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A SYSTEM OF COSMOLOGY, IN- As the Gomerians bent their

TENDED AS AN INTRODUC- course towards Europe, the deTION TO THE GENERAL scendants of Alagog inoved towards STUDY OF HISTORY.

Moscovy and Tartary, as we fall (Continued from Page 109.)

fee, as far as the borders of Cathai: THE first settlements of the thus was all Europe, and the far children of Noah is a subject which greater part of Alia, peopled by is very apt to lead those who in- these two brothers; Europe almost vestigate it, into conjectures, chiefly wholly by the Celtes or Gomerians, derived from the timilitude of names; and Asia by the offspring of Magog, a guide too deceitful to be trusted or the Scythians. to fo far, as it has been by fome, A. c. 1096. Jofephus in his who, in such an undertaking, have history politively afferis, that Gofought out the names of all the mer, the eldest fon of Japhet, was the nations, countries, rivers, moun- father of the Gomerites, called by tains, and cities, that bore but the the Greeks, Galatians, who were flightest affinity to those of the the Gauls of Alia Minor, inhabitfounders of the nations they were ing part of Phrygia*. Of this at a loss for. Others, have there- opinion is the learned Bochartt, in fore, taken the precaution to lay which he is followed by authors of down fɔme rules for the more sure great note. And if it be right, proceeding in this inquiry, and those who derive the Cimmerians which may be reduced to two; or Cimbri from Gomer, have some first, to follow chiefly the account grounds for it; the Cimmerians given by Mofes, aflisted by the light seeining to be the same people with which may be had from profane the Gauls or Celtes, under a difauthors; fecondly, to seek for the ferent name: and it is observable, original plantations in an orderly that the Well, who are descended difpofition, looking for the families from the Gauls, ftill call themselves where we find the nation, and for Kumero, or Cymro and Cumeri. the nations where we find the The authority of Jofephus in this families: but the notion which point has been universally received, has been entertained by many, both by antient fathers and modern that those nations whose families authors, when he atiirms the Celtes are named by Moses are moltly to or Gauls to be defcended from Gobe fought for in the neighbour- mer, and ihe Scythians from Mahood of Judæa, is too objection- gog, his next brother; for, independable to be admitted as a rule ; for ent of the Jewish historian, we it was plainly the design of that have this proof, that notwithstandhiftorian to give us an account of ing all the various denominations the original of all nations in the the Gomerians have undergone, world, as far as he had any know- and which seem rather to bave ledge of their extent. Therefore, as been given to them by other nations the settlements of the different na- than afsumed by themselves, they tions, and their derivations from have ftill preserved their original Shem and Ham, are to be found only name of Gomro, or Cymro, retainin the scripture, and the exact boun- ing it to this day, in all those daries of them impossible to set countries where the Celtic or Gotle, nothing could be said of them merian language is preserved, which but what the reader may there fatis- is therefore called Gomeraeg, or fy himself of; it is therefore from Cymbraeg; that is, the language of Gomer and his brother Magog that we can begin with any degree * Antiq. L. i. c. 7. of precision.

+ Phalig. L. üi, c. 10.

Gomer*: and that the old Celtic or Celtes but those who inhabited the old German language, is almost the more northern regions of Europe, fame that is full preserved by the above the Euxine sea and the north Welih, has been fo fully proved by of the Danube. Thus that part of numberler's antiquarians, that it Germany now known by the name will be fulficient to refer the reader of Holliein was called Cymbria to themt; and that it was univer- Kerfonesus. fally spoken through Europe, is no The surprising resemblance be leís plain from the fime authors; tween the languages spoken by all and it is to be oblerved, that even the above mentioned nations, par. the Galatians, who were settled in ticularly between our Welsh and Leffer Aha fo many centuries be- the old Celtic, is a strong presumpfore, are affirmed by St. Jerome to tion in favour of the mode in which have spoke the same language with we have here endeavoured to acthe inhabitants of the province of count for the origin of the EuTreves, which was not contined to ropean nations, being as a fac Treves, but common to Gaul and granted, but which cannot be acGermany. A farther corroburile counted for but on the fuppoftion tion we have from Cluverius H, who of a cause so extreinely antecedent; proves that the antient Celtic na- the more of proof above alluded to, tion, which, according to him, in- that of a collateral evidence from cluded the regions of Ilyria, Ger- exiting facts, as the consequences many, Gallia, Spain), the Britan- of previous events. nic and other northern illes, did all Relpecting the geography of the fpeak the fane language.

antient Celtes, it is not easy to fix As the respective tribes of these the exact boundaries which divided two brothers, Gomer and Magog, them from the European Scythians:began to spread, those of Gomer it will be neceflary only to observe, may be reasonably furposed to that they extended from the Danube, have extended themiclues towards their supposed boundaries, to the the north-west, and those of Magog farthest part of Spain and Portugal. towards the north-east, into both They were bounded on the south by Scythias, where we find the name the Mediterranean fea, and on the of Mogli, which was that of the west and north-west by the western antieni Moscovites and Tartarians, and northern ocean; for it is proand seems only a corruption of bable they did not advance towards Magogli, or the sons of Magog. Sweden and the other more northern

