Page images

cut the milletoe in the woods to them entirely, but they were a confecrate to their gods; and the better race than their forefathers, Romans afterwards establishing who first felt the effect, and nobly their Saturnalia, or feasis in bonour relified the force of Cæsar's arms. of Saturn: the two customs of fealt. It is not unusual to mention St. ing and cutting milletoe have froin Augustine or Austin as the introthat time been considered as ne ducer of christianity into England. ceflary appendages to the festival But this is a great mistake: he celebrated to commemorate the preached a religion which he callbirth of Christ.

ed christianity to a king of Kent, The fuperftition of the Romans and converted bim and his family. took place of that of the Druids; We are, however, to recollea, that but with it were introduced the previous to this time christianity principles of the christian religion. was the established religion of the That it made confiderable progress Roman empire, and consequently in the island, however injured by of England, and that in the kingeasiern superstition, cannot be double doin of Kent of the original inhas ed, for large monafteries were efta- bitants, many doubtless at that blithed in Wales; and the author time were christians, and were far of a great controversy in the fourth from pleased by this pretended century was a Briton named Pela- saint. The fact is, that he introgius or Morgan. Till the time of duced popery, and laid the foundaConstantine, however, it was in tion for that subjection to the fee the lame fate as in other parts of of Rome which disgraced the Eng. the Roman empire, fometimes pero hinh character for nearly one thode fecuted, at other times tolerated; fand years. The Saxon Prince, and foon after that time, when the converted by him, led the way to the Romans quitted the island, Saxon conversion of other princes; but idolatry was the ettablished reli- true christianity begins not with gion.

palaces : it rises up to them; but The rise and fall of the Roman when it proceeds from them, there power changed materially the face is alv ays a danger of foo great of the country. By the first, favage mixture with human policy. mauners were removed, civilization Our ancestors eliablithed themintroduced, roads made, cities built, felve in this illand by the force of and in a great mea!ure the country arms. The Britons, having been was aslimilared to other parts of the kept long in subjection by the Ro. Roman empire, and governed, com- mans, had not the fpirit and union paratively fpeaking, by many good necetiary for relistance. From the law's and uleiul inftitutions. The wilds of Germany proceeded a savages were reduced into fome race of men, unacquainted indeed order, and prepared for government. with the civilization of Rome, but When the Romans were compelled poflefling a code of laws which ento rclinquish their colonies, and to title them to our respect and vene. attend to their affairs nearer home, ration. Their religion was idothe distressed Britons, incapable in-'Jatrous, and the remains of it appear deed of conducting their own af- in the days of our week, as the fairs, called in the allistance of a names of our months bring us foreign power, and felt the usual back to the superstition of antient effect of such aid. They were Rome. All their inftitutions were driven into one part of the island, calculated to inspire the mind with and there on the mountains relain- sentiments of freedom : they fought ed their independence. The Ro- under their chiefs, whom they loved man invasion had not civilized for their valour, and they submit

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]

QUESTIONS, to be answered in the that providential intelligence, which

nert Number. . foresaw his neceflities, filuated and Which are the moft important endowed as he is, and, by the lingu. epochs between the fluod and the lar conjunction of material and men. coming of Christ ?

tal qualities, pre-ordained him the Which are the objects most wor- power to supply them in abundance. thy of attention between the settling His organs are therefore adapted of England under one sovereign with peculiar appropriation to the and its conquest by William the nature and extent of his faculties; Norman ?

his desires and propensities are calWhat is the meaning of Druid culated and apportioned to his situa. ism, and what were the chief points tion, and opportunities, and means. · of Druid faith?

Of what utility to him would the What are the advantages and hand and the eye have beer, disadvantages attending the use of had he not been endowed with glass lenses in lamps for lighting an acuteness of mind capable of the streets of London?

discriminating the nice thades of

sensation which they convey, and THE INSPECTOR. NO. III. of comparing, associating, and re

" Whether has the progress of taining the ideas which are thence science been more conducive to the deduced? Or to what end were he perfection of useful and elegant ma- gifted with a mind of such capanufactures ; or the improvement of ous power, had the flexible and acmanufactures more cffectual in pro- curately sensible fingers, been exmuting the advancement of Science?" changed for rugged and unfeeling

