority in
guage. What is so written can scarceperformances of this kind was then
ly be entirely worthy of the name of
u be entirely wort universally acknowledged.”
poetry. It can but weakly convey the At page 173, is, we prefume, an facility of our thoughts, or the pretherror of the press, where Michael nets of our iinpressions. Chaucer was Angelo i s called Agrolo.
a genuine Englishman, a native of our
illand, hitherto confined within our Chapter X contains an account
Thores, and born in the class of our of Chaucer at Cambridge---the ltate burgefles and merchants. French was of the Universities---monastic and to him probably like a foreign lanmendicant orders--the schoolmen--- guage: all his boyith feelings had and natural philofophy in the four- been expressed in English: Englilla teenth century.
words were mingled and associated Chapter XI discusses the com
with all the scenes he had beheld, and
all the images he had conceived. For positions of Chaucer while a student
a man to communicate the thoughts he at Cambridge. It is now, that, has formed in one language in the after having waded through up- words of another, is a pofition not less wards of two hundred pages, we are unfortunate, than to be condemned to introduced to a flight acquaintance contemplate a beautiful woman, not with the proper object of the work,
At of the work by turning our eyes immediately upon though we are still doomed to ex
I to ex her perfon, but by regarding her figure
as thadowed in a mirror.” perience manifold and grievous in- " terruptions.
This is indeed a curious contra. Mr. Godwin has pursued a curidićtion of the preceding observaous mode of reasoning in this chap- tion ; for it now appears, that the ter. It is not however the first of excellence, which Mr. G. supposed the kind we have met with, nor is it Chaucer to have in first using his