On the parting of these two regions till they found themselves bodles, the Gomerians, who had too ftraitened in the more pleasant taken the left, insensibly spread climates of the south, which did themselves westwards, towards Po- not happen, in all likelihood, till land, Hungary, Germany, France, fome centuries after their migration and so quite up to Spain, and it into Europe: it is however certain, was not will after their settling in that, in the time of Julius Cæsar, Europe that they changed their not only they, but also the northname to Celtes: and the names of ern islands of Britain, Ireland, Cymerians and Cymbrians, which and even Iceland, formed part of feem only a corruption of Gome- Celtic Gallia. Accordingly Clurians, was given to none of the verius, though he reduces its extent

within narrower bounds thap Orte* Lluid. Father Pezron. Lewis.

lius, yet proves it to have contained + Cam. Brit. Joach. Perion. Orig. ling. Celt. Brierw. Inq. in Orig. ling. Lluydd

the countries of Gaul, Mlyricum, Davis & Robert. Grammer.

now Croatia and Dalmatia, GerAntiq. Germ. L. i. 6. 6.

many, Spain, and the Britili idands:

and adds, that they had all the ftition of the Romans and other fame language, though split into nations, and the apotheosis of their various dialects, and formed but heroes and princes, they worshipped one large nation, though divided, much after the fame manner. Juin process of time, into several dif- piter under the name of Taran, ferent states, under various forms which in the Celtic fignifies thunof government*

der; Mercury allo, and Mars, Though our inforination respect with the rest of those deities, were ing the antiquity of the Celtes seems admitted, though subordinate to pretty well founded, and supported the fupreme one. by fufficient evidence of its exceed- The character given of the Celtes ing greatly that of the Egyptians, by antient authors,' is that of exPhrygians, and even the Scythians, treme love of liberty, which made it must be owned that our know- them prefer the worst deaths to an ledge of their government, laws, ignominious Navery, and wbich was and history, falls vattly short of no less common with the women what we are in possession of respects than the men: their faithfulness ing the two first of the three last and love of justice, their extramentioned nations; perhaps as ordinary hospitality, which obliged much owing to the nowners and them to keep open house for all length of time in their migration strangers, their conjugal fidelity, into Europe, as to the deficiency refpect to their parents, princes, of records respecting them.

and chiefs, are also highly spoken of, The religion of the Celtes was very as also their unanimity, courage, like that of the Scythians; that is, and hardiness, under all difficulties; they neither built temples, norerect. but among their vices are mened ftatues to the Deity; which they tioned, cruelty, particularly in reesteemed so derogatory to him, that spect of human facritices, fuperftithey even demolished them where- tion, extravagance in feasting, conever they could, planting large fpaci- tempt of learning, drupkenness, and ous groves instead of them, which be. ferocity ; though these characters, ing open at the top and sides, were, so very much the reverse of the forin their opinion, more acceptable mer, were rather more justly to be to the divine and unconfined Being attributed to the Gauls. whom they adored: in this respect, their religion seems to have been just

Of the Gauls. and praise-worthy at the first, and THE Gauls, being really the same not unlike that of the Persians, and

people with the Celtes, retained dilciples of Zoroafter : they only iheir primitive name of Gomerai. differed from them in making the

as those do who ftill keep up their oak, instead of fire, the emblem of

emblem of antient language in its purity, esthe Deity ; in chusing of that tree,

pecially the northern Welsh: other above all others, to plant their

names they were known by, such groves with, and attributing several

as they either afsuined upon fome fupernatural virtues both to its

particular occasions, or fuch as wood, leaves, fruit, and miseltoe,

other nations gave them. Of the first all which were made use of in their kind were those which are of Celtic sacrifices, and other parts of their

extraction, as Celt and Gaul, which worship: this was also the practice

ignity brave and warlike; Armoric, of the Gauls and Germans on each

maritime. Of the latter kind were fide of the Rhine; but after they

the Rhine;, but after they the names of Belgia, Aquitania, had adopted the idolatrous super

and Galia Propria, which Cæfar

gave to the three different parts he • Antiq. Germ. L. i, C.2. Yol. I.

Kli

distinguished all Gaul into. When writers calling Spain IBnesa, Iberia,) the Gauls spread wider from each that a colony of Iberians, a people other, their original tongue branch- bordering upon Mount Caucasus, ed out into different dialects, and pollelied themselves of part of that consequently the appellations at country, though it is a supposition fumed by the various states be- far from being sufficiently fupcame extremely numerous, which ported by history, and also when when a farther alteration in their we reficct that it is a certainty that language took place, changed into the Egyptians, Tyrians, Phænicians, those they are now known by. Carthaginians, and other nations,

settled in Spain, we may eally Extent of Gaul.

imagine how the Gauls were driven We have seen that the antient together on every fide, and, as it Celtes were in possession of the great