THE most interefting light in claws? It is this wise adaptation of which we can contemplate the fyr- internal faculty to the external ora tem of nature, is that in which the ganization which alone constitutes various relations, and connections, that interesting and intelligent creaand reciprocal influence, of the ture, which fubdues, in his imbeparts individually, as well as of the cility, the most powerful physical whole collectively, are presented to force, changes the features of the our view. We discover no chasm globe which he inhabits, and even in the series of existence; no indi- modifies the temperature and action vidual or species unconnected with of the elements around him*. those that surround it, or with the Yet some sceptical philosophers element which it is destined to have reasoned very differently on inhabit; nor any station which this subject. Helvetius, particularis not occupied by some organized ly, has maintained that the superiobeing, adapted to it by the peculia- rity of the human intellect above rities of its qualities and functions. tbåt of the brute arises solely from The relations of man to the material · the superior structure of man's corworld, and the particular relations poreal organs; together with some of the parts of his constitution to other physical circumstances, such each other (as of his corporeal, for as his longer period of life, &c. : and example, to his intellectual quali contend that, were a horse formties), are subjects ftill more import- ed with a hand instead of a hoof, ant, and interesting, in proportion he might attain to all the sublime to the superiority of himself to all acquisitions of the human underother beings, and of self-knowledge standing. to all other scientific attainments. This, it is obvious, is an affump

The view of man, in his internal tion which must remain for ever and external relations, tends, above * See Kirwan's Elay on the Temperaall others, to elevate our ideas of tures of different Latitudes, VOL. 1.


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

without proof. We all admit that extend the limits of art, these prothe mind receives its ideas through ductions, mechanical as they are, the channel of the senses; and that have a reflex operation on the menthe sense of touch, pofseffed by the tal power, and furnith the means band, is the medium through which of multiplying its acquisitions. And much knowledge of external things it is very questionable, whether sciis acquired, and much more accu- ence has contributed so much to the rate knowledge than the humble improvement of manufactures, as brute can obtain. In this matter these have aided the progress of sciBuffon is correa, and Darwin is not ence. hypothetical.

It is but a short time since the " Nery'd with fine touch above the be- man of science deigned to direct his “ stial throngs,

knowledge and attention to the imThe hand, first gift of Heaven! to man provement of our manufactures ; “ belongs;

so that the advancement which has Untipt with claws the circling fingers

hitherto been effected has been fre“With rival points the bending thumbs

quently the result of accident, and “ oppose ;

ftill oftener has arisen from the gra& Trace the nice lines of form with dual variations of ignorant empiric« sense retin'd,

ism acting upon fome flight prac* And clear ideas charm the thinking tical analogy, and without the aid “mind."

of scientific and general principles. The assumption of Helvetius, Rational induction has feldom led however, is not only destitute of to inventions or practical improveproof, but the analogy of all nature ments; and, even at this day of liis in decided opposition to it; for beral and enlightened opinion, we in every kingdom, in every depart. have too much reason to complain ment, in every production, that that manufacturers plod on, regardhas yet come under our cognizance, less of the dictates of science; and the most accurate adaptation of to confess also, in many instances, means to ends, the strictest conge. that the ignorant manipulator bas piality of faculties and organs, every attained a perfection in his art, by possible relation of situation and cir- dint of practice, which he cannot cumstances, invariably meet our obe explain, and beyond which the phio , servation. We are therefore bound losopher finds it difficult to advance. to infer, that in this instance, in In the art of tanning, for example, che proportioning of the human ca- although we have lately learned pability of acquiring and associating the rationale of the process by jdeas to the external organs of per- means of chemical experiment, and ception, the same accuracy of adap- have detected the tanning principle tation prevails; and that the intel- diftinct from its combinations in lect of man transcends the faculties vegetable bodies, we have not yet of all other animals, in its original been able to improve much upon and intrinsic powers, no less than the common processes of the tanner, he excels them in the excellence of and cannot produce the valuable his organs of perception. , article, leather, equally good, in

The poifeflion of this comprehen- less time, or at less expense, than five power, in conjunction with ha- he can empirically manufacture it. bile organs, is the fource of our The manufactures of linen and knowledge, inventions, and arts; woollen materials in all their various and this intellect and organization forms have been improved indereciprocally aid each other: for as pendently of science; and the me. the organs, directed by the mental chanical philosopher, by the inven. power, improve the productions and tion of various machines, has coge

« PreviousContinue »