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tributed rather to the acceleration but little variegated by the written than to the improvement of the pro- characters of sensation and reflecceffes. Agriculture has advanced tion. to its present state principally The knowledge which we have through the endeavours of the prac- acquired by the telescope is depende tical hulhandman, and has receiv ant on this manufacture, especially ed little improvement from the sug- in combination with the working of gestions of science; nor has mo- metals. By this instrumert we have dern chemistry, with its boasted obtained much knowledge of the discoveries, yet been able to ad- heavenly bodies; have discovered vance far enough in the theory of new planets and satellites; have obo vegetable nutrition, to contribute ferved transits, and deduced imgreatly to the improvement of agri- portant astronomical inferences; and cultural practices.
have resolved the galaxy into stars. In a word, whatever branch of We have gained also by the cclipses manufactures we examine, we disc of the satellites the most accurate cover little credit due to the inter- means of ascertaining terrestrial lonference of science, but find that gitude; and, by observing the crethe majority of the high improve- scent and gibbous forms of the two ments of modern times is to be at. inferior planets, have thence deriv. tributed principally to the industry ed more convincing arguments for and activity of uneducated indivi- the truth of the Copernican system. duals, and to that great and pre- A still more various, though less valent division of labour, which extensive, source of knowledge has enables the operator to arrive at been opened to us by means of greater perfection in the confined glass, in its application to the miand less complicated work to which croscope. The structure, and conhis exertions are exclusively di- feguently the economy, of animals rected.
and vegetables have been thus inBut let us turn to the other side vestigated and ascertained to a conof the question; let us examine the siderable extent; the eye has been sources whence the mind has ob- enabled to penetrate into a new tained many of its valuable fcientie' and hitherto invisible world, where fic acquisitions; and we shall have life is profusely beflowed upon the little hesitation in affirming, that mere atoms, as it were, of organithe improvement of manufactures Zation : the nature of the connecthas contributed in an essential man- ing links in the chain of animal ner to the promotion of natural and vegetable existence has been knowledge. We shall illustrate this discovered; I mean of the zoophyta opinion by instances relative to one and lithophyta, or animal plants or two of the more important artis and mineral plants, as they were cles of commerce and manufacture. formerly denominated, which in
The elegant manufacture of glass clude the corallines, corals, fponges, has been a source or a medium of &c. &c. In a word, the minutiæ incalculable information. Had we of every department of nature herenot possessed glass in the perfection tofore infcrutable by human fenses in which it is now wrought, “ there have been exposed to our free inare many things in heaven and earth veliigation, and their qualities and whicb would never have been relations have furnished a mine of dreamt of in our philofophy.”- inexhaustible enquiry. Without it, the" blank paper," as Another application of the artiMr. Locke has called it, of our cle glass, in the formation of the aircomprehenfive intellect might have pump, bas been scarcely less proremained, as to physical science, ductive of physical knowledge. The
after his own imaginations of beauty. cording to the various circumIt has furnished inttrumentsconnect stances which have attended him ed not only with his sublime enjoy- through life; but, perhaps, this ments, but likewise with his crimes self-complacent idea was never carand miieries ; it has enabled him ried to a greater excess than by the to opprefs and destroy, to con- venerable patriarch of Italian poquer and protect."
etry. He found, or rather imaginWe have, then, every reason to ed, that his letters were interceptconclude, that science, on the ed and opened on the road by men wole, has been advanced through of tasie, for the purpose of tranthe medium of certain articles of fcribing the ingenious fallies, or the manufacture, in a degree far supe- flashes of eloquence, with which rior to any advancement of manu- they mould happen to be intor. fircture which it has contributed to spersed. But at length, says the produce. There are many manu- bard, they grew weary of this mofactures, in reality, which are to- dest and orderly fpecies of theft, tally unconnected with science, nei and retained his pacquets, that they ther improving it, nor receiving any might save themselves the trouble inprovement from it; the offspring of transcribing them. Disgusted at of mere mechanical induftry. Of this violation of the laws of civilized tbofe where there exilis a recipro- life, hoftile to all the confidence of cal operation, or where science can intercourse and society, he formed interferc, it is cvident how much the determination to write no more. the advantage is on the fide of the This resolution he announced in Batter.
one of his letters, in which he takes And this conclusion leads us to leave of his friends in a formal manFiew the importance of commerce ner, ending “ Valete amici; valete with additional'admiration. While epiftola." we consider it as a medium of comfort, of wealth, and of civilization, An Original Sonnet : its value will be enhancedinouresti By Queey ELIZABETII. 1555. mation by the farther conGileration O Fortune! how thy restless, wav'ring of its influence in extending our
Hath fraught with cares my troubled knowledge, not only by communication with distant and various re
Witness this present prifon, whither fate
Wire gions of the globe, but, indirectly, Hath torn me, and thy joys I quit. by exciting the improvement of Thou caus'dit the guilty to be loosd thofe manufactures which are ef. From bands wherewith are in jocents fential as instruments in the profe.
enclos'd; cution of science.
Causing the guiltless to be straight ré
serv'd, QUESTION to be discused in the
And freeing those that death had well
deserv'd: ensuing Number.
But by her envy can be nothing wrought; “ Does the study of the fine arts, So God send to my foes all I have thought. and especially of poetry, tend to the improvement of practical morality ?”
WHEN this great actor was at THE BABILLARD. NO. II. Paris, he visited the celebrated MaCome like shadows; lo depart! dame Clairon. In the course of
SHAKESPEARE. his conversation with her, he asked Petrarca.
her if she had ever heard of tho ETERY man ihinks himself of Gamut of the Paffions. She eximportance to a certain degree, ac- prefiing her ignorance of what he