Tento were, concentrated in that counest part of Europe: there is scarce a

centry which more immediately bears

their name: in addition to this, province or part of it, in which

their boundaries they have not left fome evident

were farther monument of themselves, either in

siraitened when the provinces of

Noricum, now Austria and Care the names of cities, towns, cantons, or of rivers, lakes, and moun

niola, Helvetia, or the Swiss Cantains ; notwithstanding which, it

tons, Rhætia, now Suabia, and must not be supposed they were all

the Gritons, and the whole tract

which lies between the Alps and the of the fame Celtic extract who inhabited those parts of Europe,

lake of Geneva, were taken from either towards the sea fide, as

thern : the whole Gaulith extent, Spain, Portugal, and the coasts of alter that, reached no farther than

from the lake of Geneva to the the Mediterranean, or towards the north-east, where they seem to have

Pyrenees, having the Mediterranean been fo blended with the Scythians on the louth, the Rhine on the and Sarmatians, that it is impof

it is not north, and the British Channel on fible to assert their boundaries on

the west : these were the limits of that Gde : all that can be conclud- Gaut when Cæfar first entered it. ed on is, that the Celtes or Gauls

C, G, S. plainly appear to have been the

(To be continued.] first that peopled that country. This observation leads to a solution THREE DAYS AT POTZDAN. of a question which may here be

(Continued from page 112.) made; viz. how, as the Celtes or Gauls formed the greater part of

Isand of Potzdam. all the Europeans, any part of Eu- THE district and the town of rope in particular, as Gallia, or Potzdam are situated at the conFrance, came to be more eminent- flux of the rivers Havel and Nuth. ly the seat of the Gauls? But when The former of these rivers derives its we consider that the first fettless, fource from the north, in the as was observed before, were al territory of Mecklenburg Strelitz; ways inclined to advance into the whence, flowing in a direct fouthern inore fertile country, as well as course, it walles the banks of O. more hofpitable climate, the more ranienbourg, Spandau, and Potznorthern and Scythian people, in dam, and continues its course to their encroachments, with greater Havelberg, where it falls into the ease drove them still farther; and if Elbe. The Nuth, rising in the it should have been a fact (what Electorate of Saxony, takes a has been supposed, from the Greek northern course till it meets the

Hlavel at Potzdam, where they from the middle of it, and forms a mingle their streams, and, lost in picturesque object, by reason of its the majestic Elbe, rush together in- insulated fituation. This village to the German ocean.

contains two hundred and eighteen Various canals and lakes, deduc- dwelling houses, and a thousand and ed from the Havel and the Nuth, twenty-five inhabitants, consisting of contribute with those united rivers the invalid companies of the King's to form an ifand of four German own Guards, with their families. A leagues, or about twenty-two Eng bridge over the Havel connects the lith miles in circuit, denominated inand with the main land; and at the Werder, or Foreland, of Potze the foot of it upwards of two hundam; in which is situated the town dred and eighty vineyards, belonging of that name, with seven large vile to the village of Werder, and planted lages, out-works, mills, &c. so long ago as in the thirteenth cen

It may not be improper to say a tury, extend along the banks of the few words of this ifand before we river. The vintage produces annualproceed to the town of Potzdam. ly eight hundred pipes of good wine. The district, insulated by the Havel The abundance of vineyards in and its branches, as above mentionGermany, the produce of which ed, is connected with the main affords a kind of wine so very land by fix bridges in different wholesome, and so much liked by parts. The site of the country, the English, has often induced me though still flat and sandy, is how to wonder that no one ever attemptever superior to that of Berlin, ed to cultivate the growth of that where the river Spree always re- kind of grape in this country. The minds one of the

climate of, many of those parts of -" rura, quæ Liris quinta

Germany where the fine Rhenish “Mordet aquâ taciturnus amnis ;"

and other grape arrives at such

perfection being the same precisely which with a night alteration we

as that of many parts of England, Thall render by

it should seem that, unless the na“ Realms, where the lazy Spree with lin.

ture of the air in this country, “g'ring train “Frets a still course along the fandy plain.”

more humid than that of the con

tinent, be found unfavourable to Not fo the Havel :-generally producing the proper quality in the dilated to a considerable breadth, juice, the propagating that kind of sometimes more contracted, but al. grape here might be attended with ways brisk and clear, her lively cur- equal success of vintage. rent interfects and animates the face of the country. Nor is the landscape The Town of Potzdam. undiverified by the hillocks, if PotZDAM, formerly called in we may not call fome of them hills, the Vandal tongue Pozdupimi, rising in fucceffion, prettily wooded which fignifies “liquated amidst with birch, pines, oaks, cedar, firs, oaks,” was originally built by the elms, and other trees of fine growth; Vandals. glens covered with coloured broom It is not easy to imagine a more and heath, and matted with aro- striking and pleasing appearance matic herbs; meadows of rich paf- than that which Potzdam affords. ture, fields abounding with grain of The town, which is very extentive, all forts, beside vineyards and or- is built with the greateit exactness chards, diversify the face of the and symmetry ; the streets, long and little isand of Potzdam.

Spacious, are formed by regular The Havel is so wide in one part, rows of houses of even height that a village, called Werder, rises and projection, fronted with white

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